Besides the 7,107 beautiful islands, Philippines has so much to offer, from its pristine white sand beaches, glorious positions, abundant leafy vegetables, diverse populations of vegetations and zoologies, alone natural resources and vivacious civilization. To add to it is the warm Filipino cordial reception, low-cost holiday rates that they provide to tourers, enabling them to go inexpensive and bask the touristry experience even more.

Ironic as it may look, this natural beauty is masked by the ugly face of poorness and desperation. A bulk of the Filipinos have been populating in sub-human conditions – in changeless battle to conflict want and loss of self-respect.

Non-Government Organizations such as Gawad Kalinga provide alternate solutions to the barefaced job of poorness and desperation in the Philippines. Gawad Kalinga ( GK ) has a vision of a slum-free, squatter-free state – a state where Filipinos are at peace and are given the self-respect that they deserve. Together with its spouses, the procedure of state edifice and Filipino authorization has transformed over 900 communities all over the Philippines.

The Filipino people have the unconditioned civilization of giving and sharing, exemplified by the antique construct of “ bayanihan ” . This alone Filipino spirit of being a hero to one another can be the coveted push for voluntourism in the Philippines. Gawad Kalinga has, in its history of service, contributed to the domestic touristry scene. With community edifice and community development plans manifested chiefly through its substructure and community authorization activities across the state, and an extended figure of communities which continue to increase, the organisation encourages more voluntaries to be involved in their attempts. This potentially relates to an increased motion of people across the state which may be associated with an addition in consciousness of the finishs to which they are deployed, a possible addition in travel disbursement, and a prospective ensuring addition in touristry disbursement.

Best services for writing your paper according to Trustpilot

Premium Partner
From $18.00 per page
4,8 / 5
Writers Experience
Recommended Service
From $13.90 per page
4,6 / 5
Writers Experience
From $20.00 per page
4,5 / 5
Writers Experience
* All Partners were chosen among 50+ writing services by our Customer Satisfaction Team



Many states have a rich tradition of domestic travel and vacation which non merely predates but exceeds aggregate international travel. This is peculiarly the instance in Asia where recent economic prosperity and tendencies in globalisation have non simply spurred, but continue to determine traditions in domestic touristry ( Singh, 2009 ) .A Tourism in the universe is dominantly domestic non international ( Cooper, Gilbert, Fletcher & A ; Wanhill, 1993 ) . Travel is normally done within one ‘s ain state before one ventures out into going to finishs other than the state of abode. Domestic touristry involves occupants of a state going merely within that state but outside their usual environment. The chief intent of visit or travel is preponderantly for leisure, concern or other intents ( Cruz, 2000 ) .


In the Philippines, the major bureaus involved with touristry selling and publicities are the Department of Tourism and the Tourism Promotions Board ( former Philippine Convention and Visitors Corporation ) . Through the old ages, touristry bureaus have used assorted mottos to sell the Philippines as a finish. To call a few, in the 1970 ‘s – “ Where Asia wears a smiling ” and “ An island to retrieve ” ; in the 1980 ‘s – “ Fiesta Islands ” , “ There ‘s a Fiesta for Everyone ” and “ Fiesta ne’er ends in the Philippines ” ; in the 1990 ‘s – “ Islands Philippines ” , “ Our Islands Have It ” , “ Jeepney Islands ” ( in Europe ) , and “ Musical Islands Philippines ” ; in 1999 – “ Rediscovery Philippines ” ; and more late, in the 2000 ‘s – “ WOW Philippines ” ( Cruz, 2000 ) . The state ‘s new touristry run motto is “ Pilipinas Kay Ganda ” under the disposal of President Benigno S. Aquino III. The motto aims to “ reinvigorate our state ‘s touristry run and dual tourer reachings within the following three old ages, ” said a Malacanang imperativeness statement reads.

Promoting tourer finishs to possible vacationists is a hard proposition. Most merchandises and services use publicizing to lure purchasers and vie for the limited clip and attending of the media-harried consumers. Likewise, current touristry advertisement lacks the resources needed to protract finish exposure in order to capture consciousness and prolong the involvement of possible consumers.

In the domestic touristry scene, the local authorities units are tasked to advance their ain finishs. These LGUs are given the autonomy to explicate their ain promotional schemes, harmonizing to the market niche that they are aiming recognizing that different markets have different demands or motives for travel.

At present, the new disposal is apportioning budget for new media publicities, which includes establishing a new web site. This is due to the increasing tendency of garnering information thru the World Wide Web.

Motivation FOR TRAVEL

Throughout history, there have been different grounds why travelers set out on journeys or trips. The main motives noted in history were – travel for flight, cultural wonder, spiritualty, instruction, and societal position. Peoples go on Tourss or trips to fulfill a scope of demands from exhilaration and rousing to self-development and personal growing.

