In the modern universe history. Western states have mastered a huge portion of the universe. And this sort of control. based on domination and subordination. aroused chiefly from colonialism and imperialism like the power of the British Empire over many colonised states in the universe. Therefore. this imperial power had intensively engaged writers’ attending. Among those major authors is Rudyard Kipling. He is a British novelist and poet who was born in British India in 1865 and died in 1963. Though he lived over 13 old ages at that place. the reader finds that his plants espouse the imperial political orientation and he came to be recognized as a “prophet of the British imperialism” ( Orwell 116 ) .
And this is good manifested in his verse form “The White Man’s Burden” published in 1899. It ideologically justifies the procedure of colonisation and imperium calling it a “burden” . It urges the colonial power to take up the load of colonialism stand foring the West as the superior whose duty is to educate the backward colonized states. Therefore. in analysing the issue of representation of colonised people in the verse form from Edward Said’s position. one can happen out that it is merely a deceit. And through Kipling’s accusal of camouflaging the atrociousness of the imperial vision by this deceit. it is clear that the existent ground behind this unrealistic image is authorising the cultural hegemony of the coloniser.
1- The analysis
2. 1- Defining Edward Said’s impression of representation.
Peoples can be able to understand the complex universe in which we live through linguistic communication and representation. The term representation has a scope of readings. Harmonizing to the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. representation. etymologically. can be seen as constructing and stand foring the object in a new signifier of image instead than by picturing it as it is in its world ( 172 ) . And no 1 of these representations is nonsubjective because it’s impossible to unplug them from the society and civilization that produces them. and wants to command and alter these delineated objects to advance a certain set of values and political orientations ( 172 ) . Therefore. the term representation can’t have an exact unequivocal reading because there’s ever a spread between the purpose or what is original. and the realisation or what is a transcript.
Within these representations. it is normally unsimilarity that signifies by making binary resistances within which one portion is ever ruling. And this act of stand foring the other is a long-standing pattern of domination within the context of colonisation. The most influential bookman analyzing the procedure of stand foring or building the other is Edward Said ( 1935-2003 ) . Said’s book Orientalism explains how the West. through a discourse executed by Western intellectuals. produced the Orient politically. militarily. ideologically. and imaginatively.
He unveils the Western intellectuals’ biased manner of idea. since the Orient that appears in their texts is but a system of representation framed by indispensable thoughts. premises. and stereotypes. This building of the Orient as the other. in an uninterrupted manner over many centuries. became the principle that legitimates colonial subjugation and served to reenforce the individuality of the Western civilization. Although Said’s statement has been challenged. his work is still the prima voice that drives bookmans to critically analyse the stereotyped representations established between the coloniser and the colonized. 2. 2- Analyzing Kipling’s Representation of the Colonized People in the Poem and his Impression of The White Man’s Burden.
As an imperialist author. Rudyard Kipling in his verse form ‘The White Man’s Burden’ makes the representation of the imperial domination. He stresses the Eurocentric position of the universe in which non-European states are seen as barbarian and in a strong demand of the White Man to salvage them from their retardation and convey them from their undisciplined childhood to a civilized adulthood. This is what Hannah Arendt means in her book when she says. “The writer of the imperial fable is Rudyard Kipling. its subject the British Empire. its consequence the imperialist character… and gallantry. aristocracy. courage answered the legend’s call…” ( 208-9 ) .
Imperialism here is keeping unequal political. economic and cultural relationships between states based on the superiority/inferiority duality and. “promotes the spread of civilisation to allegedly ‘backward’ societies to promote life criterions and civilization in conquered territories” ( Feuer 4 ) . Therefore. Kipling insists throughout the verse form on the colonial authorization to take up this duty and to be virtuous by conveying civilisation to the development universe which is seen by Kipling as a “burden” ( 1 ) . We can see this in the first line of each stanza. “Take up the White Man’s Burden” . Besides. he explains the trouble of this responsibility while stating:
Take up the White Man’s Burden. Send forth the best ye breedGo bind your boies to exileTo function your captives’ need ( 1-4 ) . This suggests that it is non merely the colonised people who are bearing the negative effects of this procedure of civilisation and held in imprisonment. but besides the Westerners may expose their chaps to decease which is seen as great forfeit from the portion of the colonial power for the benefits of the indigens. Kipling so. represents the White Man as a hero or a God. He held the belief that the White Man has “A Divine Burden to reign God’s Empire on Earth” ( Wikipedia ) .
