Horticulturist to Agriculturalist Neolithic Age (around 8,000 BC) Changes to crops Shattering ability In grains Potato tubers borne close to plant Thin vs.. Hick shells in nuts The wild mustard lead to: cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale, kohlrabi Corn: many people believe that corn is a hybrid We can trace the history of horticulture back to Egypt in 2000 BC Early **Topographers= wrote important books on plants, earliest known systematic author Discoveries= medical botanist, De Material Medical Plain the Elder= Historian Naturalist Historical Agriculture through the Roman Period Roughly defined as 2500 BC-500 Trade in wine and olive oil mentioned in Egyptian Records Dates/ flags important source of sugar in Near East Common spun in India 2000 BC Linen and silk in 2nd millennium in China The Roman Period Irrigation in China, Egypt, and Near East allowed more land to be cultivated Windmills and water mills were added Introduction of fertilizers and animal manures Crop rotations Feudal Agriculture (Middle Ages) Began soon after fall of Roman Empire Reached its peak in about 1100 Loss of agriculture and horticultural information Monastic gardens (a lot of the agriculture was happening within the monasteries) 80-90 percent of people farmed Renaissance and Scientific Agriculture

Scientific revolution Plant breeding Drainage brought more land into cultivation spice Trade: Ditz (1487), Columbus (1492), Magellan (1519) -rear from China (2737 SC) to England (1644) There was a time where there were spies who attempted to learn about the spices and plants **Columbian Exchange exchange of crops and ideas of growing conquer in the name of trade: Cortes takes Mexico (1521) Pizzeria takes Peru (1592) He took citrus with him Plant exchange was brought about with him Chocolate actually came back His most important tribute: brought plants with him to the “new country’ and rough plants back to Spain with him He also brought with him disease which was actually the cause of the mass deaths of the native people of the land Settling (Taking) of America Some exchange with native people The Squanto story Corn, beans, squash (actually all native to Central and South America, NOT native crops) Native fruit and nuts Root crops, lettuce, peas Age of Enlightenment To understand the natural world and humankind’s place in it solely on the basis of reason and without turning to religious belief Better food supplies Increase in agricultural productivity

Getter Dull: did a lot of work with the plow and the idea of aligning our cops in rows, tilling the soil (one of the first agricultural engineers) Early Botanists and Explorers 1733- John Bertram and son William Bertram were American botanists (traveled in South East to look at all the plants) James Gloater established Trustees Garden in Savannah Andre Michael- French botanist that catalogued the south east and also named many plants Thomas Jefferson gardens and landscapes his home at Monticello Seed companies and nurseries David Landlers seed business at Philadelphia in 1784 (first garden supply store) Shaking Quarters (Shakers)- Beginnings of seed packets- 1789 Park Seed Co. – 1868 Burped- 1876 sail- 1905 Nursery Industry Robert Prince Nursery in Long Island- 1737 Stark Brothers Nurseries- 1816 Red Delicious/Golden Delicious Apple Downing Fruit Nursery-1858 Fairyland Nursery- 1858 Started by P. J. Bergmann Augusta, GA Camellias, azaleas (actually came from China) Early Horticulture Figures in Modern Horticulture J. C.

Loud The “guardedness” style of English garden style Cemeteries, gardens, writer Publications Include: The Encyclopedia of Agriculture (1825) The Encyclopedia of Plants (1828) Suburban Gardener (1838) The Encyclopedia of Trees and Shrubs **Andrew Jackson Downing Editor of the Horticulturalist (1846-52) Wrote the Treatise of Landscape Gardening (1841), Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1841), Cottage Residences (1842), and widely influential Architecture of Country Houses (1850). With his brother, Charles, he wrote Fruits and Fruit Trees of America (1845) Gregory Mendel Genetics traits inherited Spent a lot of time working with peas Came up with the Pungent Square Luther Burbank American botanist, and horticulturalist Developed more than 800 strains and varieties of plants over his 55 year career

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