The work of Stanley Plog, which is frequently critically accepted as the major attack to tourist motive, stressed that travelers could be categorized on psychocentric ( nonadventurous, inward-looking ) to allocentric ( adventuresome, outward-looking ) graduated table. In a more recent version of the attack, a 2nd dimension, energy versus lassitude, was added to the psychocentric -allocentric dimension, therefore developing a four-part classification strategy. Nevertheless, the attack is still limited because of its North American prejudice, and it does non see the issues of multimotive behavior, nor does it supply measuring inside informations or see the dynamic nature of motivations in the traveler ‘s life span ( Goeldner & A ; Ritchie, 2006 ) .

Iso-Ahola ( 1988 ) , in his work “ Toward a Social Psychological Theory of Tourism Motivation: A Rejoinder ” , argues that tourer and leisure behavior takes topographic point within a model of optimum rousing and incongruousness. That is, while persons seek different degrees of stimulation, they portion the demand to avoid either overstimulation ( mental and physical exhaustion ) or ennui ( excessively small stimulation ) ( quoted by Goeldner & A ; Ritchie, 2006, p.262 ) .

The travel-needs theoretical account articulated by Pearce ( 1988 ) and colleagues is more explicitly concerned with tourers and their motivations and argues that people have a calling in their travel behaviour that reflects a hierarchy of their travel motivations. Peoples may get down at different degrees and are likely to alter their degrees during their life rhythm. They may besides be inhibited in their travel by money, wellness, and other people ( quoted by Goeldner & A ; Ritchie, 2006, p. 263 ) .

The classs or degrees on the Pearce ‘s Travel-needs or Career theoretical account were likened to a ladder and was built on Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands. The earliest version of the travel-needs ladder retained Maslow ‘s thoughts that lower degrees on the ladder have to be satisfied before the single moves to a higher degree. Recent and on-going alterations of this theoretical account topographic point less accent on the rigorous hierarchy of demands and more on the altering forms of motivations. More significantly, the travel-needs ladder attack emphasizes that people have a scope of motivations for seeking out vacation experiences ( Goeldner & A ; Ritchie, 2006 ) .

In the travel-needs theoretical account, finishs are seen as scenes where immensely different vacation experiences are possible. Therefore, traveler ‘s motivations influence what they seek from a finish, and finishs will change in their capacity to supply a scope of vacation experiences ( Goeldner & A ; Ritchie, 2006 ) .

Richards and Wilson proposes that “ the hunt for new travel experiences is chiefly argued to reflect people ‘s increasing acknowledgment and reaction to the homogeneous nature of traditional touristry merchandises every bit good as their increasing desire for selflessness, self-change and an ability to corroborate their individualities and supply coherency within an unsure and disconnected post-modern life ” ( quoted by McIntosh & A ; Zahra, 2007, p. 542 ) .


Volunteer touristry, or voluntourism, is an alternate type of touristry which applies to tourers who, for assorted grounds, voluntary in an organized manner to set about vacations that might affect helping or relieving the material poorness of some groups in society, the Restoration of certain environments or research into facets of society or environment ( Wearing, 2001 ) . Voluntourism is seen as using one ‘s discretional clip and income to travel out of the regular domain of activity to help others in demand ( McGehee & A ; Santos, 2005 ) .

Voluntourism, is an alternate type of touristry which applies to tourers who volunteer in an organized manner to set about vacations that might affect helping or relieving the material poorness of some groups in society, the Restoration of certain environments or research into facets of society or environment.

Munt suggests that “ unpaid touristry should be seen as an look of what is recognized as the ‘other ‘ dimension of postmodern touristry ” ( quoted by Uriely, Reichel & A ; Ron, 2003, p. 58 ) . It is, by default, mass touristry in its early pre-tourism development phase and can be viewed as a development scheme taking to sustainable development and focus to the convergence of natural resource qualities, locals and the visitant that all benefit from the touristry activity ( Wearing, 2001 ) .

Voluntourism activities [ voluntary holidaies ] involve participants paying to fall in organized undertakings ( Broad, 2003 ) . It is besides described as donating one ‘s clip and work force while on holiday, even if it is merely portion of their trips ( Brown & A ; Morrison, 2003 ) . Mead and Metraux describe voluntary holidaies as “ giving clip and energy for a good cause and paying for the privilege. It can be taken around the corner in one ‘s place state, or around the universe in a far off land. It may affect travel disbursals merely, or they may be more than traditional trips ” ( quoted by Brown & A ; Morrison, 2003, p. 73 ) .

Callanan and Thomas states that “ volunteer touristry Fosters a mutual and reciprocally good relationship between the host and the invitee and is seen as offering an chance for sustainable ‘alternative ‘ travel that is more rewarding and meaningful than other vacations. It focuses on the selfless and self-development experiences that participants can derive and the aid that can be delivered to communities in footings of community development, scientific research or ecological/heritage Restoration ” ( quoted by McIntosh & A ; Zahra, 2007, p. 543 ) . With voluntourism, there is an intense instead than a superficial societal interaction that occurs. The histories between hosts and invitees that is created are more piquant, echt, originative and reciprocally good. The nature of the experiences gained by tourers is more reliable, echt, and automatic, of modern-day cultural content and a meaningful impersonal experience ( McIntosh & A ; Zahra, 2007 ) .

