Heritage resources are defined as: objects of cultural significance that are aesthetic, architectural, historical, scientific, societal, religious, lingual or technological value or significance ( democracy of South Africa, 1999b ) . From this, the saving of the these heritage resources are of import. But there are facets to cover of how to protect, conserve or mend these resources for future coevalss. Heritage scoping studies, and Heritage Impact Assessments were thereby made as a usher for that intent.
2. Heritage scoping studies & A ; Heritage Impact Assessments
Harmonizing to the Western Cape Provincial Government ( Western Cape Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning 2005 ) , the intent of a heritage scoping study is:
Identifying any heritage resources in the immediate country
Measuring the nature of the heritage, and the significance that the heritage holds harmonizing to the South African National Resources Act ( Republic of South Africa )
From the above statement: A heritage scoping study is the designation of a figure of precedence issues to be addressed in a Heritage Impact Assessment ( HIA ) . The Scoping study is the first measure in nearing an HIA.
The scoping procedure besides identifies which heritage sites are important in the country, and eliminates those sites that have small or no concern in footings of heritage. The scoping study ensures that the HIA survey remains focused on the important site or sites that a undertaking may cover with and thereby limits the entire sum of information required. Time and resources are so non wasted on unnecessary surveies of heritage that are of no concern to a undertaking ( PJ Aucamp, 2009 ) . The scoping procedure usually involves the local community, people involved in the undertaking in footings of finance or undertaking direction, and anyone else interested in the undertaking that will affect the heritage site, these people are referred to as stakeholders
Once all sites of importance are identified, the following measure is to measure the impact of the important options which is the Heritage Impact Assessment ( HIA ) . The HIA is a procedure to guarantee that the heritage is non affected due to the effects of a proposed undertaking. These effects are to the full considered before the execution of the undertaking. Harmonizing to PJ Aucamp ( adapted ) the followers should be covered in a Heritage Impact Assessment:
A description of the heritage site
Advantages and disadvantages that a community may hold with the affected heritage site
An indicant of the methodological analysis used to find the significance of a possible heritage sites
Significance of each heritage site
Discussions with all interested and affected parties
3. When is a Heritage Impact Assessment Needed
Harmonizing to the National Resources Act ( Republic of South Africa, 2000 ) whenever a important or a specific activity meets a standard set out by the National Resources act, that activity may act upon a heritage site, a heritage specializer may be called to do a survey of the undertakings effects.
Merely people with the makings and experience acknowledged by the South African Heritages Resources Agency ( SAHRA ) may move as a heritage specializer to give a accurate Heritage scoping study, and or a Heritage impact appraisal. This study, nevertheless will do an effort at a heritage scoping study for Newtown, Johannesburg.
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Figure 1: First mark into newtown
A desktop survey, utilizing internet information, was made to garner initial information about Newtown. Information about specific sites was obtained whereupon a general overview of the town could be made. Furthermore a site visit was required in order to obtain more information about possible heritage site, and to obtain a firsthand experience in Newtown. Significant renovations of Newtown were noted, many booklets were taken in order to measure possible heritage, notes were taken if heritage was lost during these renovations, and what impact has occurred from these loses. Local conservators of heritage sites were besides questioned to happen out any comparative significances. This study was made from the information obtained during the site visit and desktop survey.
Harmonizing the Newtown Heritage Trail booklet, Newtown can be found at the western sector of the Johannesburg ‘s CBD. The Newtown Cultural Precinct stretches from the railroad lines to the North of the CBD, Ntemi Piliso Street in the E, to Dolly Rathebe Street in the South, and Quinn Street to the West.
The portion of Newtown relevant to this study can be divided into 3 subdivisions, viz. :
The Market precinct
The Electrical precinct
The Transport precinct
This study will analyze the importance of these precincts in footings of the heritage value against Act 25, the National Heritage Act of South Africa.
5.1 The Market precinct
At the Centre ( culturally, non wholly geographically ) of Newtown lies the celebrated Market theater where many events take topographic point. The Mary Fitzgerald Square is frequently the place of many dance and music locales, one such event, viz. the Diwali festival that took topographic point on the 23rd of October. Events such as these show the sum of legion activities that occur that maintain Newtown alive.
In 1913 the Newtown compound was built to suit after black migratory workers and other municipal workers after occupants were forced to travel to racially unintegrated locations. In the same twelvemonth, the new Market edifice building was completed in order to supply fresh green goods. In 1937 the four chilling towers were built and gave Newtown its good known expression. By 1937, the square in forepart of the market was named Mary Fitzgerald, the name we know today.
