Dear and Rev. Father Principal. respected staff. my darling pupils. friends. ladies and gentlemen. I feel a spot limited in to stand before you to present this keynote reference. I feel so. because I am non a literature pupil. nor am I in any manner connected to literary universe except as a ballad individual who loves literature and its profusion in conveying out human emotions. values. and worldviews.
But at the same clip. I am honored to be here because this will assist me in some manner or other and so. did assist me to concentrate over some solid literature works to larn more about what literature is and how I can acquire more involved and interested in literature. To this consequence. I must thank Rev. Fr. Paul Rajkumar for holding invited me to come in into the portals of literary garrisons and roll up some pebbles to writhe my lingua to tune to the profusion of literature. I besides am certainly that if I have the forbearance to plunge deep into the literary ocean. I can happen the finest pearls that I can prize.
I merely wish that I have the forbearance and set of head for such extravaganza of the rational thirst for literature. the mirror of human gestures and emotions. I would wish to portion with you something on “subaltern literature” . as it makes more sense than any other literary signifier today. to do literature relevant and an instrument for societal alteration. Pondicherrry has been in the spotlight. for more than two centuries as respects junior-grade thought and doing impact upon the life of the marginalized.
At the bend of the last century. great personalities like Bharathi. Bharathidasan. and the so political runaway turned philosopher. Sri Aurobindo all of whose Hagiographas both in prose and poesy signifiers in Tamil every bit good as English added beauty and luster non merely to the literary universe but besides to Pondicherry and whose literary genre fostered the realisation of. and gave an orientation to freedom battle and rendered a platform to work for the state.
Even today. novelists and fiction authors like Prabanjan and Rajgowthaman make great impact upon the immature heads in understanding human relationship full of complexnesss and complications both in the internal and external forum and attempt to do literature the material of the following door neighbour. But there is something that makes me experience audacious because literature could be the first cousin of doctrine and I am a doctrine pupil and bookman. So. this feeling gives me solace and encourages me to weather to take up this work with daring.
There is an added ground for me to accept this as most of the best literary pieces were authored by people from non-literature subjects. Literature – definition As I understand. literature is a tool to mirror the society and its assorted facets of life. its composing and features. the societal landscape and function human world in its internal and external beds and labyrinth. Literature is besides an attack to look at the society from the point of position of different groups populating in it.
It becomes much more marked and imperative to look at the society from the marginalized subdivisions point of position. the race. sex. caste. credo. etc. It is the look of human being in all its dimensions: ugliness and beauty. sufferings and joys and so on. As for me there is no good literature or bad literature in the ethical sense. but merely relevant and irrelevant in the teleological sense. in the societal surroundings. Literature is the tool to put in gesture creative and critical consciousness in the society by visualizing worlds as they are.
I look at literature in three phases. non in the historic sense nor in its manner. but in the appraising sense. My line of believing demands to take a complete divergence from the popular apprehension of the treatment. 1. Childish Literature: This type of literature trades with things that are wholly removed from mundane worlds. It is meant to divert people. commandeer them to an inventive universe with all its phantasies and illusions. Utopianism is a good illustration of that sort of childish literature.
The ideal of a perfect. present. earthly society. organic. harmonious. virtuous. fulfilling. universe which in world exists merely in the head. Sir Thomas Moore was excessively naif to conceive of a perfect political and societal system wherein worlds are elevated to angelic. heavenly universe. What we see in this universe. what we encounter in our day- to- twenty-four hours life is full of dystopian worlds. events and contingencies. 2. Adolescent Literature: Adolescent literature is that which gives wings to your ideas but no land for your pess to stand on.
Romanticism can be one such sort. It. alternatively of raising compassion and consideration about human nitty-gritty. gripping you with the chilling worlds of the universe and preparing you for some manner out. gingers you up for an aesthetic universe to the nuances of human anatomy and slaps you down in your emotional aberrance. It provokes your emotions and leaves you in the stumble when you are tormented by societal quandary and tosses upon like a rudderless crewman. 3. Adult literature is that which I call “subaltern literature” .
It is really responsible in the sense that it is concerned about what is go oning in the universe. to the last. the least and the doomed. It condemns the absurdnesss of the society and attempts to retrace socially responsible community. It looks at the society with a societal lens and pores through societal events with razor thin acuteness about societal discontents. It is apparent speak linguistic communication with or without simile and metaphor. without metres and graduated tables ; it may even withstand grammatical traditions and literary genre.
But it cares for the marginalized. concerns about the sufferings of the societal web. and weeps for the weak. Black literature. dalit literature. and feminist literature are this sort of literature which brings to illume the darker side of the society- hunt for the face of the defaced. debased and deformed. Junior-grade literature The word ‘subaltern’ is a military term for a junior officer. literally intending “subordinate” . Subaltern is used to depict commissioned officers below the rank of captain and by and large comprises the assorted classs of lieutenant.