Cohen, Mittelberg, Uriely and Reichel all agree that “ with regard to touristry surveies, the term working vacations was attached to persons who combine voluntary activity with leisure/tourism chases while going ” ( quoted by Limjoco & A ; Magtoto, 2006, p. 12 ) . In certain facets, the construct of a on the job vacation may be considered as a doubtful signifier of relaxation because ab initio, tourers expect a holiday to be every bit effortless as possible. However, consisting practically of selfless purposes, its toothsome entreaty gives it an border in the tourer market.


Voluntourism can take topographic point in varied locations such as rain forests and cloudforests, biological militias and preservation countries. Activities can change across many countries, such as scientific research ( wildlife, land and H2O ) , preservation undertakings, medical aid, economic and societal development ( including agribusiness, building and instruction ) and cultural Restoration ( Wearing, 2001 ) . It may besides include chances for learning [ colloquial English ] , fostering at-risk babies and kids, restituting and painting community edifices, helping with wellness attention, and natural resource undertakings ( Brown & A ; Morrison, 2003 ) .

In his book Volunteer Vacations: Short-run Adventures That Will Benefit You and Others, Bill McMillon categorizes possible voluntary activities into the undermentioned groups: “ concomitant and amnesty work ; agricultural and farm work ; archeology ; community development ; environmental protection ; environmental research ; executive and proficient aid ; historical Restoration ; marine research ; medical and dental ; museums ; outdoor and diversion ; public wellness ; railwaies ; spiritual organisations ; scientific research ; societal action ; province and national Parkss and woods ; trail edifice and direction ; and work cantonments ” ( quoted by Brown & A ; Morrison, 2003, p. 77 ) .


Gazley deems that “ volunteer vacationists appear to hold the same motives as long-run voluntaries but the comparative value of assorted factors is different with self-actualization being really of import for short-run voluntaries ” . He farther suggests that “ it may take voluntaries to look for chances non merely for service but for larning and growing in volunteering which may be progressively focused on instruction ” ( quoted by Ellis, 2003, p. 46 ) . The lone indispensable accomplishment required by voluntary organisations is the desire to assist others ( Brown & A ; Morrison, 2003 ) .

There is normally, nevertheless, the chance for voluntaries to take portion in local activities and interact further with the community. Hence, the voluntary tourer part is bilateral, in that the most of import development that may happen in the voluntary tourer experience is that of a personal nature, that of a greater consciousness of ego. Volunteer tourers will about ever pay in some manner to take part in these activities. Furthermore, the sum is normally more than an mean tourer would anticipate to pay on a ‘normal ‘ vacation to a similar location ( Wearing, 2001 ) .

Bud Philbrook, president and CEO of Global Volunteers, sums up the exhilaration of making voluntary work on a holiday, “ when person adds a voluntary dimension to their holiday, they gain a alone position of the community they ‘re re-visiting. They have the chance to larn from and about the local people and do echt friendly relationships in the procedure. It is an exceeding experience and really frequently the high spot of any tripaˆ¦ ” ( quoted by Brown & A ; Morrison, 2003, p. 75 ) .


Wearing provinces that “ in a planetary society that progressively finds tenet and selling used to transfuse values and exploit societal dealingss, volunteer touristry represents both an chance and a agency of value-adding in an industry that seems to stand for consumer capitalist economy at its worse ” ( quoted by Brown & A ; Morrison, 2003, p. 75 ) .

Resource mobilisation theory argues that the webs an militant establishes, both within and outside of a peculiar motion, are critical to its success. Social psychological theories purport that, among other things, a consciousness-raising experience is a necessary precursor to societal motion engagement ( McGehee & A ; Santos, 2005 ) .

The motivations afforded by voluntourism would supply an mercantile establishment for those seeking unconventional travel experiences to prosecute their ain benevolent dockets. Furthermore, it can turn out to be a far more hearty experience than those offered by conventional touristry. Volunteer touristry would be a perfect locale wherein the travellers could fulfill their desires for a more in-depth apprehension of the people within the tourer finish. It non merely would hold an impact on the tourers, but besides on the locals themselves. Many travellers seek a opportunity to go immersed in a community or aid with undertakings when they travel instead than merely go throughing through ( Proceedings of “ Travel with a Purpose ” Symposium, 2000 ) .


