Religion: A established set of beliefs. actions and history of some construct of a ultimate world. a system of beliefs and patterns that are comparative to super human existences. The Supernatural Dimension

* Religious idea and pattern which emerges from unaided human grounds. * Makes known mention to deities or godly disclosures. * Something above and beyond what is natural – non able to be explained by known natural Torahs. * Exceeds the ordinary bounds of human being

* Abnormal. marvelous
World Views
World position: the manner in which a society sees the universe
Immanent Dimensionu:
* A universe position that recognises a Godhead being or powers as a changeless world – an active and go oning presence among trusters and in this universe. * Emphasises the presence of God or Gods within human being. instead than above and beyond it. * “Inner”

* EXAMPLE: Buddhism and Hindooism
Transcendent Dimension:
* The belief in a Godhead being or powers whose being ‘goes beyond’ human restrictions. It is frequently contrasted with the universe immanent. * Enables worlds to excel the bounds of their creatural being and earthly concerns to concentrate on heavenly or religious affairs * “Out there”

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* EXAMPLE: Christian religion. Islam and Judaism.

Features of Religion
* Beliefs and Believers
* Sacred texts and Hagiographas
* Ethical motives
* Rituals and ceremonials
Beliefs and Believers
* Sustain all faiths

* Gods or liquors – forces beyond nature
* The universe – its beginnings and fate
* Life – the significance and intent of it all
* Morality – how to out justly
* Ideas considered true and show the self-understanding of the tradition Sacred Texts and Writings
* Hold narratives and beliefs of the faith

* Form of power. the cardinal power of faith
* Concern
* The act of creative activity of the universe
* Founder of hero faiths
* Beliefs. moralss
* Ethical guidelines
* Eg. Bible. Qur’an. Torah

Ethical motives
* A codification of behavior that every tradition possesses
* Outlines the guidelines for how persons can populate as a members of a community
* Purpose
* To clear up what is right from incorrect
* Guidelines
* What followings should freely make or forbear from making * Calls on trusters to:
* Populate a life in service of others
* Follow the illustration of the founds
* Express beliefs
* Provide chances for members of a tradition to ordain the beliefs and mark the of import yesteryear events by conveying them into the present * Preparation of a particular or sacred infinite that is prepared before passage or ritual * Are enactments or systems of actions and beliefs with have a beginning and an terminal * Symbols:

* play a portion in doing the ritual universe
* focal point beliefs
* communicate significances
* promote community individuality
* enliven faith experience

| Islam| Christianity| Judaism| Buddhism| Hinduism| Deity ( God ) | Allah| Trinity. God. Monotheism| Yahweh – Monotheistic| Buddha| Polytheistic – Shiva and Vishnu| Founder/date| Muhammad 622CE| Jesus Christ 4BC| Abraham. 3000 BC| Buddha 566/63 – 486| No existent laminitiss. guru ( instructors ) . 1500BC| Sacred Texts| The Qur’an| Bible| Torah| Tribitaka or Pali Cannon| Vedas| Ethical teachings| Shariah Law and halla is good and Halam Bad| Ten Commandments. Beatitudes | Mitzvot. Halachah| Nobal eight crease pass| Varnas. Ashramas| Rituals| Prayer. Hawj. Ramadan| Rites of Passage| Circimcision. Bah mitsvah. Seder Meal| Puja – Buddhist prayers| Puja. incense. nutrient offerings| Symbols| Star and crescent| Crucifix. Alpha and Omega. dove| Star of David| Darhmashakra. Statues of Buddha| Aum. Lotus| Sacred place| Mosque e. g. Mecca. Jerusalem| Church. Chapel. Vatican. Jerusalem| Synagogue. Jerusalem| Temple. Bodhjaya| Temple. river gangies. | Main Belief| 5 Pillars of Faith| Christ was both human and Godhead. God is love| Jews were god’s chosen people| 3 Jewels. reincarnation| Brahman and Karma|

Dynamic. Living Religion
* When features interact creatively they help to foster a faith that is alive. dynamic and active in the lives of its disciples. and in a society and civilization in which it exists * Religions are likely to deteriorate if it does non revitalize its features * Religion needs to be seen in action

Dynamic Religion:
* Created by cardinal features
* Characterised by:
* Energy
* Ambition
* New thoughts
* Practical accomplishments
* Refreshes itself invariably. hence avoids settling into a predictable or conservative rut Populating Religion:
* Full of life
* Practical
* Real
* Immersed in ( non removed from or afraid of ) mundane human being The Contribution of Religion