As God gives them wealth. civilisation and promotion. it’s so a responsibility for them to educate the colored people and assist them by distributing their civilisation and better manner of life to. “Fill full the oral cavity of famine/ And offer the illness cease ; ” ( 19-20 ) and create from the barbarians who are “Half-devil and half-child” ( 8 ) . advanced. effectual and active members in their societies. That’s why Kipling represented the imperial mission of the superior White Man as sacrificial and virtuous towards the colonised people who do non cognize where their public assistance is. They are “Your new-caught. dark peoples. ” ( 7 ) who want to populate with their ignorance instead than better their manner of life and be educated. Kipling here says:
The ports ye shall non come in. The roads ye shall non step. Go mark them with your life. And tag them with your dead ( 29-32 ) . For that ground the coloniser must fall back to violence in order to carry through his responsibility towards the loony. stupid devil-like people even if this will give members of their white race. He sees force as agencies to handle the savageness of the indigens which is a justification for taking over all the natives’ lives for non accepting the procedure of enlightenment brought from the West. However. despite all these attempts and forfeits made by the Europeans to sophisticate a backward community. these colored people seem to be thankless. It is here when Kipling says:
And harvest this old wages: The incrimination of those ye better. The hatred of those ye guard– The call of hosts ye temper ( Ah. easy! ) toward the visible radiation: –‘Why brought he us from bondage. Our loved Egyptian dark? ’ ( 34-40 ) Kipling warns the Europeans that the procedure of colonisation is thankless. Alternatively of thanking the Europeans for conveying them into the visible radiation of civilisation. the indigens will fault them for making that and will be nostalgic to their dark yesteryear. Then. they will detest the coloniser more and more. The sum-up of Kipling’s trade name of imperialism by his biographer Charles Carrington is deserving citing at length here: No adult male had done more than Kipling to excite involvement in the opening-up of new universes in the East and South.
He ne’er doubted the cogency of Western civilisation. ne’er lapsed into sentiment over the supposed virtuousnesss of barbarians ; but it was the spread of jurisprudence. literacy. communications. utile humanistic disciplines that he applauded. non the expansion of frontiers… educating the universe was a worthwhile undertaking. and though likely to be ungrateful. a undertaking in which all might fall in if they would accept the jurisprudence ( Carrington 332 ) . Therefore. all these inside informations show Kipling’s representation of the colonised people and warrant his perceptual experience that the policy of imperialism manifested in his construct of The White Man’s Burden is a baronial endeavor.
2. 3- Showing the Unrealistic Aspect of Kipling’s Representation of the Natives from Said’s Perspective
2. 3. 1- Said’s unfavorable judgment of Rudyard Kipling
However. Kipling is strongly criticized for his construct by many anti-imperialist authors who held opposing political orientations chiefly Edward Said. He sees that the impression of The White Man’s Burden. merely like Orientalism. has one end to warrant the domination of the Western coloniser over the colonised people through picturing stereotyped images of them known as a discourse. This discourse relegates the colored people to a lower place in the hierarchal divisions of the races which by virtuousness of their ontological lower status. Kipling asserts. should be ruled and subjugated.
And the opinion race. on the other manus. burdened by its edifying mission. has the right to spread out beyond its geographical boundaries. and govern the first class. In the analysis of the Orientalist discourse. therefore. Said shows how the colonised states that appear in that discourse is non an nonsubjective fact of nature. but it is instead a phenomenon constructed by the care of a whole set of racial and cultural premises. Said maintains here: Oriental studies can be discussed and analyzed as the corporate establishment for covering with the Orient – covering with it by doing statements. about it. authorising positions of it. depicting it. by learning it. governing over it: in short. Orientalism as a Western manner for ruling. retracing. and holding authorization over the Orient ( Said 3 ) . In short. Said explains that The White Man’s Burden is but a system of representation that has little in common with the existent image of the indigens.
For Said so. The White Man’s Burden is created to legalize Western colonialism in the eyes of Western agents. And it works to convert the indigens that Western civilisation represents the cosmopolitan civilization that should be accepted to make flourishing and be elevated from the backward conditions in which they live. Therefore. harmonizing to Said. this deceit plays a important regulation in registering. prolonging. and camouflaging the imperial vision which is an illustration of cultural supplanting. military domination. and economic development for which Kipling is blamed. 2. 3. 2- Kipling’s accusal of racism
Said and many other critics have seen that Kipling’s political orientation is nil more than a manifestation of racism when they said. “Whatever the professed justification. there can be no uncertainty that the verse form is deeply racist in sentiment” ( Keating 172 ) . and. “ [ C ] ertainly a great figure of them [ the White Men ] must hold been puzzled as to how the colour of their teguments gave them superior ontological position plus great power over much of the inhabited world” ( Said 226-7 ) . It is strongly insisted so that the thought of European domination introduced in Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden” is nil but an allusion of racism. as opposed to the imperialists who held a beneficent position of the imperium. From the late Victorian epoch. Social Darwinism has been sturdily linked to imperialism ( Wikipedia Social Darwinism ) .
Social Darwinism is the belief which claims that the strongest and richest is better suited to boom in his community and govern the weak who is fitted to decease and it considers this as a natural procedure ( Wikipedia ) . For Social Darwinists hence. strong states are merely formed by white people stand foring power and edification and are successful in enlarging their imperiums ( Wikipedia ) . And merely people of those states are fitted to last among those weak and less powerful colored people ( Wikipedia ) . And this natural differentiation is their justification for their Acts of the Apostless which is. harmonizing to many anti-imperialist authors. based on racism. In undermining colored people and sing them as inferior to oneself merely for the simple ground of being white. one can experience a deep racism.
