The alleged Era of Good Feelingss was ne’er wholly placid. but the semblance of national consensus was shattered by the terror of 1819 and the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Vigorous political struggle. one time feared. came to be celebrated as necessary for the wellness of democracy. The American political landscape of 1824 was similar. in its wide lineations. to that of 1796. By 1840 it would be about unrecognisable. The nonexistent party organisations of the Era of Good Feelings yielded to the rambunctious democracy. frenzied verve. and strong political parties of the Jacksonian epoch. The old intuition of political parties as illicit disrupters of society’s natural harmoniousness gave manner to an credence. even a jubilation. of the sometimes wild quarrelsomeness of political life. In 1828 a new party. the Democrats. captured the White House. By the 1830s the Democrats faced an every bit vigorous resistance party. the Whigs. This bipartisan system institutionalised divisions that had vexed the Revolutionary coevals and came to represent an of import portion of the nation’s cheques and balances on political power. New signifiers of politicking emerged in this epoch. as campaigners used streamers. badges. parades. barbeques. free drinks. and babe snoging to “get out the ballot. ” Merely about one-fourth of eligible electors cast a ballot on the presidential election of 1824. but that proportion doubled in 1828. and in the election of 1840 it reached 78 per centum.
I. The “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824
A. In the election of 1824. there were four looming campaigners: Andrew Jackson of Tennessee. Henry Clay of Kentucky. William H. Crawford of Georgia. and John Q. Adams of Massachusetts. All four called themselves Republicans. Three were a “favorite son” of their several part but Clay thought of himself as a national figure ( he was Speaker of the House and writer of the “American System” ) . B. In the consequences. Jackson got the most popular ballots and the most electoral ballots. but he failed to acquire the bulk in the Electoral College. Adams came in second in both. while Crawford was 4th in the popular ballot but 3rd in the electoral ballots.
Clay was 4th in the electoral ballot. C. By the 12th Amendment. the top three electoral ballot getters would be voted upon in the House of Reps. and the bulk ( over 50 % ) would be elected president. D. Clay was eliminated. but he was the Speaker of the House. and since Crawford had late suffered a paralytic shot and Clay hated Jackson. he threw his support behind John Q. Adams. assisting him become president. When Clay was appointed Secretary of the State. the traditional stepping-stone to the presidential term. Jacksonians cried foul drama and corruptness. Jackson said he. the people’s pick. had been swindled out of the presidential term by calling politicians in Washington D. C. John Randolph publically assailed the confederation between Adams and Clay. E. Evidence against any possible trade has ne’er been found in this “Corrupt Bargain. ” but both work forces flawed their reputes. II. A Yankee Misfit in the White House
A. John Quincy Adams was a adult male of puritanical award. and he had achieved high office by commanding regard instead than by touting great popularity. Like his male parent. nevertheless. he was able but slightly wooden and lacked the “people’s touch” ( which Jackson notably had ) . B. During his disposal. he merely removed 12 public retainers from the federal paysheet. therefore declining to kick out efficient officers in favour of his ain. perchance less efficient. protagonists. C. In his first one-year message. Adams urged Congress on the building of roads and canals. proposed a national university. and advocated support for an astronomical observatory. Public reaction was assorted: roads were good. but observatories weren’t of import. and Southerners knew that if the authorities did anything. it would hold to go on roll uping duties. D. With land. Adams tried to control over-speculation of land. much to Westerners’ choler even though he was making it for their ain good. and with the Cherokee Indians. he tried to cover reasonably with them although the province of Georgia successfully resisted federal efforts to assist the Cherokees. III. Traveling “Whole Hog” for Jackson in 1828
A. Jacksonians argued. “Should the people regulation? ” and said that the Adams-Clay bargaining four old ages before had cheated the people out of the rightful master. They successfully turned public sentiment against an honest and honest president. B. However. Adams’ protagonists besides hit below the belt. even though Adams himself wouldn’t stoop to that degree. They called Jackson’s female parent a cocotte. called him an fornicator ( he had married his married woman Rachel thought that her divorce had been granted. merely to detect two old ages subsequently that it hadn’t been ) . and after he got elected. Rachel died. Jackson blamed Adams’ work forces who had slandered Andrew Jackson for Rachel Jackson’s death—he ne’er forgave them. C. John Q. Adams had purchased. with his ain money and for his ain usage. a billiard tabular array and a set of chess pieces. but the Jacksonians had seized this. knocking Adams’ ceaseless disbursement. IV. “Old Hickory” as President
A. When he became president. Andrew Jackson had already battled dysentery. malaria. TB. and lead toxic condition from two slugs lodged someplace in his organic structure. B. He personified the new West: rough. a jack-of-all-trades. a echt common people hero. C. Born in the back countries of the Carolinas ( we’re non even certain if it was North or South Carolina. and both provinces still claim to be his place ) . Jackson had been early orphaned. was interested in cockfighting as a child. and wasn’t truly good with reading and authorship. sometimes misspelling the same word twice in one missive. D. He went to Tennessee. where he became a justice and a congresswoman. and his passions were so profound that he could choke up on the floor. E. A adult male with a violent pique. he got into many affaire d’honneurs. battles. stabbings. etc.