* Answers to “Great inquiries of human existence”
* Is at that place a supreme being?
* Who am I?
* Why are at that place evil. hurting and agony?
* If there life after decease
* Provide a sense of ego. belonging and community
* Succeeds in repairing the heads and Black Marias of its disciples here and now * Indicating disciples them beyond the stuff to the religious or godly kingdom Society and Culture
* Can face and dispute societal and political unfairnesss * Agent for alteration in society
* Architecture
* Music
* Literature and art
* Adhering to features of faith – enable faith to go practical and concrete this so creates a dynamic and populating faith * Encourages and causes jubilations throughout the community * Brings people together

* Ethical motives and guidelines
Australian Aboriginal Beliefs and Spiritualties – The Dreaming The Nature of the Dreaming
The Dream:
* Centre of Aboriginal faith and life
* Core of all Aboriginal spiritualty
* Beginning of all things
* Past. nowadays and hereafter
* Beginning of all life and nature
* Beginning of all forms and rhythms of the environment * Provides codifications of morality and societal relationship and Aboriginal jurisprudence therefore is relevant to the yesteryear. nowadays and future * Provides elaborate constructions of rights and duty * Unseen spirit universe

* Both personal and communal
* All things we know today formed
* Refers to events and topographic points instead than clip

Beginnings of the Universe
* Spirit ascendants:
* existed here before people and animate beings were created
* created all life. land and H2O
* determined the regulation by which all life animals should stay * occupied and were parts of sacred sites
* Guardians of sacred sites were responsible for guaranting that the peculiar spirit would stay at that place. Sacred Sites
* Elders. both work forces and adult females. are responsible for caring for sacred sites to guarantee the spirit ascendants will stay at that place * A sacred site might be waterhole. trees. particular stone formations. workss and animate beings * Elders and initiated would execute sacred rites at these sites * Women performed their ain sacred rites and work forces were excluded Symbolism and Art

* Art is a agency if capturing recording and showing the kernels of Aboriginal spiritualty * Art becomes a signifier of transportation of religious and cultural cognition * Reflects their attractive force and unity with the land

* Permanently recorded as prick and cave pictures
* Many recreated during public presentation of ritual in signifier of Earth pulling or organic structure pictures Stories of the Dreaming
The Diversity of the Dreaming for Aboriginal Peoples
* Differences in creative activity narratives
* Matriarchal kins and patriarchal
* Spirit ascendants were given names by Aboriginal groups * Different linguistic communications. art signifiers and ritual patterns
The Inextricable connexion of the Dreaming. the land and individuality * Aborigines belong to the land. the land doesn’t belong to them * They are responsible for the land:
* guaranting that what was passed on in the dreaming was maintained * continuing the sacred elements of nature
* The Aborigine is identified by a personal totem. associated with the female parents realization of gestation * Have any portion of nature as their totem. animate being or works. Thus everyone is inextricably portion of their environment and returned to their totem at decease. * Knowledge of the inside informations of the dreaming and therefore the attention of the land and persons groups held in trust be seniors * Elders were responsible for the transmittal of narratives and rites associated with the dreaming. Christian religion

Historical and Cultural Context
* Began in Judea. Jerusalem was chief spiritual and economic Centre * Contained temple. chief topographic point of worship
* Jesus was a Jew Circa 6BCE-30BCE
* Jesus believed in one God YHWH
* Jews were God’s chosen people in covenantal relationship with God * Jews were under Roman business from 63BCE who inhibited worship of one God * 2 of import groups in Hebraism:
* Zealots – advocated violent rebellions against Rome * Pharisees – reformed laic people
* Jews expected God to step in. a christ will come
* When Jesus came. follows recognised as Messiah
* Followers began as a group within Judaism
* Later became the separate faith of Christianity

Chief Events in Jesus’ Life
* Born in Bethlehem. grew up in Nazareth
* Baptized by John the Baptist
* First miracle – nuptials at Cana
* Preaches the Sermon on the Mt
* Miracle of the Loaves and fishes – 5000 with 5 loaves. 2 fish

* The Transfiguration –Jesus’ face shone like the Sun * Palm Sunday. entry into Jerusalem
* The Last Supper
* Arrested in garden of Gethsemane
* Resurrection from the dead ( Easter Sunday )
* Appears to disciples
* Ascends to Heaven

Jesus. Model for Christians
* Jesus’ message. we are welcome into the Kingdom of God
* Sent by God to learn his ways to others
* Left in his instructions the Christian commands that apply to ethical behaviors – Sermon on the Mount
* Lived a unrecorded Christians should follow
* Showed compassion to the hapless. healed the ill and taught the love of God * More than a theoretical account. an thought. philosopher. instructor of values * Calls followings to conversation affecting forfeit and agony. radically personal relationship with God * Calls to forgiveness. transmutation and counter-cultural life style * ‘Portraits of Jesus’ provide model for beliefs. rites and behavior