Sherr ( 2003 ) classified the grounds that voluntaries maintain their service through clip into five factors. First, good communicating within the organisation is a really of import factor to keep the voluntary ‘s work in the long tally. Good communicating is a flow of choice information from the organisation to its voluntaries. Information flow consists of, for illustration, general intelligence within the organisation, the organisation ‘s 32 outlooks of its voluntaries, regulations and ordinances, acknowledgment, and feedback given to the voluntaries. There are a assortment of signifiers of communicating, such as face-to-face interactions, newssheets, bulletin boards, and more complicated signifiers such as public shows of acknowledgment. It is reported that face-to-face conversation is the most effectual factor to function the satisfaction of the voluntaries and increase their degree of committedness. Supplying informal acknowledgment and grasp early in the voluntary experience can impact the voluntaries ‘ term of office of service at an organisation ( Stevens, 1991 ) . If the voluntaries are satisfied with the quality of the communicating, they are likely to remain longer.

Second, programming, work assignment, and work allotment are important factors to keep the voluntaries ‘ attempts. Volunteers tend to be satisfied with work if they can schedule their ain voluntary hours and yearss, particularly if the agenda is flexible. In add-on, they are disposed to go on volunteering if they are assigned to work on undertakings that allow them to use their personal endowment or specific accomplishments.

Next, if the voluntaries can see that the result of their volunteering attempts truly profit person, they have a leaning to stay in the service. This factor will be reinforced if there is a connexion, peculiarly direct contact, between the voluntaries and the people profiting from their services. In other words, if the voluntaries feel that their attempts are worthwhile and of import, they will be motivated to go on volunteering. On the contrary, if they feel useless or incapable, they tend to end their voluntary work Oklahoman ( Wharton, 1991 ) .

Fourth, voluntaries expect good support from the organisation they work for, such as developing support and emotional support. Volunteers who participate in developing study 33 higher degrees of satisfaction than those who do non ( Galindo-Kuhn & A ; Guzely, 2001 ) . Organizations offering longer training Sessionss and a assortment of preparation subjects are besides likely to hold a larger figure of voluntaries who are satisfied and committed ( Cyr & A ; Dowrick, 1991 ; Paradis & A ; Usui, 1989 ) . Volunteers need emotional support non merely from the organisation ‘s paid staff, but besides among the voluntaries themselves. Volunteers have a leaning to go on their service when they perceive that they are a portion of the squad and each member is willing to join forces in job resolution, cooperate on undertakings, and promote the voluntary enterprise and activity ( Cyr & A ; Dowrick, 1991 ) . On the contrary, if they feel like they are being treated without regard, such as being told what to make and what non to make, they will lose their involvement and motivation for take parting in that voluntary attempt.

Last, a strong sense of group integrating is another of import factor that keeps the voluntary in service. Group integrating refers to the bonds that tie voluntaries affectively to one another and the organisation. Such relationships are independent of the work ; alternatively, they provide a societal facet of the voluntary experience that is associated with satisfaction and committedness. The survey by Field and Johnson ( 1993 ) indicated that voluntaries are more satisfied when they have contact with other voluntaries, non merely in the work, but besides at societal events or insouciant socialization outside of the workplace, such as holding an informal dinner with the paid staff and other voluntaries, or being invited to fall in holiday parties ( Sherr, 2008 ) .


Volunteer touristry presents a alone chance for exposure to societal inequalities, every bit good as environmental and political issues, later increasing societal consciousness, sympathy and/or support ( McGehee & A ; Santos, 2005 ) .

McGehee and Santos explored how an increased societal consciousness through voluntourism can act upon subsequent societal activism. A voluntourism experience may supply an indirect or informal channel for an exchange of thoughts sing the issues and inequalities that exist. Though the observation of these societal issues and inequalities and the exchange of thoughts occur in the local community, it can be deemed evident that the same occurs elsewhere.

It has been proposed that voluntary touristry experiences have the possible to alter voluntourists ‘ perceptual experiences about society ( at a planetary every bit good as local degree ) . In the survey conducted by McGehee and Santos, consciousness-raising occurred prior to, during, and after the voluntary touristry experiences. It has been found out that many volunteer touristry expeditions better what is called as “ planetary citizenship ” .

One of the many interesting subjects in the field of touristry research is that of touristry ‘s possible part to planetary peace and apprehension. There are illustrations from around the Earth, of Tourss that are seeking struggle declaration, greater apprehension and even motions for planetary societal justness. However, it remains a affair of some difference among touristry analysts as to whether touristry can assist further peace and procure a more harmonious universe ( Higgins-Desbiolles, F. , 2003 ) .


It is improbable that [ other ] cultural tourers will derive the same deepness of interaction and experience as a voluntary tourer ( McIntosh & A ; Zahra, 2007 ) . True though, this decision still requires farther empirical proof.

In their paper, McIntosh and Zahra examined the nature of the voluntary experience in the hunt for alternate and sustainable experiences through cultural touristry, in the instance of Australian visitants to a Maori community. The findings of the survey showed that the chief motive for set abouting the voluntary undertaking was non chiefly related to sightseeing but to volunteering, to ‘work ; non merely to be tourers ‘ , ‘to give ‘ and ‘to experience a service undertaking ‘ . It was examined how unfastened and antiphonal the host community were ab initio, and throughout the volunteering undertaking, and what impact the voluntaries left on the community.

