Nutritional position of fish provender and ingredients used in south-west part of Bangladesh.

Abstraction: Over the last decennary, the universe has witnessed dramatic growing in the aquaculture industries of many developing states. It is unambiguously agreed that planetary aquaculture production will go on to increase, and much of this will happen in the underdeveloped states of Asia and Africa, through the enlargement of semi-intensive, small-scale pool aquaculture. Nutrition and eating play a cardinal and indispensable function in the sustained development of aquaculture and, hence, fertilisers and feed resources continue to rule aquaculture demands. This paper reviews a figure of specific issues in the Fieldss of aquatic carnal nutrition and eating which are critical for sustainable aquaculture production in both industrialised and developing states, e.g. : alimentary demands of fish and their supply under practical agriculture conditions, handiness and supply of provender resources and their deduction on development of aquafeeds, prediction of demand and supply of marine resources, and care of environmental quality and sustainability of aquaculture systems. While discoursing the alimentary demand of fish under farming conditions, the possibility of accessing bing databases on food demands is examined, along with their application for set uping general nutritionary rules. Particular accent is placed on understanding the part of of course available nutrient in semi-intensive aquaculture and its function on the development of on-farm provender direction scheme. Other issues such as nutritionary effects on immunocompetence and disease opposition of fish, apprehension of broodstock and larval nutrition, function of nutrition on fish quality, and development of regional nutritionary databases for aquaculture development are besides discussed. Recommendations for betterment of nutrition and eating protocols in support of sustainable aquaculture development in the 3rd millenary are besides made.

Cardinal WORDS: Aquaculture, Feeding, Aquafeeds, Nutrition.

Introduction

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Over the last decennary, dramatic growing has taken topographic point in aquaculture. Most production in Bangladesh is realized from pond-based or open-water extended, improved extended and semi-intensive patterns utilizing polyculture farming engineerings.

It is unambiguously agreed that planetary every bit good as Bangladesh aquaculture production will go on to increase, and much of the increased production can be achieved through the enlargement of semi-intensive, small-scale pool aquaculture. Nutrition and eating will play an indispensable function in the sustained development of this aquaculture. Therefore, it is imperative that fertilisers and feed resources continue to be produced and refined. Sustained development of aquaculture, nevertheless, must take into history and guarantee that the demands of viing users are met, and that environmental unity is protected.

The importance of aquaculture provender is increasing with the intensification of fish civilization. Fish production to the full depends on quality provender. Traditionally extended and semi-intensive fish husbandman usage different types of industrial provenders and auxiliary provenders. Use of fish provenders extensively used depends on its low cost, nutritionary quality and easy handiness. The alimentary value fish provenders vary in different branded provenders. But the husbandmans do non cognize the existent alimentary value and its fluctuation in different branded provenders. So it is necessary to look into the existent alimentary value of fish provenders, ingredients and its fluctuation among different branded provender. In any successful aquaculture the biggest cost of turning fish/shrimp. At present different types of drugs and chemicals used with provender. Growth public presentation is profoundly related with nutritionary composing of used provenders. For this ground nutritionary composing of collected provender were determined and analyzed.

This paper will reexamine a figure of specific issues in the Fieldss of aquatic carnal nutrition and eating that are critical for sustainable aquaculture production in Bangladesh.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Feed samples aggregation

Samples were collected from retail market, shrimp farms and provender industries ( Table 1.1.1 & A ; 1.1.2 ) and transported to the Department of Fisheries Technology, Bangladesh Agricultural University ( BAU ) , Mymensingh and preserved in icebox. About 50gm samples of the gathered samples are supplied to Fish Nutrition Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh agricultural University, Mymensingh for chemical composing analysis at BAU, Mymensingh ( Plate 1.2.1 ) .

DSC01676

Methods for Proximate Composition analysis

The samples were taken out from the icebox and kept in room temperature for one hr. The proximate composings were analyzed in extra harmonizing to standard process given in Association of Official Analytical Chemists ( AOAC, 2000 ) . Briefly, the methods are described below.