In “Can the Subaltern Speak? “ . Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg ( 1988 ) promote the attempts of the junior-grade surveies group. which re-appropriated Gramsci’s term “subaltern” ( the economically dispossessed ) in order to turn up and re-establish a “voice”/collective venue of bureau in postcolonial India. Talking out and repossessing a corporate cultural individuality re-inscribes the low-level place. making a totalizing. essentialist “mythology” that doesn’t history for the heterogeneousness of the colonized organic structure politic.
Junior-grade literature has changed the landscape in South Asiatic literature and theoretical universe. Research workers in this school have focused attending on the societal dealingss of rural society-relations of domination and control. dealingss of un-freedom. dealingss of power and authorization between landlord and renter. maestro and bondman. They have brought us to see the ways in which South Asiatic surveies emerged within the conceptual classs of British colonial administration–the “orientalist” prejudice of much nineteenth-century scholarship on South Asia.
And they have brought into alleviation some of the ignored facets of the societal history of the sub-continent that bear most centrally on these themes-rural rebellion and agitation and the forms of soundless opposition through which the subaltern seeks to continue his/her place. The work that has emerged from this school is really specific to South Asia-its cultural histories. its forms of landholding and labour. its pre-colonial and colonial history. And yet South Asia’s history is besides one of a complex agrarian civilisation which embodies societal phenomena with strong resonances to other parts of the universe.
Other countries of the universe have likewise developed vigorous traditions of “agrarian histories”-historical research oriented toward the experience and fortunes of the powerless. research that inquiries traditional classs of political relations and imperium. research that casts strong visible radiation on peasant opposition and rebellion. The inquiry arises. so. whether there is the possibility of a fruitful exchange between the junior-grade attack to South Asiatic surveies and current research in other agricultural societies.
Today junior-grade literature has specific signifiers and focal points on really specific groups that are normally forgotten by the majoritarian literary genre. It takes particular involvement in the universe with the marginalized people and their experiential universe. Black literature. Dalit literature. Feminine literature are some concrete signifiers of junior-grade literature. Black literature African American literature is the organic structure of literature produced in the United States by authors of African descent.
The genre traces its beginnings to the plants of such late eighteenth century. making early high points with slave narrations and the Harlem Renaissance. and go oning today with writers such as Toni Morrison. Maya Angelou and Walter Mosley being ranked among the top authors in the United States. Among the subjects and issues explored in African American literature are the function of African Americans within the larger American society. Afro-american civilization. racism. bondage. and equality. African American authorship has besides tended to integrate within itself unwritten signifiers such as spirituals. discourses. gospel music. blues and blame.
[ 1 ] As I mentioned earlier. literature depicts the nature of the society. or mirrors the society. Before the Civil War. African American literature focused on the issue of bondage. as indicated by the subgenre of slave narrations. At the bend of the twentieth century writers like W. E. B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington debated whether to face or pacify racist attitudes in the US. During the American Civil Rights motion. writers like Richard Wright and Gwendolyn Brooks wrote about issues of racial segregation and Black Nationalism. It is literature in its assorted signifiers spearheaded the motion.
The literary piece like “I have a Dream” by Martin Luther King Jr. . or “The Souls of Black Folk” by W. E. B. DuBois even much before King. which received international acclamation and hand clapping gave a way to Black Power motions and Black Consciousness motions in the US. Today. African American literature has become accepted as an built-in portion of American literature. with books such as Rootss: The Saga of an American Family by Alex Haley. The Color Purple by Alice Walker. and Beloved by Toni Morrison accomplishing both best-selling and award-winning position.
These literary productions non merely attracted international attending. but besides gave an drift to the emancipation of the African Americans. African Americans have risen today really tall and stout and entered the portals of American glorification and sagaciousness. thanks to the African American literary portrayals and their impact upon the society. African American literature has besides shown to the universe that literature can convey extremist alteration in a society and redefine its values. virtuousnesss. norms and criterions which are in the clasps of age old traditional patterns such as racial bias and male jingoism.
By rebuting the claims of the dominant civilization. African American authors weren’t merely “proving their worth”—they were besides trying to overthrow the literary and power traditions of the United States. Dalit literature Today Dalit literature has besides come to remain as a really powerful tool to counter the so called dominant literature. which stupefies itself in the unsighted back street of mythology and lingual foible. Dalit literature includes autobiographies which must be treated as testimonio. atrociousness narratives that papers injury and schemes of endurance.
Bama’s Karukku is a classical illustration of dalit literature ; it explores the displacement between the generic conventions of single life-writing and corporate life in this text. It analyses the scheme of witnessing in Bama’s narrative. reasoning that she functions as a informant to a community’s agony. and calls upon readers to set about “rhetorical listening” as secondary informants. This act of entering injury and witnessing. the essay proposes. is one of junior-grade bureau.
