This project will study about the way the river Conwy in north Wales changes as it flows down stream. It involves on different variables such as width, depth, velocity, and wetted perimeter, discharge etc.

It flows about 60 km from LIyn Conwy to estuary at Conwy. River Conwy was formed in the ice age.

Background information

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MIGNEINT MOOR:

a) The geology is metamorphic rock

b) Soil is peat

c) Precipitation high

d) Height 300 m plus

e) Vegetation were cotton grass, rough grasses

YSBYTY IFAN:

a) Small upland

b) Mostly welsh speakers

c) Occupation is wool weaving

d) Famous for sheep farming

e) Embankment built 10 years ago

f) Bridges causes the river to increase in velocity

g) Deposition on the upstream

h) Shallows and flood risks

Land use mainly pastures for cattle and sheep. This follows river, road and rail. Llanrwst is main town of the valley. Tourism is important economic activity. Conwy has an important castle built in the c14 by Edward 1

RIVER THEORY

We can found all these things in a river.

Upper course:

a) V shaped valley

b) Pools and riffles

c) Pot holes

d) Turbulent water

e) Braided channels

f) Rapid flow of the water

g) Very steep

In this course erosion takes place

Middle course:

a) Waterfall rapid

b) Gorges

c) Wider v shaped

d) Interlocking spurs

e) A little bit curve in the river

f) Less gradient

g) Less steeper

In this course erosion and transportation takes place.

Lower course:

a) Flood plain

b) Meanders

c) Bluffs

d) Ox bow lake

e) Terraces

f) Leeves

g) Delta

h) Flat

In this course transportation and deposition take place.

Erosion is of different kinds:

a) Abrasion: materials carried by the river wear away the river channel.

b) Attrition: the materials smash into each other and making them rounder.

c) Hydraulic power: sheer force of the flowing waters on the bed and the bank.

d) Corrosion: river water dissolve calcium carbonate in chalk and limestone.

Transportation is of different kinds:

a) Traction: materials are rolled along the riverbed by the force of the water.

b) Saltation: materials bounce along the river bed as they hit each other and carried away

c) Suspension: fine particles of silt hang in the water.

d) Solution: minerals dissolved in the water.

AIMS

To investigate changes in channel form and the river process at different sites on the river Conwy and also to identify landforms associated with the river process.

> WIDHT: To study how the river is wide (width). This is measured in metres.

> DEPTH: To study how deep is a river, this is measure in metres.

> VELOCITY: To study, how fast the river flowing. This is measured in cubic meters per second.

> DISCHARGE: To study, how much water is flowing in cubic metres per second.

> WETTEDPERIMTRE: If a cork were thrown across the riverbed distance it would cover in metres.

NOTE: we have to throw substance that is not too heavy it will take time. We must throw a substance that the river can able to carry across. River has energy, but it can’t carry a heavy object.

; GRADIENT: to study the angle of the slope of the river in degrees.

; CROSS SECTIONAL AREA: to study the cross sectional area of the river increases or decreases while the river flowing downstream.

BED LOAD SIZE: to study whether the load size of the river increases or decreases, while flowing down stream

HYPOTHESIS

WIDTH:

I expect the river to get increases as it travels downstream, because When it flows downstream there will be a greater force, this led to the attriction. And they usually became broad and also the great amount force of the water eroded the rocks on the side of the river.

DEPTH:

I expect the rive depth to be increase as it travels downstream, because it is closer to the sea level, usually sea level will be deeper and also there will be many tributaries joining them.

VELOCITY:

I expect the river velocity will be decrease as it flows downstream because the upper and lower will be gradually steep, so there will high friction so the water flows very rapidly. But in lower level, land is flat low friction, low velocity.

DISCHARGE:

I expect the discharge to be increase as it travels downstream,

Because the water level will be high, depth increases at the down stream and also there will be greater amount of water.

GRADIENT:

I expect the gradient to be decreases as it travels downstream because, normally, the downstream will be flat, wider, width meanders, so I expect the gradient will be decreasing while flowing down stream and also the river travels from the mountains.

WETTED PERIMETER:

I expect the wetted perimeter to be increase as it travels downstream because the riverbed will be flat, and the river will be broader width and deeper depth as it flows downstream.

BED LOAD SIZE:

I expect the size of the bed load will be decreases as it travels downstream because the stones will eroded by solution, saltation attrition, and abrasion.

CROSS SECTIONAL AREA:

I expect the cross sectional area of the river to be increased as it travels downstream because there will wider width and also a very deep depth

METHODS

These are all the equipments, Iam going to use.

WIDTH:

Equipments: Tape, 2 poles, scale (large)

a) Measure a 10m and sick the poles at one side. The poles are used as a marker.

b) Put a pole at 5m to define your stretch.

c) Halfway through your stretch started measure the width of the water surface. Enter the result on the recording sheet. (Make the result in meters).

d) on the half way through your poles look at the opposite side of the poles.

e) Measure the depth of the water at 5 equally distance point across the river. Enter into the according sheet.