Development of Early Christian Communities
* James:
* Undisputed Christian leader after Peter was forced to go forth
* Put to decease 62CE by a Judaic groups attached to temple * Peter:
* Leader of Group
* Forced to go forth Jerusalem. moved his Centre to Antioch
* First Bishop in Rome
* Saul ( Paul ) :
* Roman citizen
* Well trained in Judaic acquisition waited the coming of the christ
* Converted and took the name of Paul

* Formed over several decennaries. including Jews and Gentiles
* Scattered throughout Roman imperium
* Oral tradition foremost
* Get downing Pentecost
* 3 missional squads
* Women were deaconesses in the early community
* Phoebe – colleague of Paul
* Pauls prophesying spread Christianity
* Resurrection has overcome wickedness
* Salvation is offered to all
* Church organic structure of Christ. guided by the Holy Spirit
* four Gospels are testimonies of the early communities

Major Discrepancies
* emerged from the context of Catholic church in England. during reign of Henry 8
*English King – caput of church
* Based on formulated 39 articles of faith
* Both Catholic and reformed
* Reformed liturgy book of common supplication
* Evangelical ( preach ) and Anglo-Catholic ( rites and sacraments ) Catholic
* Bishop of Rome ( Catholic Pope ) as its institutional caput – hierarchal constructions * Teaching from Bible and tradition
* Emphasis on sacraments. ballad ministry. community. societal justness Mary female parent of God. Mother of the Church Orthodox
* 15 autonomous churches

* Heart – Godhead Holy Eucharist jubilation of the Holy Eucharist
* Distinguishing features Inc. incense. long Holy Eucharists. icons. to the full sung Holy Eucharists. sanctuary enclosed by a barrier * Sacramental position
* High value on tradition and Holy Eucharist
* Experience of gifts of the Holy Spirit
* Exuberant and self-generated worship
* Focus on healing and ‘speaking in tongue’
* Youthful fold
* System of Catholic religion and pattern based on the credence of the
rules of the Reformation * Many denominations
* Minimise Holy Eucharist and sacraments
* The Bible is the lone beginning of revealed truth
* Importance of religion. achieved separately

Principal Beliefs

Jesus is both human and Godhead
* Jesus was born of the virgin Mary
* Jesus was crucified. rose from the dead and ascended into heaven Christ is Human
* Jesus mourned the decease of his friend Lazarus
* Jesus was disappointed that His friends could non remain awake. * Jesus performed many miracles – He calmed the sea. healed people and the loaves and the fishes. Christ’s decease and Resurrection

* Proves his deity
* Conquered wickedness and decease
* Won redemption by accommodating humanity with God
The Nature of God and the Three
* There is one God
* God is triune God. one being with 3 coequal aspects/persons manner of moving in the universe * This is a enigma for which linguistic communication is unequal
* Transmission of cognition from the Godhead to human sort * God revealed the truth to human sort
* God speaks to us through Prophetss
* John’s Gospel is the richest beginning of understanding the philosophy of disclosure * God speaks to us in the Bible
* Revelation is communicated through the events of history * In Christs’ embodiment. life. decease and Resurrection and sending of the Holy Spirit we reach the flood tide of the procedure of godly self-disclosure Redemption

* Through his decease and Resurrection won redemption for humanity * Begins with religion in Christ. the gift of God’s grace and its mark is Baptism
* The psyche is the nucleus of religious life
* Christian scriptures provinces that redemption has been achieved through Christ life. decease and Resurrection. * To assist worlds make redemption God provides grace to those who petition God through Prayer. Sacred Texts and Writings

The Bible
* Old and New Testament
* Old testament – record of God’s relationship with Gods people * New testament – record of the influence of Jesus on those who experienced him * Greatest commandment There is one God. love the Godhead our God. love your neighbour * 4 Gospels

Importance of the Bible
* All discrepancies basic beginning of belief and pattern
* Central sacred text
* Role in mundane life
* Basis for beliefs and supplications
* Used in Holy Eucharists
* Provides guidelines for behavior
* Sacramental Holy Eucharist and worship. viewed as sacred and of import
* Teaches about nature of God and ministry and instructions of Jesus Bible and Beliefs
* Most Christian beliefs are introduced in the Bible
* Beliefs underpinning sacred texts and Hagiographas are all shared by Christians * Different grade in the reading of these beliefs and how they are lived out in mundane life. * The bible underpins the moralss and devotednesss of Christianity. Core Ethical Teachings