F. He was a Western blue blood. holding owned many slaves. and lived in a all right sign of the zodiac. the Hermitage. and he shared many of the biass of the multitudes. G. He was called “Old Hickory” by his military personnels because of his stamina. H. He was anti-federalist. believing that the federal authorities was for the privileged merely. although he maintained the sacredness of the Union and the federal power over the provinces. Still. he welcomed the western democracy. I. Jackson commanded fright and regard from his subsidiaries. and ignored the Supreme Court on several occasions ; he besides used the veto 12 times ( compared to a combined 10 times by his predecessors ) and on his startup. he let common mans come into the White House. They wrecked the China and caused pandemonium until they heard that there was spiked clout on the White House front lawn ; therefore was the “inaugural bowl. ” Conservatives condemned Jackson as “King Mob” and berated him greatly. V. The Spoils System
A. The spoils system rewarded protagonists with good places in office. B. Jackson believed that experience counted. but that trueness and immature blood and crisp eyes counted more. and therefore. he went to work on passing places and wipe outing the old. C. Not since the election of 1800 had a new party been voted into the presidential term. and even so. many places had stayed and non changed. D. Though he wanted to “wipe the slate clean. ” merely 1/5 of the work forces were sent place. and clean expanses would come subsequently. but there were ever people hunting Jackson for places. and those who were discharged frequently went huffy. killed themselves. or had a tough clip with it. E. The spoils system denied many able people a opportunity to lend. F. Samuel Swartwout was awarded the moneymaking station of aggregator of the imposts of the port of New York. and about nine old ages subsequently. he fled for England. go forthing his histories more than a million dollars short. and therefore going the first individual to steal a million dollars from the authorities. G. The spoils system was built up by gifts from anticipant party members. and the system secured such a retentive clasp that it took more than 50 old ages before its clasp was even loosened. VI. The Tricky “Tariff of Abominations”
A. In 1824. Congress had increased the general duty from 23 % to 37 % . but wool industries still wanted higher duties. B. In the Duty of 1828. the Jacksonians ( who disliked duties ) schemed to drive up responsibilities to every bit high as 45 % while enforcing heavy duties on natural stuffs like wool. so that even New England. where the duty was needed. would vote the measure down and give Adams another political black oculus. However. the New Englanders backfired the program and passed the jurisprudence ( amended ) . Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun reversed their places from 1816. with Webster back uping the duty and Calhoun being against it. The Southerners instantly branded it as the “Tariff of Abominations. ” C. In the South at this clip. Denmark Vesey. a free Black. led an baleful slave rebellion in Charleston. This raised frights by Southern Whites and led to a tightening of control over slaves.
The South largely complained because it was now the least expanding of the subdivisions. Cotton monetary values were falling and land was turning scarce. D. Southerners sold their cotton and other merchandises without duties. while the merchandises that they bought were to a great extent taxed. The South said all duties did for them was hike up monetary values. E. Tariffs led the U. S. to purchase less British merchandises and frailty versa. but it did assist the Northeast prosper so that it could purchase more of the South’s merchandises. F. John C. Calhoun in secret wrote “The South Carolina Exposition” in 1828. boldly denouncing the recent duty and naming for nullification of the duty by all provinces. G. However. South Carolina was entirely in this nullification menace. since Andrew Jackson had been elected two hebdomads earlier. and was expected to sympathise with the South against the duty. VII. “Nullies” in South Carolina
A. South Carolinians. still contemptuous toward the Duty of 1828. attempted to earn the necessary two-thirds bulk to invalidate it in the S. C. legislative assembly. but determined Trade unionists blocked them. B. In response to the choler at the “Tariff of Abominations. ” Congress passed the Duty of 1832. which did off with the worst parts of the Tariff of 1828. such as take downing the duty down to 35 % . a decrease of 10 % . but many Southerners still hated it. C. In the elections of 1832. the “Nullies” came out with a two-thirds bulk over the Trade unionists. met in the province legislative assembly. and declared the Duty of 1832 to be null within S. C. boundaries.