Equipments: scale (large one).

VELOCITY:

Equipments: cork, stop clock.

a) Throw a cork to travel 10 metres (from the pole 0-10).

b) Count how many seconds it will take to reach the10 metres destination.

c) You will need a stop clock.

d) Report it for 5 runs.

FLOWMETRE VELOCITY:

Equipments: Flow metre, stop clock.

a) Put the flow metre, just below the surface of 5 equally distance points (1/6,2/6,3/6,4/6,5/6). It must be 1/3 above the water surface.

b) At each 5-point record the average velocity in (metre per second).

c) Remember to measure the flow metre for one minute. Enter the results in the record sheet.

SLOPE ON THE WATER SURFACE:

Equipments: Gun clinometers.

; Use gun clinometers and two metre rules to measure the slope of the water of the water surface over your 10 metres maker, holding the ruler so that their bases touch the surface of the water.

; Make sure the 2 readings agree to within 2 degrees or try again, enter the result on the reading sheet.

WETTED PERIMETRE:

Equipments: Tape, long chain,

a) At 5 metres along your stretch use a chain.

b) Follow the riverbed by a long chain.

c) Measure in metres.

STONE ROUNDNESS:

Equipments: Scale, Power chart.

a) Pick 30 stones in random without viewing.

b) Visually compare each stone to the power roundness chart.

c) Take the scale and fine the size of each stone.

d) Make a tally

JUSTIFICATION

WIDTH:

We have to make a 10m stretch, why we are doing this because to make a convenience distance. If this too short it will be awkward after a half way through we have to measure the width this is because to make it as a average.

DEPTH:

To find the depth we have make 5 equally distance points of equal distance. What we have done is? Divide the width in to 5 equal parts. We find for 5 points because the riverbed is not straight, so this is to make it as an average.

WETTED PERIMETRE:

We are using chain instead of tape because the force of the water will easily carry out the tape.

STONE:

We have to pick 30 stones because there are 6 types of stones. By the use of scale we can find the measurement of the stone. We just pick measurement of the stone. We just pick up the stones without viewing because not to go for very smaller stones. We have to pick stones from different place because when we pick up a stone from a same place and stones will be similar.

VELOCITY:

We are using cork because if we use some heavily substance water didn’t have energy to carry the heavy substance. We have to repeat it for 5 times and also we have to throw the cork in different place because we have to notice the speed in different place. we are repeating it for 5 times this is to make an average.

FLOW METRE VELOCITY:

We have to measure the flow metre in five different places, because to make it as an average and also make the measurement flow metre in different places. We have to do this for one minute because it is comfortable time.

LIMITATIONS

WIDHT:

1) Poles cannot stamp at the correct place because there are rocks in the side of the river.

2) The problem with the width, the tapes were carried out by the river. So difficult to measure the correct width.

3) The poles were falling down because of the heavy wind up the mountains.

DEPTH:

1) It is difficult to measure the depth in the flowing water.

2) I cannot put the scale on the slippery rock.

3) Human error measuring the depth wrongly.

VELOCITY:

1) Sometimes the cork dash against the rock and take time to reach 10 metres.

2) In some place the side of the channel have interlocking spurs, when the cork was thrown it dashes in the interlocking spurs and it will take time.

WETTED PERIMETRE:

1) It is hard to make a correct measurement because there are some undercuts.

2) Human error will be made easily, by making a chain measurement on the tape.

FLOWMETRE VELOCITY:

1) The flow metre sometimes does not work because the bushes will slow the fall of water.

2) If we make the flow metre more than 1/3 up it will not give a correct result.

MEASUING THE SIZE OF THE STONE:

1) There are peaks, which result in slippery.

2) Marsh, bushes disturb us from picking stones.

3) There are some big rocks eventually we cannot carry and measure.

How can I improved?

a) Doing more samples

b) Doing in different weather

c) Doing in different time of the year

d) Compare it to the other river

I have learned more skills and knowledge from this project

If you look at the map, all the three sites in the north of Conwy.why we didn’t do all the sites in different zone because if you look at the Conwy estuary there are some difficulties