The Ten Commandments
* Known as the Decalogue
* Laws revealed to Moses by God
* First 3 commandments refer to the worship of God
* Rest refer to duties to one’s neighbour and society * Sums up type of relationship that Israel should hold God * Based on love non fear
* Viewed as life rules
* Basis for structuring and populating Christian life
* It calls Christians back to loving God entirely and loving their neighbors as themselves The Blessednesss
* Origin in Jewish Bibles
* Instruct
* Declarations of congratulations or praises for an exercising of virtuousness * Praise people for virtuousnesss e. g. poorness of spirit. submission and hungriness for righteousness * Praise for persecuted and assure hereafter wagess

Jesus’ Commandment of love
* Repentance is the footing of ethical life
* Radical nature of God’s ethical demand on humanity
* Centrality of the love commandment
* Jesus referred to God as Abba: a loving male parent
* Agape – a unbounded love of God
* Community distinguished by its love for each other
* Greatest commandment. consequence seeing God in your neighbour Importance of Ethical instructions in the Lifes of Christians
* Jesus preached a God who is the beginning and theoretical account of love for Jesus and his adherents * Jesus proclaims a love that binds and distinguishes Catholics * Commandment of love means that the Christian expresses their yearning for God * Love greatest commandment

Personal of Devotion

* Uses universes that are recited spoken or Sung
* Draws on traditional supplications with a long history e. g. Our Father * Some follow prescribed expressions e. g. Rosary
* Original. self-generated. based on one’s personal experience. the Psalms. Gospels and other beginnings. * Conversation with God
* Hymns

* Reflection – head. imaginativeness and will.
* Ask for Gods aid to still the roving head. travel the bosom. change over it to the ways of God Meditation
* Most good known
* Exercising one’s religious memory
* Accompanied my vocal and bodily rhythm
* Said aloud
* Raising the head to God


Social Conditionss of pre-Islamic Arabia

* Arabian Peninsula: 25 % desert
* Arabians: posterities of Ishmael. one of boies of Prophet Abraham * Desert inhabitants: Bedouins/nomads: following beginnings of H2O and flora * Tribal society: fierce trueness to single folk

* Tribal laterality maintained by intriguing and warfare
* Makkah and Madina on train paths: comfortable. corrupt. disparity between rich and hapless promiscuousness. female infanticide

Religious Pracitices of Pre-Islamic Arabia

* Arab folk worshipped local divinities and nature liquors: carved statues. jinns or demon liquors and trees/springs * Peoples of Mecca dominated by Quraysh folk believed in a higher God Allah and several divinities ( polytheism ) * The Centre of pilgrim’s journey and worship in Mecca was a shrine called Ka’aba. a regular hexahedron. built around a big black rock * Said to hold been built by Ishmael and Abraham

* Became a Centre of graven image worship
* Said to hold housed 1000s of statues of Supreme beings

Prophet Muhammad
Principle Events in Muhammad’s Life
* Born around 570Ce into major folk in Mecca
* 25yrs – married 42yr affluent widow. Khadija
* 25 old ages of matrimony
* 2 boies ( both died in babyhood )
* 4 girls. Fatima most celebrated

* Successful member of Meccan society
* Became profoundly disturbed by the alterations that came with the alterations of the Meccan society
* Greatly respected for his opinion and trustingness
* Retreated on a regular basis to a cave on Mt Hira where he meditated and worshipped one God/ * Contemplated his life and the problems of his society. seeking greater significance and insight * 610CE. Mount Hira. month of Ramadan ( 9th month of Muslim calendar ) became Muhammad the courier of God. * ‘Night of Destiny’ . received foremost of many disclosures from God * Divinely inspired courier or prophesier of God

* Received disclosures for 23yrs
* Memorised them and wrote them on Scribes in Mecca formed the Quran

Muhammad: Model for Muslims

* “Seal of the Prophets” : concluding authorization of Allah’s words to mankind * Religious and political leader
* Sinless. theoretical account hubby. male parent
* Outlawed graven image worship. sexual immorality. inebriation and chancing * Promoted equality
* Sought justness for widows and orphans
* Extreme good in humanity
* Muslims expression to Muhammad for counsel in all facets of life