They besides threatened with sezession against the Union. doing a immense job. President Jackson issued a ringing announcement against S. C. . to which Governor Hayne issued a counter-proclamation. and civil war loomed perilously. To compromise and forestall Jackson from oppressing S. C. and going more popular. the president’s challenger. Henry Clay. proposed a via media measure that would bit by bit cut down the Duty of 1832 by about 10 % over a period of eight old ages. so that by 1842 the rates would be down to 20 % to 25 % . D. The Tariff of 1833 narrowly squeezed through Congress. E. However. to salvage face. Congress besides passed the Force Bill ( AKA the “Bloody Bill” ) that authorized the president to utilize the ground forces and naval forces. if necessary. to roll up duties. F. No other provinces had supported South Carolina’s stance of possible sezession. though Georgia and Virginia toyed with the thought. G. Finally. S. C. repealed the nullification regulation.
VIII. The Trail of Tears
A. By 1830. the U. S. population stood at 13 million. and as provinces emerged. the Indians were stranded. B. Federal policy officially was to get land from the Indians through formal pacts. but excessively many times. they were tricked. C. Many people respected the Indians. though. and tried to Christianize them. D. Some Indians violently resisted. but the Cherokees were among the few that tried to follow the Americans ways. following a system of settled agribusiness. inventing an alphabet. legislating legal codification in 1808. and following a written fundamental law in 1827. E. The Cherokees. the Creeks. Choctaws. Chickasaws. and the Seminoles were known as the “Five Civilized Tribes. ”
F. However. in 1828. Congress declared the Cherokee tribal council illegal. and asserted its ain legal power over Indian lands and personal businesss. and even though the Cherokees appealed to and won in the Supreme Court. Jackson refused to acknowledge the determination. G. Jackson. though. still harbored some sentiment of Indians. and proposed that they be bodily transferred west of the Mississippi. where they could continue the civilization. and in 1830. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act. in which Indians were moved to Oklahoma. Thousands of Indians died on the “Trail of Tears” after being uprooted from their sacred lands that had been theirs for centuries. Besides. the Bureau of Indian Affairs was established in 1836 to cover with Indians. H. In 1832. in Illinois and Wisconsin. the Sauk and Fox folks revolted but were crushed. I. From 1835 to 1842. the Seminoles waged guerilla warfare against the U. S. . but were broken after their leader. Osceola. was seized ; some fled deeper into the Everglades of Florida ; others moved to Oklahoma. IX. The Bank War
A. Andrew Jackson. like most westerners. distrusted large Bankss. particularly the “B. U. S. ”—Bank of the United States. To Jackson and westerners. the B. U. S. was merely a tool of the rich to acquire richer. The BUS minted metal. coin money ( “hard money” ) . but non paper money. Farmers out west wanted paper money which caused rising prices. and enabled them to more easy pay off their debts. Jackson and westerners saw the BUS and eastern Bankss as being in a confederacy to maintain the common adult male down economically. This confederacy was carried out through difficult money and debt. B. The B. U. S. . led by Nicholas Biddle. was rough on the volatile western “wildcat” Bankss that churned out unstable money and too-lenient recognition for land ( which the westerners loved ) . The B. U. S. seemed reasonably bossy and out of touch with America during its “New Democracy” epoch. and it was corrupt. C. Nicholas Biddle smartly lent U. S. financess to friends. and frequently used the money of the B. U. S. to corrupt people. like the imperativeness.