a) It is tidal, salty sea

b) 500 m wide covered in sea water at high tide

c) Very big

d) Stone size suite clay

e) Has lot of energy

f) Too deep

g) Strong currents

Human error

a) Farmers used as field, which ideally results in marshy and salty area

They built bridges which is lowest bridging point

b) They built train line

c) Industries were built in the cheap land

SITE DESCRIPTION

SITE 1

The things I have found in the site 1

a) V shaped valley

b) The valley is very narrow

c) There are pools and riffles

d) The flow of the water is quite rapid

e) Less depth

f) High friction

g) Turbulent flow of the water

h) Interlocking spurs

i) The rocks are big

j) The valley is steep because it is coming down from the mountain

k) Vertical erosion

l) There is no flood plain

m) The river is very angular

n) The bank were very marshy and bushes

o) There are undercuts near the boulders

p) The stones are less rounded

q) Surrounding area are less saturated

r) The water has high energy

s) There is a small gorges

t) The rock is metamorphic rock

u) We can see braided channels

Site 2

The things I have found in the site 2

a) The valley is wider than site 1

b) There are some under cuts

c) Less gradient

d) Less steep

e) Still vertical erosion

f) Little meanders

g) Small oxbow lake

h) No floodplain

i) Large slip off slope

j) Turbulent flow

k) Increase in depth

l) The soil is peat

m) Bed load of different size

n) Bed load decreases

o) The valley is marshy

p) The river has more energy than site 1

q) The bubbles on the outside of the meander

r) There are large boulders

s) Interlocking spurs

t) Deposition of stones

u) The rock is quartz

Site 3

The things I have found in the site 3

a) The valley became wider than site 2

b) The river increase in depth

c) I found there is a large amount of water so there will be large discharge

d) Little bit lateral erosion

e) Meanders

f) Flood plain can be seen

g) The area is marshy

h) I found there is a big slip off slope

i) I found there are sand stone

j) Still turbulent flow

k) Low friction

l) Water flow rapids

m) Erosion (hydraulic action, attrition)

n) Transport (suspension, traction)

o) Gravel stones are found

p) Deposition of rocks.

Analysis

Width:

I have found that the width is increasing when the river flows downstream. the results can be seen in page . The river increase from 2.3m to 11.6m from site 1 to site 3,because the channel become larger to hold the increased amount of water covering in from tributaries and ground water and also the velocity of the river increases travelling downstream so it tends to overflow to the side of the valley, there will be erosion this lead to increase the volume of the width.

Depth:

I have found the depth is increasing while the river travels downstream. The result can be seen in page . The river increasing from 0.21m to 0.37m from site 1 to site 3,because of the extra water and the joining tributaries and also the extra water added from the ground

Cross-sectional area:

I have found that the cross sectional area of the valley increases when it travelling downstream. It has been increasing by 0.47m to 4.29m from site 1 to site 3. This is because of depth and width gets bigger while it travelling downstream. The result can be seen in page .

Wetted perimeter:

I have found that the wetted perimeter is increasing from site 1 to site 3 from 2.6 m to 12.1m. This is because that the size of the channel gets bigger when it travels from site1 to site3.the result can be seen in page .

Float Velocity [seconds/10m]:

I have found that the float velocity is increasing while the river travels downstream. The reason for this is the river speeds up downstream because there is low friction became attrition is breaking up in the bed load to make smaller rocks and less smoother and also more water equals more pressure results in speed of the water at last it led to flood plain. The result can be seen in page .

Flow metre velocity:

I have found that the velocity is decreasing when the river travels downstream. The result can be seen in page . The reason for this it might be a human error .the river decrease from 0.66 to 0.57 from site 1 to site 3.

Angle/gradient:

I have found that angle was decreasing when the river travels down stream. It is decreasing from 2.6 degrees to .75 degree because the river travelling down from the mountain. The result can be seen in page .

Stone size:

I have found that the stone size is increasing when the river travels downstream .it is increased from 10.85 cm to 14.36 cm from site 1 to site 3.the results can be seen in page . This might be a poor sampling and not measuring on both axis.

Hydraulic radius:

I have found that hydraulic radius increases when it travels downstream. It is increased from 0.18m to 0.35m from site 1 to site3.it has a relationship between wetted perimeter and cross sectional area measures of efficiency as smaller, normal the more friction takes place the less efficiency stream. It may lead to flood when it gets more efficiency downstream.

Power scale:

The tally of stones varies from site 1 to site 3. This is because the attriction works on rocks and there is more discharge and also there is more volume of water.

CONCLUSION

The width is increasing when the river travels down stream (true)

This is because it increases the amount of water joining in from the tributaries and ground water.

The depth is increasing when the river travels down stream (true)

This is because the water speeds up the channel to get through and when it travels downstream there will be a less gradient and steep so it will be gradually increases the depth.

The cross sectional area is increasing when the river travels down stream (true)

This is because the depth and width gets bigger and bigger when it travels downstream.

The wetted perimeter is increasing when the river travels down stream (true)

This is because the channel was increasing.

The float velocity is increasing when the river travels down stream (false).

I thought the river is coming from the mountain so there will be steeper and it will more faster than site 3 but unfortunately its false because the site 3 has low friction so there will be more speed than site 1.

Flow metre velocity is decreasing when the river travels down stream (true)

In the upper stream there will more friction but in the lower stream there is less friction because of attriction.

Gradient is decreasing when the river travels down stream (true)

This is because the river is coming up from the mountain so there will be change in steep

Stone size is decreasing when the river travels down stream (false)

This is because of poor sampling. How the stone size will be increasing? It will be eroded.

Discharge is increasing when the river travels down stream (true)

This is because the water level will be high and depth increases when the river travels downstream.

Hydraulic radius is increasing when the river travels down stream (true)

This is because it has relationship between wetted perimeter and cross sectional area measures of efficiency as smaller, normal the more friction takes place the less efficiency stream.

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