Muslimism after the Prophet

The Four ‘Rightly Guided’ Caliphs

Abu Bakr
* Early follower of the Prophet
* Father of his favorite married woman
* Muhammad’s replacement
* Truthful
* He unified the folk. collected fragments of the Quran and launched the ground forcess of Islam against Persians and Byzantine Romans Umar
* Designated campaigner for sequence to Abu Bakr
* Father of Muhammad’s married woman
* Extended Muslim regulation to Syria. Egypt. Persia
* Established a council to choose the following calif: procedure of audience Uthman
* Commissioned the officially endorsed transcript of the Quran. written in Meccan idiom * Murdered foremost of Muslim rebellions

Cassius clay
* Closest male relation. cousin
* Married to Fatima. his girl
* Shi’ia thought Ali should hold been caliph antecedently as leading should remain in prophet’s household * Ali’s regulation was marked by battle
* Mu’awiya of the Ummaya claimed right of sequence and their ground forcess met in conflict * Ali was assassinated in 611

Emergence of Sunni and Shi’ia
* 85 % of Muslims
* Sunni believed that leading should be by community election * The “Right path” is the Sunnah of the Prophet
* Sunni believe the caput of the Muslim community must be the best qualified Muslim Shi’ia
* 15 % of Muslims
* Merely descendants as leaders
* Shi’ia believed that leading should be by godly heritage * Shi’ites reject first 3 Caliphs and accept merely Ali as legitimate inheritor * Ali was the vice-regent of Allah ; his replacements infallible translators of
the Qur’an and impeccant Principle Beliefs

* Aqida – Refers to five article of belief in the Qur’an * Five articles are beliefs in:
* Allah
* Nebiims
* Angels
* Bible
* Day of Judgment
* Belief about Allah
* Affirms that there is one true God
* Affirms that all things happen for a intent

* Acceptance of Tawhid leads swearing in the great love and compassion of Allah
* Leads to a greater resignation to the will of Allah
* It reminds Moslems that they are accountable for their actions and for their usage of secular ownerships.
* Whatever the fortunes are. Allah has allowed it
* Leads to a greater entry to the will of Allah

* Allah is
* Transcendent
* All knowing
* All powerful
* Eternal
* Knowing of all things
* Not fooled by visual aspects
* Ways of Allah are beyond human apprehension
* As Allah knows all things. impure motivations which are an consequence to seek to bewray others. betray Allah Books of Allah
* Revealed books of the rusal
* Qur’an particular attending to figures who handed down important coils

* Initially contained the compete disclosure of Allah
* Books of Allah have now been changed. now no longer dependably represent message of Allah. * The Qur’an is regarded as the last of the revealed books * The Qur’an stands apart as the dependable and complete beginning of the disclosure of Allah.

Prophecy in Islam
* Essential component in Muslim belief
* Way in which ways of Allah were revealed to human sort
* Muhammad:
* Greatest and last prophesier
* Seal of the Prophetss
* 24 Prophetss
* Adam foremost prophet
* Nabi inspired prophesier who has non been commissioned for a peculiar intent
* Rusul celebrated scriptural figures

* Central to Islam belief
* Not of physical or material signifier
* Can non be understood or depicted
* Two types – angels and genie
* Messengers of Allah
* Animals of visible radiation which exist everyplace. invariably interacting with human existences * Appear in human signifier Jibril appeared to Muhammad
* Each individual has two angels good & A ; bad. supports record from their workss. good and bad. * Some have specific intents
* Jibril courier conveying the word of Allah to take 1s * It began with the belief that the Quran was dictated to the prophesier Muhammad by the Archangel Jibril * Acknowledged during day-to-day supplication ( Salat )

Life after Death
* Life after decease akhirah
* Eternal life. follows decease
* Each individual is wholly responsible for their actions
* Every action in life is recorded and revealed at clip of opinion * Passing is limited to a person’s earthly life
* Souls taken by angels to a topographic point of waiting if died before judgement twenty-four hours * All depicted in the Quran. symbolic representations
* Passing Eden. like oasis in a desert
* Failing punished. topographic point of fire. hot air currents. anguish. torture * Are non taken literally

* Allah is all cognizing
* Nothing happens by opportunity or randomly
* Happens by design. with intent. Allah is the animal who determines it * “Al-Qadr” program of Allah
* Although fate is known to Allah. we have free will. our pick * Reject any impression of destiny

Sacred Texts and Writings
The Qur’an
* Fundamental text for all Muslims
* Contains the disclosures of Allah. complete and unchanged * 114 surahs
* Not in the order of standard disclosures
* Order harmonizing to an direction given to Muhammad
* Has to be memorised. known as hafiz
* Abu Bakr developed written version
* Prominent in every facet of Muslim life
* Authority is supreme and undisputed
* Holy book. treated with the greatest regard
* Can’t touch the land
* When read. people must stay soundless. no nutrient or drink consumed * Before reading wash or bathe. adult females can’t read when flowing * Elevated place when non being used. covered to avoid dust * Message is clear and unmistakable