It was found out that the nature of the unpaid touristry experience was reciprocally good to both the host and the voluntourist. The nature of the experiences gained by the voluntourists were apparently different from those gained by cultural tourers sing the traditional cultural merchandises, as the latter ‘s experience boundary line on commodified cultural merchandises.


Wearing impresses that “ volunteering on nature preservation undertakings has become progressively popular in the last two decennaries ” ( quoted by Halpenny & A ; Caissie, 2003, p. 25 ) . Non-government organisations and authorities bureaus charged with pull offing biologically important and recreation-oriented countries are spread outing the usage of voluntaries in their plans designed to conserve biodiversity, foster healthy environments, and run diversion and preservation plans.

In a paper by Halpenny and Caissie, they explored the attitudes and values sing nature, and the perceptual experiences of nature by the voluntaries who participated in the Volunteer for Nature plan, a Canadian-based preservation voluntary undertaking. A bulk of the voluntaries stressed the importance of nature and the environment as a context for egoistic activities such as diversion and curative interaction. The importance of nature ‘s being value, the satisfaction of cognizing that nature exists and is being protected was besides evident. Many of the participants expressed concern and empathy for the wildlife and threatened environments.

Wearing describes volunteer ecotourism as a “ bright option that promotes host self-government, local control, sustainability, environmental stewardship and the privileging of local civilization and values ” ( quoted by Gray & A ; Campbell, 2007, p. 466 ) .



1. GK777

Meloto knows the importance of coming up with a compelling vision to animate people. Therefore, he came up with GK777. Launched in 2003, GK777 end to build 700,000 places in 7,000 communities in seven old ages. The aim of the undertaking is to assist the poorest of the hapless, regain their trust, construct their assurance, make them believe and move as a community and to portion the joy of a state lifting from poorness. ”

2. GK2024

A logical extension of GK777 is GK2024, which “ seeks to elate five million Filipinos.The first stage of the journey ( from the twelvemonth 2003 to 2010 ) aims to accomplish “ Social Justice, ” and is captured in GK777. The end has been restated as: “ raising 700,000 place tonss and get downing up 7,000 communities by the terminal of 2010. ”

The 2nd stage ( from 2011 to 2017 ) is the stewardship stage called “ Social Artistry, ” and aims to authorise GK communities for self-governance, autonomy, and self sufficiency through community-based plans for wellness, instruction, environment, and productiveness. It besides aims to construct a small town civilization that honours Filipino values and heritage.

The concluding stage ( from 2018 to 2024 ) is envisioned as a clip of “ Social Progress, ” and “ seeks to accomplish graduated table and sustainability by developing the grassroots economic system and spread outing the range and influence of GK to five million households with support from cardinal sectors of society in the Philippines and spouses abroad ” ( Gawad Kalinga, 2009 ) . During this stage, the Filipino will raise himself from poorness by unleashing his potency for productiveness and difficult work in the right environment.

Harmonizing to the Gawad Kalinga web site, “ the 21-year journey of Gawad Kalinga represents one coevals of Filipinos who will travel from poorness to prosperity, fromneglect to same to honor, from third- universe to first universe, from second-class to excellent citizen of the universe.

1. Companies ( private sector )

Gawad Kalinga has successfully propagated the thought that the engagement of large concern in GK is more than merely exerting their corporate societal duty ( CSR ) . They are besides involved in a bigger undertaking that is nation-building. Because of GK ‘s fresh attack of actively prosecuting their corporate givers in implementing GK plans and activities ‘on the land ‘ ( instead than merely raising financess ) , the partnership takes on some particular significance for the.

2. Government ( public sector )

In 2002, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo challenged GK to construct 1,000 places with P30 million from her presidential fund. In malice of its deficiency of experience in edifice at such a graduated table back so, GK succeeded in constructing the houses in 70 sites throughout the state within a twelvemonth.

President Arroyo ‘s highly-publicized enterprise served as a major encouragement for GK, which began to pull leaders from both sides of the political fencing, including resistance leader Sen. Aquilino Pimentel Jr. , who provided P40 million from his Countryside Development Fund for schools, support centres, sewerage and way walks. Support besides came from other senators. Hundreds of governors and city managers have since joined the bandwagon.


For several authorities bureaus, partnership with Gawad Kalinga allows them to carry through their public-service authorizations more efficaciously. Worth observing are the partnerships of GK with the Department of Agriculture ( DA ) , and the Department of Tourism ( DOT ) .

The partnership between GK and DA took the signifier of Bayan-Anihan, the food-sufficiency plan of Gawad Kalinga. Bayan-Anihan purposes to eliminate hungriness by authorising households in GK communities to bring forth their ain nutrient.

Under this plan, GK households would each be given a 10-square metre batch where they could get down a vegetable garden with okra, tomatoes, aubergines, and kangkong for their day-to-day ingestion. Launched in 2009, the plan seeks to establish 2,500 farms in the following three old ages to feed at least 500,000 people for life.