D. However. the bank was financially sound. reduced bank failures. issued sound notes. promoted economic enlargement by doing abundant recognition. and was a safe depositary for the financess of the Washington authorities. E. It was extremely of import and utile. though sometimes non needfully pure and wholesome. F. In 1832. Henry Clay. in a scheme to convey Jackson’s popularity down so that he could get the better of him for presidential term. rammed a measure for the re-chartering of the BUS—four old ages early. G. He felt that if Jackson signed it. he’d alienate his followings in the West and South. and if he vetoed it. he’d lose the supports of the “best people” of the East. H. He failed to recognize that the West held more power now. non the East. I. The re-charter measure passed through Congress easy. but Jackson demolished it in a scorching veto that condemned the BUS as unconstitutional ( despite political enemy John Marshall’s opinion that it was okay ) . and anti-American. J. The veto amplified the power of the president by disregarding the Supreme Court and aligned the West against the East. Ten. “Old Hickory” Wallops Clay in 1832
A. Jackson’s protagonists once more raised the hickory pole while Clay’s work forces detracted Jackson’s dueling. chancing. cockfighting. and fast life. B. However. a new 3rd party. the Anti-Masonic Party. made its entryway for the first clip. Opposed to the awful secretiveness of the Masonic order. it was energized by the cryptic slaying of person who threatened to expose the Freemason’s secrets. While sharing Jacksonian ideals. they were against Jackson. a Mason. Besides. they were supported by churches trusting to go through spiritual reform. C. Besides for the first clip. national conventions were held to put up campaigners. D. Clay had the money and the “support” of the imperativeness. but the hapless people voted excessively. and Jackson won conveniently. passing Clay his 3rd loss in three attempts. Eleven. Burying Biddle’s Bank
A. Hoping to kill the BUS. Jackson now began to retreat federal financess from the bank. so as to run out it of its wealth ; in reaction. Biddle began to name for unneeded loans. personally doing a mini terror. B. Jackson won. and in 1836. the BUS breathed its last breath. but because it had been the lone beginning of certain recognition in the United States. difficult times fell upon the West one time the BUS died. since the wildcat Bankss were really undependable. Twelve. The Birth of the Whigs
A. Under Jackson. the modern bipartisan system of political relations came to be. B. Oppositions of Jackson despised his iron-fisted nature and called him “King Andrew. ” This broad group coalesced into the Whig party. united merely by disfavor of Jackson. C. Generally. the Whigs: ( 1 ) Disliked Jackson and ( 2 ) Supported Henry Clay’s American System and internal betterments. D. Once formed. American would hold at least two major political parties thenceforth. Thirteen. The Election of 1836
A. “King Andrew” was excessively old to run once more. but offered Martin van Buren to follow in his coattails. B. The Whigs suffered from disorganisation. They tried to offer a “favorite son” campaigner from each subdivision of the country—their hopes were that no 1 would win a bulk of electoral ballots. the election would therefore be thrown to the House of Representatives. and they could win at that place. Their strategy failed. and van Buren won. Fourteen. Big Woes for the “Little Magician”
A. Van Buren was the first president to hold been born in America. but he lacked the support of many Democrats and Jackson’s popularity. B. A rebellion in Canada in 1837 threatened to immerse America into war. and Van Buren besides inherited the depression caused by Jackson’s BUS killing. Fifteen. Depression Doldrums and the Independent Treasury
A. The Panic of 1837 was caused by the “wildcat banks” loans. the over-speculation. the “Bank War. ” and the Specie Circular saying that debts must be paid in coinage ( gold or Ag ) . which no 1 had. B. Failures of wheat harvests caused by the Hessian fly besides worsened the state of affairs. and the failure of two big British Banks in 1836 had already started the terror traveling. C. Hundreds of Bankss fell. including some of Jackson’s “pet Bankss. ” Bankss that had received the money that Jackson had withdrawn from the BUS to kill it. D. The Whigs proposed enlargement of bank recognition. higher duties. and subsidies for internal betterments. but Van Buren spurned such thoughts. E. Alternatively. he proposed the “Divorce Bill” ( dividing the bank from the authorities and hive awaying money in some of the vaults of the larger American metropoliss. therefore maintaining the money safe but besides unavailable ) that advocated the independent exchequer. and in 1840. it was passed. The following twelvemonth. the winning Whigs repealed it. but in 1846. it was brought back ; it eventually merged with the Federal Reserve System in the following century. Sixteen. Gone to Texas