* Speaks respectfully of Prophetss
* Recounted or told
* Collection of traditions of the universes of the words and workss of Muhammad * Two types
* Sacred most of import
* Hadith Qudsi words from Allah which were communicated to Muhammad. passed on in the words of Muhammad * Basis for the hadiths traditions came and gathered together in aggregations * Many Hadiths were known after Muhammad’s decease. many false or unsure * Authentication procedure following its outgrowth back to person who had been with the prophesier. * Address issues non explicitly covered by the Qur’an.

* Do non see it every bit sacred as the Qur’an.
Infusions from the Qur’an and Hadith which demonstrate the chief beliefs of Islam * Tawhid: “He is Allah. the One. Allah is Eternal and Absolute. None is born of Him. He is unborn. There is none like unto Him” . ( surah 112 ) * Angels: “He sends forth defenders to watch over you and when decease overtakes you. the couriers will transport off your psyche. ” ( surah 6:61 ) * Book of Allah: “believe in what has been sent down to thee Muhammad and what has been sent down before thee” ( Surah 2: 4 ) . * Rusal: “Allah chooses for Himself whoever He pleases. and ushers to Himself those who turn to Him” ( surah 42:13 ) . * Akhira ( Death ) : Your good actions will profit merely you. while evil injuries merely the individual who does it. ” ( surah 41:46 ) * Fate/ predestination: “Whatever Allah grants to humanity out of His clemency. no 1 can keep back and what He withholds no 1 can allow apart from Him. He is the beginning of Power. the All-Knowing” ( surah 35:2 ) Core Ethical Teachings

* Follow the will of Allah
* Each minute of each twenty-four hours is to be lived in entry to Allah * All actions in agreement with the will of Allah
* Qur’an
* chief beginning of ethical affairs
* provides clear counsel
* foundational beginning for all instructions
* all rules can be applied to most state of affairss
* Hadith and sunna extra counsel
* Qiyas ; doing opinions. working out and publish
* Shari’ah Law:
* Overall operating model
* Means way
* Four parts
* The Quran

* The Sunna
* iJma’
* Legal case in point it qiyas
* Jurisprudence: Set out way that Muslims may follow
* All people are equal before Allah
* Ummah sense of affinity in Islam
* Summarised in five of import virtuousnesss
* Love of Allah
* Humility – avoid sense of pride and haughtiness. avoids selfishness and ego centred * Modesty – sexual moralss. do non take down the opposite sex or sexual relationships * Which is natural. design or program of Allah – where people are expected to avoid things which unnaturally alter the purpose of Allah’s creative activity. concern for the environment * Selflessness – human interaction. material support to the hapless.

Muslim Jurisprudence

* Process of spoting the rightness of action in peculiar state of affairss
* Most of import cardinal point of mention Qur’an
* Provides instructions that are to be followed
* Covers all facets of Hebraism
* Clear and direct
* Concise. rather brief
* Authority that places bounds on the determinations
* Look to other beginnings to supply counsel
* First measure Quran – most of import authorization
* Second measure Hadith and Sunna ( aggregations of the traditions of the Prophet Muhammad )

* The procedure of Islamic law is known as fiqh which means cognition or understanding * Third measure Ijma – consensus of Muslims bookmans used to do opinions about things non mentioned in Qur’an or Hadith * Fourth measure Process of application of rules through analogy qiya or legal precedency * Legal case in point or qiyas is a legal opinion arrived at through a procedure of deductive logical thinking or analogy’s. Eg drugs and intoxicant Importance of Ethical Teachings in finding that which is Halal and Haraam * Ethical judgement leads to halal or haram

* If something is non out. it is permitted
* Because something is permitted doesn’t mean it should be done

* What is permitted
* Classs and degrees
* Actions and behaviors
* Actions that are desirable or recommended
* Actions that are ill-defined. no clear counsel
* Not recommended or approved hateful but non out ( avoided at all costs ) Haraam
* What is out
Expression of Faith

Five Pillars of Faith
* Support of the pattern of religion
* Activities and beliefs which are regarded as foundational for all who follow Islam * Each pillars require and internal or religious committedness together with an outward action or mark.