5.2 The Electrical precinct
After workers had moved into Newtown, power was required to guarantee productiveness. So the Jeppe Street Power Station was built to brace the power supply in the metropolis. When the Jeppe Street Power station closed down, the electrical precinct became a care country for electrical machinery. Buildings such the power Stationss, ropeway sheds and care workshops have been redeveloped into the Newtown Cultural precinct
5.3 The Transport precinct
During the first half of the twentieth century, the conveyance precinct became a major Centre of coachs every bit good as ropewaies during the rapid growing of Johannesburg. 1970 ‘s saw the Newtown compound closed down as the demand for more infinite required the market and the Electricity section move out to larger sites, therefore began the new beginning of a new cultural precinct, and has developed to what we see today. This country has since become an country of major cultural heritage as many edifices from the early epoch have been preserved.
6. Surrounding sites
Each precinct has environing sites that are peculiar to that precinct and its heritage value will be discussed. These topographic points of importance were investigated during the site visit and farther analysed.
6.1 Market Precinct
Once an old Indian fruit market that served fresh green goods to the populace, the Market Theatre was one of the few locales that allowed black and white people to execute on phase together in an effort to advance a non-segregated South Africa. This theater still promotes local dramas, and graphics and has remained a cultural site in Newtown.
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Figure 2: Photographs are non permitted within inside of the theater to conserve the heritage that lies within
Originally the first fruit and vegetable market in Newtown, recent old ages has seen Museum Africa go a prima history and cultural museum in Johannesburg. The bulk of the edifice has remained the same externally and some parts internally, whilst exemplifying the heritage of much of Johannesburg.
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Figure 3: History of Museum Africa taken from Museum Africa
Mary Fitzgerald Square
An old waggon site in 1913, now turned into popular touristry development whilst still keeping onto its heritage. This site honours a peculiar militant named “ Mary Fitzgerald ” while being a locale for community, cultural, political and worker administrations in present times.
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Figure 4: Comparison of the Mary Fitzgereld square alteration
6.2 Electrical Precinct
U-shaped constructions were built to suit 312 black workers in. These U-shaped constructions provides insight to the hapless on the job conditions of these workers during the twentieth century. These constructions illustrate a important battle that occurred over this period. The edifice was preserved and now acts as a tourer attractive force.
The largest scientific discipline Centre in Southern Africa, founded in 2004, is located in Newtown ‘s old electric workshop edifice. This edifice one time powered ropewaies, and repaired machines, but now teaches people about scientific discipline and its belongingss. The edifice still contains machinery and circuitry from its old intents, but offers an penetration to how electrical engineering progressed. And therefore an of import portion of Johannesburg ‘s history and heritage
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Figure 5: Sci-bono with original generators
Originally a portion of the Jeppe Street Power station, the works was required to shut in 1961. In 2009, the station was revived by AngloGold, and it was made their central offices. The edifice was refurbished and its 20th-century industrial architecture was kept. Though been used outside its initial intended intents, this renovation has created many lasting occupations.
6.3 Transport Precinct
The Bus Factory
This edifice used to be a garage of dual Dekker coachs during the 1970s boulder clay the early 1990s. The coach mill is now a portion of the Newtown cultural territory. The Johannesburg Development Agency now occupies the edifice. A edifice that now helps in the preservation of heritage resources in Newtown.
Tram were a extremely efficient signifier of transit. By 1906 45 Tram paths were operational and the demand for tram sheds were necessary. Tram sheds were built in the south-east corner of the electrical precinct. Since so, ropewaies have easy been phased out, and now the South African Reserve Bank now stands on that site of the old ropeway sheds. This development has created ample occupation chances.
Though the M1 main road is non specifically a heritage site in Newtown, the portion of the M1 that runs through Newtown represents one of the earliest subdivisions to be built in the original building of the M1 main road. This main road allows important entree for Newtown, leting touristry and development advancement to happen.
7. Surrounding Site Discussion
Each precinct offers a portion to lend to the heritage of Newtown. Most of the edifices have remained more or less the same, retaining the same architecture of the clip. The renovation of Newtown to supply acceptable chances for diversion and cultural touristry development has been rather successful whilst keeping the indispensable heritage significance. The 3 precincts in Newtown are seen to be a uninterrupted renovation in, heritage will go on to be preserved as long good saving techniques take topographic point. There are many other topographic points that could hold being discussed in the study, but it was felt that these were the most important sites in footings of heritage appraisals.