2. 3. 3- Kipling’s accusal of ferociousness
Besides. one of the indictments Kipling is frequently blamed for is ferociousness. In this verse form Kipling writes. “Freedom for ourselves and freedom for our sons/ And. neglecting freedom. war” ( 19-20 ) . This. harmonizing to Said. unveils the existent Orientalist’s ( White Man’s ) purpose and shows that beyond his angelic-like mission “there is ever the express willingness to utilize force. to kill and be killed” ( Said 226 ) . Orwell. in his first paragraph of his essay about Kipling. argues that no 1 should hold with Kipling’s political orientation toward imperialism or even acquit him as he is “morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting” .
He argues that he is non merely describing violent Acts of the Apostless by the White Man. but really basking them as one can non note any mark of disapproval against ferociousness in his work. Equally. Robert Buchanan. in his book. was bitterly bear downing Kipling with force as he describes him as “the voice of the hooligan” . Max Beerbohm every bit good. “in his celebrated lampoon of Kipling in A Christmas Garland. mimicked the pathological reveling in inhuman treatment which. to Beerbohm. seemed a main distinguishing characteristic of Kipling’s work” ( Gilbert 207 ) . This accusal takes a really negative position of imperialism which is depicted as a morally and materially destructive move whose existent intent is subjection which is a entire contradiction to civilisation. 2. 3. 4- Kipling’s accusal of development
It is widely argued excessively that Westerners use the construct of the White Man’s Burden as a disguise for their development of the colored people and their lands. One of the important grounds for the hostile policy of the imperial enlargement is economic development. By geting new districts. the colonial state testifies an economic growing. It takes benefits from their resources ; makes usage of their natural stuffs with having their inexpensive labour. brings the natural stuffs to their fatherland to be turned into manufactured goods and so gets it back to the colonised lands to be sold in their markets with larger net incomes.
That’s how economic system works under imperialism. Equally of import as the first ground. imperialism is spurred by the political demand. With the territorial enlargement. the colonial state acquires more power which puts it in a more esteemed degree in the universe. And for keeping this authorization. the White Man kills or imprisons all those who form an resistance to the colonial policy like the originally governing category or societal and spiritual leaders merely to implement his policy in the new acquired districts which resulted in the break of the societal construction and entire pandemonium. Therefore. the colonised states are awfully exploited and their loss is far more tremendous than their benefits.
2. 4- Unveiling the existent ground behind this unrealistic representation.
So far. after picturing the unrealistic facet of the representation of the colonised people. it’s clear that The White Man’s Burden is a political policy of the colonial authorization to laud Western states. Said explains here. “I myself believe that Orientalism is more peculiarly valuable as a mark of European-Atlantic power over the East that it is as a veridic discourse about the Orient” ( 6 ) . The coloniser uses therefore. derogative representation of the colonised people to reenforce their stupidity in their ain heads and in the heads of people all over the universe. and pardon for themselves and for the universe their inexcusable offense.
But more profoundly. one comes to reason that the world of The White Man’s Burden is merely an empowering of the cultural hegemony of the coloniser who. through this deceit. makes himself look powerful and superior to all other states. and gives lastingness to himself. Said here says. “Orientalism depends for its scheme on this flexible positional high quality. which puts the Westerners in a whole series of possible relationships with the East without of all time losing him the comparative upper hand” ( 7-8 ) .
One illustration for this is that the policy of the British authorities that retires any British retainer in India in his forty-fifth birthday is for the ground. harmonizing to Said. that no indigen could see the British maestro when he would be old and powerless ( Dalarna 9 ) . Therefore. the colonial authorization is non merely locked to the colonised states in its economic system. but it has besides used the representation of the colonized to represent its ain individuality reenforcing its political orientations and high quality as it is non wholly self-defining but instead built in contrast to the colonized.
When analysing Kipling’s verse form “The White Man’s Burden” . one can hold a clear image about both the colonial authorization and colonised states. Kipling depicts a image that shows that native people are backward and barbarian. And since they can’t stand by themselves and can’t regulation a whole state. it’s the colonizer’s responsibility to assist them by educating them and demoing them the right way. Kipling shows throughout the verse form the adulthood. civilisation. and wisdom of the White Man that give him the responsibility to govern the indigens. However. many critics chiefly Edward Said have shown that this representation is merely an semblance. It is an fanciful image constructed by the White Man to warrant the procedure of colonialism.
They see Kipling as a racialist who represents indigens as inferior. a violent who encourages ferociousness against indigens. and a profiteer for the natives’ land. Therefore. The White Man’s Burden is merely a disguise for this atrociousness toward the indigens. And the White Man creates this binary resistance between white and colored people that puts him in a superior place merely to beef up his hegemonic power and to reenforce his authorization over the universe. This resistance gives the colonial authorization its lastingness as it can’t exist without the presence of its settlements holding an upper manus on them.
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