Moisture

Moisture content determined by puting an accurately weighed sum ( about 2 g ) land sample in a pre-weighed porcelain crucible in a thermoregulator oven ( Gallenkamp, HOTBOX, Model OVB-306 ) at 105°C for approximately 24 hours until a changeless weight was obtained. The loss of weight was calculated as per centum wet content.

Moisture ( % ) = — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — – ? 100

Ash

Accurately weighed samples ( about 1 g ) were taken in porcelain melting pots and placed in a muffle furnace at 550°C for 12 hours. The melting pots were than taken out cooled in desiccators and weighed. The mean per centum of each sample of the staying stuff was taken as ash.

Moisture ( % ) = — — — — — — — — — — — — — – ? 100

Crude protein

Crude protein was determined indirectly by mensurating entire N content. Standard micro-kjeldahl method was followed for the finding of petroleum protein. Accurately weighed sample ( about 0.5g ) was digested with 10 milliliters concentrated sulphuric acid ( H2So4) in presence of accelerator ( Kjeldahl tablet ) in Kjeldahl flask for about 45 proceedingss at 420°C in a digestion unit ( Digestor, Model-2020 ) . The digesta was so distilled with 33 % Na thiosulphate ( Na2Second2Oxygen3) and 40 % Na hydrated oxide ( NaOH ) solution in a Kjeltec system condensing unit ( Kjeltec system, condensing unit, Model-1026 ) . The distillation was collected in 25 milliliters 4 % boracic acid ( H3BO3) and was titrated with standard hydrochloric acid ( 0.2 N ) . The N values obtained was converted into per centum of petroleum protein by multiplying with a factor of 6.25 presuming that protein contains 16 % N.

% Nitrogen = — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — – ? 100

Crude lipid

Crude lipoid was determined by pull outing a weighed measure of samples with analytical class propanone in an all land joint Soxhlet setup. Accurately weighed sample ( about 2-3 g ) was taken in pre-weighed thimbles. Extraction was allowed to go on by heating in an electric warmer at 70°C temperature until clear propanone ( without oil ) was seen in syphon, which took about 6 hours. Then the unit of ammunition bottom flask of the setup was separated and the infusion was transferred to a pre-weighed beaker and left for vaporization of propanone. After the vaporization of propanone, merely the lipoid was left in the beaker which was subsequently calculated in per centum.

Entire lipid ( % ) = — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — – ? 100

Crude fiber

A little sum of finely ground sample ( 1-2 g ) was taken in to a filter melting pot and was inserted into the hot extraction unit ( Hot Extractor, Model-1017 ) . Sufficient sum of pre-heated 0.128M H2So4was added into the reagent warming system and few beads of octanol were added through the valves. The mixture was digested for 30 proceedingss. Acid was so removed from it by filtrating and rinsing with boiling H2O. The residue in the flask was boiled with needed sum of 0.223M KOH for 30 proceedingss and so filtered with subsequent rinsing in boiling H2O and propanone. The residuary content was so dried in an oven at 130°C for 2 hours and so ignited in muffle furnace at 500°C for 3 hours. The loss of weight represented the petroleum fiber.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

As described in old section-1, a entire 160 samples were collected which included 38 samples of runt provender, 27 samples of fish provender, 22 samples of domestic fowl provender and 74 samples of provender ingredients ( domestic fowl litter and snail samples ( dried shell whole, dried shell crushed and unrecorded signifier ) . Consequences of nutritionary analysis for 160 samples were obtained from Laboratory of Nutrition, Bangladesh Agricultural University ( BAU ) , Mymensingh ( Appendix-6 ) and their sum-up of good and hapless quality is given in Table 1.2.3 harmonizing to the mentions given in Table 1.2.1 and shows the recommended protein per centum of fish provenders and ingredients. The recommended protein degree for shrimp provender should be in the scope of 30-40 % , fish provender should hold 25-30 % and domestic fowl provenders should incorporate 20-30 % protein. In the instance of provender Ingredients the recommended degree should be in the scope 50-60 % protein.