Shahada – Declaration of Faith
* Witness to the unity of Allah and the function of the prophesier Muhammad as its courier * Means bear informant
* Declaration of religion
* Prayed everyday ( forenoon and dark )
* Whispered into the ear of a new born kid
* There is merely one God

Salat – Daily Prayer
* Five times a twenty-four hours
* Unless. menstruating or giving birth
* Provides them with chances for direct communicating with God * Basic conditions for the success of the trusters

Zakat – obligatory ( spiritual ) almsgiving
* Compulsory public assistance part by economically comfortable Muslims for the needy
* Paid one time a twelvemonth based on their hard currency nest eggs. gold. Silvery and jewelry * Minimum sum 2. 5 %
* Act of devotional responsibility of worship and obeisance
* Paid to derive Allah’s favor

Sawm – Fasting in Ramadan
* Fasting from morning to sunset each twenty-four hours during the month of Ramadan * Ramadan 9th month of the Islamic calendar
* No feeding. imbibe. fume. sex during fasting hours
* Qur’an was foremost revealed during Ramadan
* Time of religious focal point. moderateness. forgiveness. forbearance. kindness and concern * Self-denial

Hajj – Pilgrimage
* Pilgrimage to the Ka’ba in Mecca
* Undertaken at least one time in a life-time if they can afford it * In the 12th month of the Islamic calendar
* Muslims reflect on their lives and jointly inquire for forgiveness Aztecs

* Lived in cardinal and Southern Mexico
* Efficient husbandmans
* Better known for brave and fierce warriors
Beginnings of the Universe
* 4 world’s or ‘suns’ existed before the present fifth Sun * Each Sun was destroyed by catastrophe
* 1st – panthers
* 2nd – hurricane
* 3rd – fire
* 4th – inundation enduring 52 old ages
* 5 universes all together
* Sun has to be fed
* Shed blood. your ain or person else’s to feed Sun
* Without nutrient. Sun would decease

* Creation’s endurance depended on gift of blood and human Black Marias to the Sun * Human forfeit
Principle Beliefs
* Universe is unstable and unsafe
* Essential to do forfeits. to delight divinities
* Sun could hold comrades
* Eagle people – warriors who died in conflict or on sacrificial rock * Merchants killed far off from places
* Women who died giving birth to first kid
* All dead psyches no affair how good went to the God of dead * Souls survived decease for a limited sum of clip
* Travelled onto 9th Hell so disappeared
* Peoples mourned the dead for 80 yearss
* Warriors who had died in the conflict returned as hummingbirds 4 old ages subsequently * Sun has to be fed. with human blood
Supernatural Powers and Deities
* Aztecs Polytheistic ( more than one God )
* Deities governed by human activities like nutrient production and war * Deities who commanded skies. created the existence
* Offered human forfeits but besides nutrient and jewelry
* Tonatiuh was the Sun
* Tetesinnah was the female parent of the divinities

* Began with ritual ablutions to sublimate priests for their contact with their divinity * Offerings and forfeits were made to divinities to derive their favour * Masked performing artists enacted the play stating the narrative of the divinity * There were vocals. dances and emanations

* Human life forces in the bosom and the caput
* Spaniards condemned Aztecs for the inhuman treatment if human forfeit * Aztecs believed it was their responsibility to offer blood to continue the universe * Keeping up a supply of human victims meant continual warfare and being hated by your capable people * Yearlong unit of ammunition of ceremonials was based on this calendar Sacrifice of Human existences

* Life force of a individual was concentrated in the bosom and the caput. so they concentrated on these parts of the human organic structure * Prisoners of war were taken to sacrificial communion tables were theu were ceremonially killed * Their Black Marias were taken out with a rock knife

* Heart and blood offered as nutrient for the divinity
Adhering up of the old ages
* Celebrated to tag this reclamation
* All fires throughout the imperium were allowed to fire out * Then priests made a new fire. lit over the thorax of a forfeit human being * Peoples came frontward and re-lit their ain fires from this sacred fire and the had a great banquet. Influence and the society

* Capital on Marshy land in the center of Lake texcoco Modern Mexico chosen by their frequenter divinity. Huitzilopochtli. the Hummingbird * Inside the metropolis were 100s of temples and spiritual constructions * Temple Complex Tenochtitlan surrounded by a great wall. separate from the metropolis. * Each Deity had a temple and a priestly order entirely devoted to it * Some priests were in charge of ceremonials. instruction. commercial and agricultural disposals * Aztec priests were continent. lived merely. without luxury * Often took portion in bloodletting ceremonials by bring downing hurting through lingua and earlobes spiked cork * Ordinary people were merely witnesss at temple ceremonials * Magic. portents and witchcraft portion of ordinary life