Another advanced plan is GK Mabuhay, which promotes GK sites as tourer finishs. This is a consequence of the coaction between GK and DOT. GK small towns have become a cultural attractive force in themselves, owing to the fact that they were built with the people working together as members of the community.

Under this plan, GK villagers welcome visitants with heat and cordial reception brought about by their renewed sense of hope. Both GK and the DOT call this run the “ new face of community touristry. ” Taking centre phase are the Mabuhay Ladies, a group of adult females occupants who were chosen to be tour ushers in the GK communities that were opened as travel finishs. The DOT conducted workshops for the Mabuhay Ladies, giving them practical steering tips and techniques on how to be effectual tourer hosts and good communicators.

The construct of community touristry, harmonizing to DOT Secretary Ace Durano, is reasonably new. This has been a sought-after activity among the more adventuresome travellers, who choose non merely to go but to take portion in community concerns. “ This travel-for-a-cause stance has been supported by the DOT through its other partnerships with socio-civic groups, ” Durano said


Lending to the rapid growing of Gawad Kalinga is the repute it has built over the old ages. Gawad Kalinga has succeeded in making an image that entreaties to givers, voluntaries, and other stakeholders. For illustration, GK is fashioned as a nation-building motion. It seeks to construct a state “ empowered by people with religion and nationalism ” and one that is made up of “ lovingness and sharing communities, dedicated to eliminate poorness and reconstruct human self-respect ” ( GKBI, 2009 ) .

Since it was founded in 1995, Gawad Kalinga has managed to set a alone spin to its plans and activities. Because of this, GK has ever looked fresh and dynamic to interested perceivers. For illustration, GK was originally known for constructing “ faith communities ” because of its values formation plans, and because of its association with the Couples for Christ. When it made inroads in constructing places in war-worn Mindanao,

GK communities were dubbed as “ peace zones ” where Muslims and Christians work together to turn to poorness. Recently, GK communities have become “ eco-friendly small towns ” every bit good because they have begun to incorporate environmentally-sound patterns in their manner of life.

GK small towns have similarly been transformed into “ tourist musca volitanss ” that showcase the built-in appeal and singularity of each topographic point. Aside from the colorful houses and attractively landscaped milieus, each GK community offers the heat, cordial reception, and animating narratives of its occupants, who represent the victory of the Filipino people against poorness and subjugation.


The conceptual model is presented by Figures 1 and 2, which are the Concept Map and Concept Table severally.

Figure 1. Concept Map of the Study



Premise: Tourism publicities play a big function in promoting people to prosecute in touristry ventures. The natural beauty or landscape of the finishs, the installations and services of the touristry provider, and the organisations – authorities mandated and non-government mandated, stimulate touristry response.

Domestic touristry is an amalgam of internal and inward touristry. At present, traditional or conventional tourers dominate the domestic touristry markets followed by concern tourers and alternate tourers.

Voluntourism, which is an emerging signifier of alternate touristry, seeks to lure voluntaries from within and without the state non merely to take part on voluntary activities, but besides to advance the finishs to which they are deployed. Gawad Kalinga, with its vision of patriotism and community transmutation through voluntary activities, purports a sense of domestic touristry through its attempts in reconstructing the state through its plans countrywide.

Table 1. Concept Table of the Study




Tourism publicities

Schemes employed by touristry sellers to advance touristry in an country.

Active and inactive touristry stimulations employed by touristry organisations, touristry providers.


The natural beauty or landscape of the finishs to which touristry markets are drawn to.

Venue for touristry activities.

Servicess and installations

The installations and services of the different touristry providers.

Tourism providers.

Volunteer organisations

The organisations – authorities mandated and non-government mandated who actively encourage touristry participants.

plans organized by Gawad Kalinga: shelter and site developments, community authorization, support and accomplishments development, medical missions, etc.

Traditional Tourists

Persons or groups who engage in leisure, diversion and vacation activities.

Domestic touristry participants

Business Tourists

Persons or groups whose chief intent is to prosecute in concern or professional intents.

Domestic touristry participants

Alternate Tourists ( Voluntourists )

Persons or groups who engage in alternate touristry activities such as adventure touristry, ecotourism, and more specifically voluntourism.

study of Gawad Kalinga voluntaries and spouses


Since the beginning of the species of Homosapiens, people have been traveling from one topographic point to another in hunt of new grazing lands. Traveling broadens the skylines of one ‘s cognition.By interacting with different people and cultures we become indifferent and unshockable. Tourism related industries are now supplying occupations for a big figure of people straight and indirectly. Tourism is a mean for a state to see a speedy economic development but besides a speedy devastation of its resources if it is non managed as a long term growing.Tourism is non ever positive and can hold negative impacts on the local population and environment.The development of high volume touristry installations without equal attending paid on the impacts, has created many “ Tourism catastrophe ” ( Smith and Ealington,1992 ) .Tourism benefits chiefly transnational companies in disadvantage to the demands of local population and the regard of their rights. Tourism is non merely woolgathering landscape on post cards, the societal world is different: motion of population, disappearing of saviourfair, beggary, harlotry, “ folkorisation ” of rites and civilization ( Aooay 2003 ) . Furthermore, increasing the figure of tourers may non be the major standard of success. These negative impacts are due to a deficiency of administration control, placement of touristry for the finish.