Table1.2.2 shows that in entire provender sample collected, 70 % samples were found of hapless quality and the remainder 30 % are of good quality in footings of recommended protein conrent. In Bagerhat territory, among the provender and provender ingredients collected from Fakirhat, Chitalmari, Mollarhat, Rampal upazilla. 14 out of 42 ( 33 % ) samples were found of good quality In Khulna territory 11 samples were of good quality among the entire 35 samples ( 31 % ) collected from this part. In instance of Jessore territory, 13 samples were found good quality among 35 samples ( 37 % ) . In instance of Gazipur and Mymensingh territory, 3 out of 24 ( 13 % ) and 8 of 24 ( 33 % ) were of good quality severally harmonizing to protein content, as standard set by the Lab. of Nutrition, BAU.

All provender samples collected were found as in satisfactory degree for Lipid, Ash, Carbohydrates, and Moistures. But in footings of protein content most of provender samples were found to be in hapless quality.According to Aquaculture Development and Coordination Programme ( ADCP,1983 ) , the alimentary value for typical fish provender should be 8-12 % wet, 22-35 % petroleum protein, 5.4 % petroleum lipid, 7-11 % petroleum fiber, 8-12 % ash, 30-40 % saccharide. The nutritionary consequence obtained is similar with ADCP, 1983 except protein degree. The inside informations of nutritionary consequences obtained from provender surveies are shown in appendices -6.

Although shrimp/prawn has one of the highest degrees of protein demand among the aquaculture species, husbandmans in Bagerhat, Khulna and Jessore were utilizing low quality provender in their pools. The survey revealed that the provender industries did non follow nutritionary criterion to bring forth good quality provenders, and the nutritionary facts mentioned as label on the container did non fit the existent values.

Analyzed consequences were listed as good and hapless quality provenders. Table1.2.3 shows the list of good and hapless quality runt provender, fish provender, domestic fowl provender and Feed Ingredients.

Table1.2.1Nutritional criterion of provender and provender ingredients

Feed type

Recommended protein level ( % )

Mention

Feed

Shrimp provender

30 – 40

Akiyama et Al. 1992

Fish provender

25 – 30

Nutrition Lab, BAU

Poultry provender

20 – 23

-Do-

Feed ingredients

Ingredients of animate being beginning

50 – 60

-Do-

Table1.2.2Nutritional position of provender and provender ingredients used in study country: cumulative and area-wise per centum

Accumulative

Area wise per centum

Good Quality Feed

Poor Quality Feed

District

Good Quality Feed

Poor Quality Feed

30 %

70 %

Bagerhat

14 ( 33 % )

28 ( 67 % )

Khulna

11 ( 31 % )

24 ( 69 % )

Jessore

13 ( 37 % )

22 ( 63 % )

Mymensingh

3 ( 13 % )

21 ( 87 % )

Gazipur

8 ( 33 % )

16 ( 67 % )

*Values in the parentheses indicate per centum of good and hapless quality provender.

Fig 1.2.1Nutritional position of provender and provender ingredients used in study country: cumulative ( A ) and area-wise per centum ( B ) .

Table 1.2.3Summary of good and hapless quality provender and provender ingredients interms of petroleum protein content

Feed categories/names

Good quality provender

Poor quality provender

Shrimp provender

Mega shrimp provender

Shrimp feed Starter-3-Saudi-Bangla Fish provender Ltd.

Borak super ( golda/bagda )

Titas agriculturist ( golda/bagda ) Bismillah Feed Mills

2008 S-Bagda feed-CP Aqua ( India ) Ltd.

Balaka particular shrimp provender, Bismillah Feed Millss

2002-Bagda feed-Crumble-CP Aqua ( India ) Ltd.