This is their mundane experience that closely ties them to predominating societal conventions. warranting their dismaying life conditions in the name of civilization and tradition. They are peculiarly concerned about their girls who must be married harmonizing to purely imposed usage and lead respectable and pious lives. This must be difficult to get down when they see that ‘they strip naked my female parent. my sisters’ and ‘my ain daughter’s virtuousness is looted in public/ my eyes look on. my blood shakes’ . These are lines taken from a folk song.
But Dalit poesy is non simply protest. There are besides the ageless emotions of love and forfeit reverberating in it. as in this verse form. ‘Mother’ . by Warman Nimbalkar: Dark. dark slender body-this was my female parent. Drudged in the forests for sticks from forenoon on. All we brothers. sitting. waiting. watching for her. And if she didn’t sell the wood. all of us slept hungry. And one twenty-four hours she died of difficult work and left them howling. through non without go forthing a sugariness behind her: My eyes seek my female parent. I still grieve. I see a thin seller of wood. I buy her sticks.
Dalit literature is fundamentally about the laden. It speaks about both their subjugation and besides about the defiance that they instill in the heads of the reader. I’m the sea ; I soar. I surge. I move out to construct your graves. The air currents. storms. sky. Earth. Now all are mine. In every inch of the lifting battle I stand vertical. -J. V. Pawar: “I Have Become the Tide” . Kancha Ilaiah says that Dalit literature will bury Sanskrit under “yards of books” . Harmonizing to him. Dalit literature was truly post-Hindu literature. which sought to make away with Sanskrit symbolisms.
This procedure was set in gesture by Dr. Ambedkar. Sanskrit was basically a casteist linguistic communication. anti-people and anti-production. he opines. Feminist Literature Feminist literature takes a strong exclusion to male dominated colonial literary genre. Subjects of plaint and treachery testify that the nationalist thought of “dependent subjects” formed the nucleus of feminine individuality. Sachidanand Mohanty invites our attending to the mostly disregarded female literary tradition of the early adult females authors of Orissa wherein a desire for larning that is out brings bad luck.
Soofia Siddique’s “I-ing Ismat: Autobiographical Ismat Chughtai” . explores the procedures of individuality building. Ismat struggles with the paradoxes and bleary boundaries of spiritual traditions in India. It besides deals with the predicament of the Dalit adult females. “Imaginary Maps” by Mahasweta Devi and translated by Radha Chakravarty recounts the life of tribals in Central and Eastern India. Her female characters have a corporate voice and their vocals tell a narrative of development that rings otherwise from that of political rhetoric.
Suguna Ramanathan analyses narratives told by Dalit adult females in Gujarat. These trade with gender. male lecherousness and the abduction of adult females: female desire is deemed subservient to parental authorization. M. Sridhar’s essay traces the marginalization of Telugu Dalit adult females along lines of caste. category and gender. He suggests that different oppressed groups portion a moral solidarity which enables them to unify in times of demand. B. Mangalam observes that Bama and Sivakami have succeeded in stand foring the cultural history of an laden community in Tamil Dalit discourse.
Indian women’s rightist literature besides makes local feminine issues planetary. “Local to Global” examines issues with planetary resonances. Through a treatment of the short narratives of Phul Goswami. Indira Goswami and Nirupama Bargohain. Pradipta Borgohain describes the alterations wrought by insurgence in the lives of adult females and kids in Assam. In “Feminism and Contemporary Bengali Women’s Poetry” . Sanjukta Dasgupta critiques icons of Bengali literature. We learn that Bengali adult females authors were marginalised because of the control exercised by intellectuals like Tagore and Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.
The Hagiographas of Bengali adult females bit by bit articulated protest and moved towards a find of ego. In her essay “Multilocality” . Malashri suggests that the procedures of globalisation and internationalism make feminism inevitable. This leads to a treatment of the clumsiness with which certain Indian adult females authors use the term “feminism” . The construct of place is redefined with relation to the altering functions of adult female and adult male. In diasporic fiction. the act of relocating precipitates the woman’s hunt for ego.
Some of the junior-grade literatures which shook the universe and besides shaped the universe are: “The Wretched of the Earth”- by Frans Fanon which is to this twenty-four hours used as the usher book in the Pentagon. “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” of Harriet Beecher Stowe woke up America one mulct forenoon to express daze about their intervention of the inkinesss in the plantations. “Roots” of Alex Haley “The Pedagogy of the Oppressed”- Paulo Frere “Second Sex of Simone De Beauvoir “No Exit”- Jean Paul Sartre “Karukku” – Bama are some of the literary pieces that shook the societal and literary map of the universe.
They did non merely function as a authoritative piece of literature. but became to the theoretical account and put a criterion for new type of literature. To reason. literature is that which expresses what is inside one’s head. bosom and the psyche. At the same clip literature must be a tool to alter the societal cloth. sensitise the universe to its better hereafter. Junior-grade literature is the innovation of the laden and the marginalized to show their universe to the universe that is in demand of release and human consciousness. Thank you. Selvaraj Arulnathan SJKeynote Address on POPELIXIR. 2009. Pope John Paul II College of Education. Pondicherry. 30012009.