A. Americans continued to covet Texas. and in 1823. after Mexico had gained independency from Spain. Stephen Austin had made an understanding with the Mexican authorities to convey approximately 300 households into a immense piece of land of granted land to settle. B. The judicial admissions were: ( 1 ) they must go Mexican citizens ; ( 2 ) they must go Catholic ; and ( 3 ) no bondage allowed. These judicial admissions were mostly ignored by the new colonists. Seventeen. The Lone Star Rebellion
A. The Texans ( among them Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie ) resented the “foreign” authorities. but they were led by Sam Houston. a adult male whose married woman had left him. B. In 1830. Mexico freed its slaves and prohibited them in Texas. much to the choler of citizens. C. In 1833. Stephen Austin went to Mexico City to unclutter up differences and was jailed for 8 months. D. In 1835. dictator Santa Anna started to raise an ground forces to stamp down the Texans ; the following twelvemonth. they declared their independency. E. After armed struggle and slaughters at the Alamo and at Goliad. Texan war calls rallied citizens. voluntaries. and soldiers. and the turning point came after Sam Houston led his ground forces for 37 yearss eastward. so turned on the Mexicans. taking advantage of their siesta hr. pass overing them out. and capturing Santa Anna. F. The pact he was forced to subscribe was subsequently negated by him on evidences that the pact was extorted under duress. G. Texas was supported in their war by the United States. but Jackson was hesitating to officially acknowledge Texas as an independent state until he had secured Martin Van Buren as his replacement. but after he succeeded. Jackson did so acknowledge Texas on his last twenty-four hours before he left office. in 1837. H. Many Texans wanted to go portion of the Union. but the slavery issue blocked this. I. The terminal was an unsettled quandary in which Texans feared the return of Santa Anna. Eighteen. Log Cabins and Hard Cider of 1840
A. In 1840. William Harrison was nominated due to his being issueless and enemyless. with John Tyler as his running mate. B. He had merely been popular from Tippecanoe ( 1811 ) and the Battle of the Thames ( 1813 ) . C. A stupid Democratic editor besides helped Harrison’s cause when he called the campaigner a hapless old husbandman with difficult cyder and unwittingly made him look like many hapless Westerners. D. With mottos of “Tippecanoe and Tyler excessively. ” the Whigs advocated this “poor man’s president” thought and replied. to such inquiries of the bank. internal betterments. and the duty. with replies of “log cabin. ” “hard cyder. ” and “Harrison is a hapless adult male. ” E. The popular election was close. but Harrison blew Van Buren off in the Electoral College. F. Basically. the election was a protest against the difficult times of the epoch. Nineteen. Politicss for the Peoples
A. When the Federalists had dominated. democracy was non respected. but by the 1820s. it was widely appealing. Politicians now had to flex to pacify and appeal to the multitudes. and the popular 1s were the 1s who claimed to be born in log cabins and had low backgrounds. Those who were blue ( excessively clean. excessively well-groomed. excessively grammatical. to extremely rational ) were scorned. B. Western Indian combatants and/or militia commanding officers. like Andrew Jackson. Davy Crocket. and William Henry Harrison. were rather popular. C. Jacksonian Democracy said that whatever regulating that was to be done should be done straight by the people. D. This clip was called the “New Democracy” . and was based on cosmopolitan white manhood right to vote. In 1791. Vermont became the first province admitted to the brotherhood to let all white males to vote in the elections. E. While the old kingpin who used to hold power sneered at the “coonskin congressmen” and the “bipeds of the forest. ” the new Democrats argued that if they messed up. they messed up together and were non victims of blue domination. Twenty. The Bipartisan System
A. The Democrats had so successfully absorbed the Federalist thoughts earlier. that a true two party system had ne’er emerged—until now. B. The Democrats
1. Glorified the autonomy of the person.
2. Clung to states’ rights and federal restraint in societal and economic personal businesss.
3. Largely more low. poorer common people.
4. By and large from the South and West.
C. The Whigs
1. Trumpeted the natural harmoniousness of society and the value of community.
2. Berated leaders whose entreaties and self-interest fostered struggle among persons.
3. Favored a renewed national bank. protective duties. internal betterments. public schools. and moral reforms.
4. Largely more blue and wealthier.
5. By and large from the East.
D. Things in Common
1. Based on the people. with “catchall” phrases for popularity. 2. Both besides commanded truenesss from all sorts of people.