* Venerated families God with rites in their places
* Aztec faith aimed at:
* To pacify Gods. particularly sun God
* To seek to derive favors from their Supreme beings and so go on to last in a unsafe and unstable universe
* Gods could assist crops

Human Search for Meaning
* The worlds lived to delight the Gods Shinto

Beginnings of the Universe
* Heaven and Earth were made up of In and Yo
* They formed an elliptic mass without clear restrictions * Heaven was formed by pulling out the cleaner. more pure portion that rose to the top * Rest settled to the underside and formed Earth

* Earth required more work because of drosss. took longer to develop * Deities were so formed 8 in entire
* First God reed sprouted from the Earth – kuni-toko-tachi no Mikoto * 7 more coevalss of male and female were born
* Paired with one another as brother and sister
* Last brace of siblings instructed by seniors to make the Islands of Japan. Principal Beliefs
* Celestial brace gave birth to Japan and all the Kami or higher-ups liquors. that inhabit the land * Bore the Godhead Kami of the rivers. stones. mountains. trees. sprit of the natural forces e. g. air current. fire. * Life comes from the Kami. they are kids of the Kami * Two Kami. of the Sun and of storms. go the paramount divinities in subsequent Shinto mythology * Idea of community brings together ascendants. posterities and persons for each member of society * Universe has three degrees. heaving ( kami live ) center land ( people live ) . deepness ( decease ) . * Positive attitude towards life and nature

Four Aspects of Shinto
* Tradition and Family – these must be honoured
* Love of Nature – most shrines are built in particular topographic points such as Grovess of trees. besides a waterfall or at the border of a small town. * Physical Cleanliness – Ablutions must be carried out before supplications or when nearing a shrine. Purity is at the bosom of the apprehension of good and evil * Festival and ceremonials – ‘Matsuri’ as they are called are joyful occasions with tonss of coloring material and activity. Kami

* Above. superior. Supreme beings. spirit. sacred.
* Quality felt in religious worlds
* Applied to every facet of life and nature
* Refers to whatever has the power to germinate deep feelings of fear and awful * Awe-inspiring sacred nature of things
* Communicate with Kami straight

Supernatural Beliefs and Deities
* Kami
* liquors associated with peculiar topographic points. households and communities * Seen as defenders of different facets of nature
* Not see as Supreme beings
* Associated with peculiar locations
* Spirits of asleep ascendants. emperors. outstanding military figures. animate beings * Become vindictive if angered
* No sense of the supernatural or of one supreme transcendent God Rituals and Influence on Society
* Brings communities together
* Matsuri – any ritual juncture where the offerings of thanks and congratulations is made to the Kami at the shrine * Include:
* Birth
* Celebrations for male childs at three and seven
* Celebrations for misss at five
* Marriage
* Celebration of household ascendants
* Offers of nutrient and drink made to the Kami

* Kami approval – priests use a subdivision from the sakaki tree to scatter holy H2O on the people. everyone portions the nutrient that has been prepared for the Kami. Communication with the Kami. * Shrines don’t have to be edifices but can be different facets of nature * Located at the topographic points where people sense the presence of Kami * Entrance of each shrine is beginning of running H2O from which people will ladle H2O to rinse their oral cavities and rinse their custodies. * They so go to the supplication hall. and clap their custodies twice to alarm the Kami to their presence * Then placed a contribution in the offertory box. a bell round and so they bow to esteem the Kami * At New Year’s priest will fire these ema to do manner for the following year’s supplications * Festivals image of Kami may be taken out to the community on wheeled called mikoshi * Celebrations vary from community to community. colorful with floats and terpsichoreans. boats and balefires. * Rituals are intended to entertain the Kami and the people E. g. Sumo Wrestling. * Each Community will hold its ain shrines. which are looked after a commission of outstanding citizens.

Human Search for Meaning
* It is an built-in facet of Nipponese life.
* Accepting the cogency of other faiths. normally paying regard to other religions. their patterns and objects of worship. * This is why it co exists with Buddhism
* Sees people fundamentally and good and has no construct of original wickedness * No Bible sense of morality but non ethical commandments * Please the Kami aspire to makoto ( earnestness of the bosom ) idolizing the kami’s mushi ( powers of creative activities and harmoniousness ) * Peoples do no injury and their actions should profit others. but there is no codification of ethical behavior as in other spiritual traditions * Emphasis is placed on pattern. esthesia and attitude * No construct of the transcendent. everything is portion of one universe. no laminitis or God * Can follow other faiths

* System of beliefs and patterns that persons can place with closely.
* Rituals enable worlds to pass on with the Kami
* Easy for persons to follow with
* Widely practiced throughout Japan


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