Access of skilled aid for the population

Barely no seasonality

Support of transverse cultural apprehension and communicating

Direct benefits for the population, money and work force

Long stay

Small figure of voluntourist in each travel. Low force per unit area on the dwellers and the environment.


Small figure of voluntourists. Hard to gain tonss of money.

Need for the understanding of the local population

Possibility of negative societal impact. The voluntourists sleep in household house.


Current tendency to hold experience vacations

The worldwide consciousness and development of solidarity plans


Current tendency of relax vacations: demand to make nil.

Low comfort and direct contact with poorness: can frighten people.


The development of voluntourism is a new construct and was proposed as a solution to avoid or decrease some negative impacts caused by touristry. They try to adpopt this alternate construct to the demand of the dwellers and they are included in the determination.

A negative societal impact could be brought to the fact that the volutourists sleep in a local household house, eat with them, etc. but as the locals are included in the pick procedure and they agree to welcome tourers, the cross cultural apprehension and the communicating is reinforced on the side of tourers and locals. Furthermore, the voluntourists are more cognizant of their possible impacts and they are at that place to assist the small town which changed the commercial tourer relation in a human relationship. The undertaking which is done to accommodate to the demand of the population and the accomplishments of the tourers are used to work out the jobs and to convey a good aid. This new construct changes the manner touristry has been done for many old ages. The relation between tourers and locals move from a commercial relation to a human relation. The voluntourists are non in the finish merely to take but to give, and they do non give merely money but aid, accomplishments and a manus. They are looking for a particular experience and they are involved in the job of the finish which was the opposite few old ages ago. The “ bad side ” of the finish was hidden to the tourers and merely the “ good side ” was shown. Voluntourism shows to the tourers the world of a state. They do non go in their bubble of comfort. The face to face with world can be hard to populate with but voluntourism is every bit good a pursuit of truth. This dimension does non be in the construct of ecotourism. The money flow is different. The voluntourists stay longer but they are non high disbursement visitants in high quality merchandises, so there is no demand for the finish to construct expensive substructures. This type of touristry is non based merely on gaining money, but linked between net incomes of money and solutions to the job of poorness. The authorities earns less money but they solve some local jobs without passing money because the voluntourists pays the adjustment, nutrient, and the stuff for building and sometimes gives money to a particular undertaking. The money channel is non the normal channels for touristry merchandise but at the terminal, there are some benefits and possibly more because there is barely any escape. Voluntourists stay with the local household, chows with them, stays in little topographic points so the money they spend goes straight to the state. In add-on to that, there is equilibrium of the flow within the months. Nowadays, voluntourism seems to be a good solution to work out some jobs of poorness in tourer finishs and to develop touristry at the same clip.



Volunteer touristry or voluntourism as referred to in this survey is one of the emerging types of alternate touristry. Harmonizing to Hon. Eduardo Jarque, Jr. , former Department of Tourism Undersecretary for Tourism Planning and Promotions, domestic touristry has been vibrant in the past few old ages thanks to the betterments in the local touristry atmosphere. The touristry infrastructures in topographic point have good adjusted to the demands of the touristry market. Roads and main roads, airdromes and havens, markets and promenades have improved a batch over the old ages. The touristry providers have adjusted their services and made their monetary values more low-cost for mass touristry growing. Promotional schemes have been set in topographic point so as to suit the ever-changing demands of the touristry market. Tourism providers and the touristry regulating organic structure have become progressively cognizant of the differing demands of the tourers and have learned to market touristry merchandises consequently. He noted though, that many finishs still lack in marketing their touristry merchandises expeditiously and suggests for them to measure their touristry stock list suitably so as to capitalise on the significance or the civilization of their touristry merchandises. As more and more finishs offer about the same touristry merchandise, the demand to distinguish and to hold a better targeted selling scheme is more accomplished. For tourers, domestic touristry has become stylish in the sense that it has amassed a snob entreaty or life style and has become a turning tendency and has been something sought after.

The DOT is good cognizant of voluntourism in the Philippines. Harmonizing to him, “ Voluntourism is alive and is traveling ” . The state is traveling to the point of happening alternate beginnings of touristry ventures and activities wherein tourers would hold activities that are more participative and more rewarding. Voluntourism, though non yet a large portion of domestic touristry, allows for the development of the touristry market wherein tourers have become more occupied and go more in melody with the environment. Voluntourism itself takes on the portion of a promotional venture by leting voluntourists to hold an increased consciousness of the finish and go more occupied in the civilization of the finish. Voluntourism besides allows for increased grosss for neighbouring countries that benefit as direct and indirect providers to the touristry finishs. It has been progressively apparent that the domestic touristry landscape can profit from voluntourism.