Sunny runts provender ( agriculturist )

9051 Scampi feed-Fine crumble-CP Aqua ( India ) Ltd.

Shapla runt agriculturist

9042 Scampi feed-crumble-CP Aqua ( India ) Ltd.

Shawkat shrimp provender

ACI Godres, Misha Chingri Feed

Shapla agriculturist ( golda/bagda )

Tanin shrimp provender ( agriculturist ) golda/bagda

Jamuna Chingri Feed ( Bismillah Feed Mills )

Chamak runt provender ( agriculturist )

Premium runt provender

Capital runt provender

2005-Bagda feed-CP Aquaculture ( India ) Ltd.

2003-Bagda feed-CP Aquaculture ( India ) Ltd.

Particular shrimp feed-Supreme Agrovet Ind.

NK provender ( shrimp )

Shrimp grower special-Paragon Poultry Feed Ind.

Niribili Shrimp/Prawn Feed ( Special Grower )

Niribili Nursery Grower ( Prawn/Shrimp )

Supreme Economy ( Prawn/Shrimp ) -Supreme Agrovet Ind.

Olympic Shrimp Feed

Aftab Prawn Feed

Shawkat Shrimp Feed

Unique Fresh Feed ( Prawn ) , Unique Hatchery & A ; Feed

Fish provender

Fresh Fish Feed ( Particular Grower Pellet ) , Unique Hatchery

Sunny fish provender

Chamak Fish Feed

Bismillah Fish Feed ( Titas )

Quality fish provender ( Particular agriculturist )

Titas Gold ( Bismillah Feed Mills )

Quality gold pre-nursery

Diamond fish provender ( grower pangus )

Quality provender ( Tilapia agriculturist )

AIT Feed

Chamak provender ( Tilapia starting motor ) -Jessore Feeds Ltd.

Modhumoti fish provender

AIT Koi agriculturist

ACI Fish Feed ( Godres ) , Misha Fish Feed

AIT Carp provender

Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed

Koi fish feed-Starter-Saudi Bangla Fish Feed

Titas agriculturist fish provender, Bismillah Feed Mills Ltd.

Mega provender ( 102 ) Tilapia

Aftab Tilapia Grower

Pangus/Tilapia/Carp Starter Crumble-602, Spectra Hexa Ltd

Titas agriculturist fish provender

Quality provender ( Golden agriculturist )

Progoti Pellet Nursery Feed, Progoti Fish Feed Ltd.

SGS fish provender

AIT Tilapia agriculturist

AIT Pangus starting motor

Poultry Feed

Quality Poultry Feed ( Particular grower-Suborno )

Shawkat domestic fowl provender

Bisshas Broiler-Starter

Sughondha domestic fowl provender ( broiler/grower ) Satkhira Feed Ind.

United Fresh Feed ( Broiler )

Rupsha broiler poulet provender

Dhaka domestic fowl provender

Jamuna Poultry Feed-Bismillah Feed Mills Ltd.

Kazi Poultry Feed

Advanced Poultry Feed

Usha domestic fowl provender ( broiler/grower )

Jamuna Poultry Feed ( collected from market )

Feed categories/names

Good quality provender

Poor quality provender

SGS agriculturist provender ( domestic fowl )

JC Feed ( Broiler/Grower ) , Poultry Feed

Poultry Layer, United Fresh Feed Ltd.

SGS Feed Industries ( domestic fowl provender Broiler & A ; Starter )

Poultry Feed ( Locally prepared )

Sunny broiler/grower provender

Jessore Poultry Feed ( Layer )

Aftab Poultry Feed

Feed ingredients

Dry fish-Bismillah Feed Mills Ltd.

Anpro-USA ( protein 60 % )

Hydence protein dressed ore ( USA beginning )

Mustard Oil Cake

BC fish battalion ( protein 60 % )

Croatian ace meat and bone repast

F-60 authoritative white protein dressed ore

Meat and bone repast ( Spain beginning )

Jasoprot ( Protein Concentrate 60 % ) USA

Bone repast, New Khulna Bone Mill

ACI Fish Meal ( Protein Concentrate ) Protein 60 %

Meat and bone repast ( non-branded )

Meat and cram meal-Netherlands origin-AIT Feed Mills Ltd.