8. Principles of Conservation and Restoration
The undermentioned applies to all heritage edifices that can be found in all precincts on Newtown. A heritage listed edifice, has specific demands in footings of preservation, fix and any signifier of Restoration, and hence can non be changed on demand. Consideration of the edifices history, architectural heritage and cultural significance must be dealt with carefully to guarantee Restoration and preservation is in line with the edifices cultural heritage ( ICOMOS, 2003 ) . The Burra Charter is the “ Australian ICOMOS charter for the preservation of topographic points of cultural significance ” ( Australia ICOMOS, 1999 ) , this charter is internationally recognized and provides a criterion of pattern for undertakings on culturally important constructions ( Australia ICOMOS, 1999 ) . This charter has set out a list of preservation rules which have been adapted for Newtown and the undermentioned treatment was made.
Adapted from the “ Burra Charter ” , the undermentioned points of rules of preservation and Restoration relevant to the renovation of Newtown ( Johannesburg ) to supply acceptable and low-cost lodging and chances for diversion and cultural touristry development.
8.2. Conservation and Management
The preservation of culturally important topographic points in Newtown is of import as they are a reminder of the past and is necessary to continue for future coevalss. Conservation purposes at maintaining the significance of the topographic point, therefore it is appropriate to term it saving. Correct direction of cultural heritage requires preservation so as to continue and protect the heritage resources.
Not one important facet of all the heritage sites should be singled out or valued higher that another. Each heritage resource has a portion of history priceless to Newtowns development
The ability to accommodate a edifice to accommodate a peculiar demand is required in some cases for the ability to conserve constructions. Not merely does this method supply a signifier of preservation but besides offers new occupation chances. Many of the edifices of Newtown have been adapted to accommodate other demands, but the existent architecture of each site has non changed, whilst many of the original artefacts remains in the construction. This can be seen in “ Sci-Bono ” where many generators and cogs remain, and the ( repaired ) lifts are still useable )
8.5. Cautious Approach
When conserving any heritage resource found in Newtown it is of import to esteem what is there already and what it is made up of, and to “ make every bit much as necessary and every bit small as possible ” ( Class notes, 2010 ) . By making this the significance of the associated heritage does non alter.
During preservation, it is of import to achieve all available information of the heritage resource, and utilize the best and efficient accomplishments to conserve it. The right techniques must be chosen i.e. traditional or modern must be used in the preservation of the resource.
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Figure 6: Many marks like this can be found in Newtown. Many heritage appraisals occur for undertakings in Newtown.
8.6. Burra Charter Process
This rule describes a peculiar method in which, before any determination made about the preservation of a resource, a systematic procedure of garnering the needed information and analysing is followed. This must be done to to the full acknowledge the significance of the resource. Once the significance is known a policy of preservation and direction can be created and implemented to a undertaking.
Conservation and direction must let for remark by involvement and affected parties who value the heritage resource to hold their say. Knowledge pertained by these affected parties are priceless for any undertaking involved to a heritage site, as they have the power to hold the advancement of that undertaking ( PJ Aucamp )
9. Reasons for preservation
The undermentioned rules are defined in the National Heritage Resources Act ( Republic of South Africa 1999b ) which apply to the heritage resources in Newtown
Heritage resources have the potency of enduring value in their ain right and supply grounds of the beginnings of South African society. As heritage resources are valuable, finite, non-renewable and unreplaceable ( due to the nature of resources used to construct the heritage ) they must be carefully managed to guarantee their endurance
Every coevals has the moral duty of continuing these resources for wining coevalss and the South African province has an duty to pull off heritage resources in the involvement of all South Africans for the saving. This
Heritage resources have the capacity to advance rapprochement, understanding and regard, and contribute to the development of a consolidative South African individuality
This study was a basically a heritage scoping study and detailed some general rules for the preservation of heritage sites. Though most of the treatment involved the renovation of Newtown to supply chances for diversion and cultural touristry, the low-cost lodging facet was somewhat neglected. This is due to the impact of the Heritage resources. If touristry for these sites are available, there will be a demand for the proper care of the resources, and so at that place will ever be low-cost lodging to provide for this demand. Heritage sites are frequently based on different values that differ between groups. Everybody attaches a different value to the same heritage object depending on their civilization, instruction and general background. Heritage impact appraisals are comparatively new in South Africa. But with a spot of common sense and thorough probe heritage preservation can be handled easy.