The engagement of NGOs helps develop the market for voluntourism in the state. When asked about Gawad Kalinga, Undersecretary Jarque answered that so GK has helped increase consciousness and patriotism in the state. He stressed that the local touristry environment could good profit from voluntourism activities by GK. He even mentioned that the DOT has really already started and go on to join forces with GK in its attempts to further cultural consciousness and touristry growing. The Mabuhay plan of Gawad Kalinga is grounds of this partnership. The Mabuhay plan trains GK occupants as tourer ushers for their several communities, priming them on local civilization and being service-oriented.

VIII. Reference


Cooper, C. , Gilbert, D. , Fletcher, J. & A ; Wanhill, S. ( 1993 ) Tourism Principles & A ; Practice, 1st edition, Long Acre, London: Pitman Printing

Cruz, R. G. ( 2000 ) Principles of Travel and Tourism: Focus on the Philippines, 2nd edition, Quezon City: Tourism Research Philippines

Goeldner, C. R. & A ; Ritchie, J. R. B. ( 2006 ) Tourism: Principles, Practices, Doctrines, 10th edition, Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & A ; boies, Inc.

Sherr, M. E. ( 2003 ) . Social work and volunteerism: Exploring factors that influence

voluntary committedness. [ Doctoral thesis ] . University of South Carolina,


Singh, S. ( 2009 ) Domestic Tourism in Asi: , Diversity and Divergence, 1st edition, London: Earthscan Publications Ltd.

Smith, V.L. , and Eadington, W.R. , ( 1992 ) Tourism Alternatives, Potentials ans Problems in the Develpoment of Tourism. Philadelphia: International Academy for the Study of Tourism

Wearing, S. L. ( 2001 ) Volunteer Tourism: Experiences that Make a Difference, London: CABI Printing


Broad, S. ( 2003 ) ‘Living the Thai Life – A Case Study of Volunteer Tourism at the Gibbon Rehabilitation Project, Thailand ‘ , Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 63-72

Brown, S. & A ; Morrison A. M. ( 2003 ) ‘Expanding Volunteer Vacation Participation: An Exploratory Study on the Mini-Mission Concept ‘ , Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 73-82

Cyr, C. , & A ; Dowrick, P. W. ( 1991 ) Burnout in crisis line voluntaries. Administration and

Policy in Mental Health. 18 ( 5 ) , 343-354.

Ellis, C. ( 2003 ) ‘Participatory Environmental Research in Tourism: A Global View ‘ , Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 45-55

Field, D. , & A ; Johnson, I. ( 1993 ) Satisfaction and alteration: A study of voluntaries in a

hospice organisation. Social Science & A ; Medicine, 36 ( 12 ) , 1625-1633.

Galindo-Kuhn, R. , & A ; Guzley, R. M. ( 2001 ) . The voluntary satisfaction index: concept definition, measuring, development, and proof. Journal of Social Service Research. 28 ( 1 ) , 445-468.

Gray, N. J. & A ; Campbell, L. M. ( 2007 ) ‘A Decommodified Experience? Exploring Aesthetic, Economic and Ethical Values for Volunteer Ecotourism in Costa Rica ‘ , Journal of Sustainable Research, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp.463-482

Halpenny, E. A. & A ; Caissie L. T. ( 2003 ) ‘Volunteering on Nature Conservation Undertakings: Volunteer Experience, Attitudes and Values ‘ Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 25-33

Higgins-Desbiolles, F. , ( 2003 ) ‘Reconciliated Tourism: Tourism Healing Divided Societies! ‘ , Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 35-44

McGehee, N. G. & A ; Santos, C. A. ( 2005 ) ‘Socail Change, Discourse and Volunteer Tourism ‘ , Annalss of Tourism Research, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 760-779

McIntosh, A. J. & A ; Zahra, A. ( 2007 ) ‘A Cultural Encounter through Volunteer Tourism: Towards the Ideals of Sustainable Tourism? ‘ , Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp. 541-556

Paradis, L. F. , & A ; Usui, W. M. ( 1989 ) Hospice staff and voluntaries: Issues for

direction. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology. 7, 121-140.

Stevens, E. S. ( 1991 ) Toward satisfaction and keeping of senior voluntaries. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 16 ( 3/4 ) , 33-41.

Uriely, N. , Reichel, A. & A ; Ron, A. ( 2003 ) ‘Volunteering in Tourism: Extra Thinking ‘ , Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 57-62

Wharton, C. S. ( 1991 ) .Why ca n’t we be friends? Expectations versus experiences in the voluntary function. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 20 ( 1 ) , 79-106.


Bonte, M. ( 2006 ) , ‘Special Case of Tourism Developmns in Small Islands ‘ , Thesis, Bornemouth University, United Kingdom

Web sites

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: // PIA Press Release, 14 November, 2010


I'm Niki!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out