Snail Shell ( Jasoprot ) Jayson Agrovet Ltd.

Dried fish-1, Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed Ltd.

Dried fish 2, Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed Ltd.

Meat and bone meal-imported, Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed Ltd.

Fish meal-1 ( imported ) , Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed

Fish meal-2 ( imported ) , Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed

Snail meat

Table 1.2.4List of good quality feed-feed ingredients but contaminated with harmful chemicals on the footing of nutritionary criterions in footings of protein content

Feed types/names

Remark*

Shrimp provender

Mega shrimp provender

Borak super ( golda/bagda )

2008 S-Bagda feed-CP Aquaculture ( India ) Ltd.

2002-Bagda feed-Crumble-CP Aquaculture ( India ) Ltd.

9051 Scampi feed-Fine crumble-CP Aquaculture ( India ) Ltd.

9042 Scampi feed-crumble-CP Aquaculture ( India ) Ltd.

Shrimp feed Starter-3-Saudi-Bangla Fish provender Ltd.

SEM 8.25 ppb

ACI Godres, Misha Chingri Feed

Fish provender

Titas agriculturist fish provender, Bismillah Feed Mills Ltd.

SEM 2.36 ppb

Mega provender ( 102 ) Tilapia

Fresh Fish Feed ( Particular Grower Pellet ) , Unique Hatchery

Chamak Fish Feed

Aftab Tilapia Grower

SEM 1.39 ppb

Quality fish provender ( Particular agriculturist )

Pangus/Tilapia/Carp Starter Crumble-602, Spectra Hexa Ltd

CAP 5.70 ppb

Titas agriculturist fish provender

CAP 2.36

Quality gold pre-nursery

Quality provender ( Tilapia agriculturist )

Chamak provender ( Tilapia starting motor ) -Jessore Feeds Ltd.

Quality provender ( Golden agriculturist )

SEM 6.73 ppb

Progoti Pellet Nursery Feed, Progoti Fish Feed Ltd.

CAP 2.0, SEM 3.17 ppb

AIT Koi agriculturist

AIT Carp provender

Koi fish feed-Starter-Saudi Bangla Fish Feed

Poultry provender

Jamuna Poultry Feed-Bismillah Feed Mills Ltd.

SEM 2.33 ppb

Kazi Poultry Feed

AHD 1.9, SEM 2.82 ppb

Advanced Poultry Feed

CAP 0.63 ppb

Usha domestic fowl provender ( broiler/grower )

AOZ 1.17 ppb

Quality Poultry Feed ( Particular grower-Suborno )

Bisshas Broiler-Starter

United Fresh Feed ( Broiler )

Dhaka domestic fowl provender

Padma Poultry Feed ( Meghna Agro Industries )

Feed ingredients

Dry fish-Bismillah Feed Mills Ltd.

Hydence protein dressed ore ( USA beginning )

BC fish battalion ( protein 60 % )

Snail meat

F-60 authoritative white protein dressed ore

Jasoprot ( Protein Concentrate 60 % ) USA

ACI Fish Meal ( Protein Concentrate ) Protein 60 %

Meat and cram meal-Netherlands origin-AIT Feed Mills Ltd.

Dried fish-1, Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed Ltd.

Dried fish 2, Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed Ltd.

Meat and bone meal-imported, Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed Ltd.

Fish meal-1 ( imported ) , Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed

Fish meal-2 ( imported ) , Saudi-Bangla Fish Feed

*Feed and provender ingredients contaminated with CAP/AOZ/AHD/SEM beyond their acceptable bound are non regarded as quality provender for shrimp civilization ( Please See Table 3 for acceptable bound of CAP/AOZ/AHD/SEM ) .

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