In order to cut down the accident rate in building industry, many authorities statutory organic structures and local governments play their function on enforce the statute law on the issue of safety and wellness in building industry. But the consequence show that the accident rates in building industry involve decease and hurt is still high. On the other word mean, the rate still in anxiousness degree. So research on safety issue in Malaysia building demand to be conduct to place why the accident rates still in anxiousness degree.


To analyze on the safety step in Malaysia Construction during period of building be carry out.


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To analyze on the safety direction in building.

To analyze jeopardy and hazard in building site.

To analyze the safety act, ordinance and guideline in building site.


Construction industry has been classified as a high hazard industry due to there is a high hazard of accident ever go on during the activity is behavior. The grounds is safety and wellness issues is ever been looking as a 2nd factors compare to clip, cost and quality that ever be considered as the chief factors in the building industry. The other ground is that many employers merely concentrate on maximising the net income alternatively of established on bar accident policy. Due to the existent cost can non be estimate until the accident is happen, so the employer do non stress to this safety. Accident rate still see is high in Malaysia building industry based on the statistics of the accidents in the building industry reported by the Social Security Organisation ( SOCSO ) . This high rate of accident is give bad feeling that the building industry is the most critical industry and it need a immense and fast development from the current safety patterns method in building activity.

In order to forestall or cut down the accident from happen, one must place foremost on the causes of that accident is happen merely can take the action to get the better of it. Therefore, a few Acts of the Apostless and ordinances is introduce to command the accident affair and besides as a counsel non merely for the employer ; it besides for the contractors. The few Acts of the Apostless is Occupational Safety and Health 1994 ( OSHA ) and Factories and Machinery Act 1967 ( FMA ) . These two Acts of the Apostless are under the Ministry of Human Resource and is implementing by the Department of Health and Safety Malaysia. This is few maps by the Department of Health and Safety Malaysia:

To assist increase the consciousness to workers, employers, contractors and the general populace about the occupational safety and wellness.

To explicate and reexamine on safety and wellness policy of occupational safety and wellness.

To transport out research at the workplace on issue related to occupational safety and wellness.

To guarantee workers and visitants of their safety and wellness and besides the public assistance at building workplace.

To go the secretary sing occupational safety and wellness

( Department of Health and Safety Malaysia, 2009 )

Basically the workers or visitants get injure is usually at building workplace or building site. So in order to do certain workers or visitants is safe, it is the employer ‘s duty to supply safe workplace. Provide safe workplace besides help to cut down or forestall the accident from happen and ensuing people get injured. Occupational safety and wellness besides list that the employers responsible to supply a safe workplace under the subdivision 15 General responsibilities of employers and freelance individuals to their employees. Under the subdivision 15, the employers and freelance should:

It should be the duty of every employers and every freelance individual to guarantee, the safety, wellness and public assistance at workplace of all his employees so far as it is operable.

( Department of Health and Safety Malaysia, 2009 )


Literature Review

Can be defined as any resources such as paperss, diaries that available to be choice in order to carry through the aims which contain informations and grounds that written by other pupils in their old research. The information from the literature reviews is known as the secondary informations due to the information is obtained from other beginnings.

Documentary survey ( statistic )

The information is cod from the Social Security Organisation ( SOCSO ) and Department of Occupational Safety and Health ( DOSH ) in signifier of statistic about the accident happen. In the statistic besides is besides show that the building industry is the most high hazard comparisons to other industry.

Case survey

Three building sites is be identify to let for behavior the instance survey about the accident happen to assist finish this undertaking. It is of import to assist building site in attempt to cut down or forestall the accident from happen in building site. It besides let people cognize whether that building site is follow or comply to the usher that is be introduce by Occupational Safety and Health 1994 ( OSHA ) and Factories and Machinery Act 1967 ( FMA ) .

Organization of The Dissertation

Chapter 1 Introduction

In this chapter is presenting the background of the building industry, and some of the aims that need to be carry throughing in order to finish the undertaking. Besides that, this chapter besides reference on how the research method that be use to roll up informations or information and how to complete this undertaking.

Chapter 2 Literature Review

In this chapter, it focuses on how to carry through the aim that already advert inside the chapter1. To finish the aim, information is be cod true the articles, diaries, books that related with the undertaking subject.

Chapter 3 Methodology

In this chapter, is province the method on how to garner the information or information such as gets it from statistic which obtained from Social Security Organisation ( SOCSO ) and Department of Occupational Safety and Health ( DOSH ) .

Chapter 4 Data Analysis and Result

In this chapter, it focuses on the research methodological analysis by analysis the information or information is cod inside the chapter 2.

Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusion

In this chapter, the overall of the undertaking is been summarise.

Chapter 2: Literature Reappraisal

2.1 Introduction

Construction industry is the most hazardous and risky comparison with other industry. Due to its hazardous and risky, building is seeing as accident-prone industry. Therefore, accident will merely go on from clip to clip during building undertaking. Accidents will merely go on at building site and at every where particularly in high rise building undertaking. Reasons is clip, cost and quality ever go the chief factors to be considered in front of safety. A safety issue is ever being considered as secondary in the building. Many employers do non established comprehensive to the accident bar policies but alternatively their more focal point on maximising the net income. They do non stress on safety because they can non gauge the existent cost of an accident until it occurs. The statistics of accidents occurred in the building industry indicate that the accident rate in Malayan building industry is still high and it give a image that building industry is one of the critical sectors that need a immense and fast inspection and repair from the current site safety patterns. Once the building accidents go on, it will bring forth many jobs ; such as workers become demotivation, hold of undertaking activity, and besides will impact the cost of the undertaking, productiveness and the building industry repute besides been affected ( Mohamed, 1999 ) .

The first ground for this research is to understand appropriate direction for safety betterments to minimise the accident rate in building industry. Refering the safety facets within building industry, it is evident that the execution of safety best patterns is still far from good. An accident is an unexpected, unplanned event in a sequence of events, which occurs through a combination of causes ; it consequences in physical injury ( hurt or disease ) to an person, harm to belongings or environment, a loss or any combination of these effects. Therefore, if no safety and wellness direction for the undertaking, that undertaking may totally failure and the cost for that undertaking will go over budget.

Second, this research is to discourse about the jeopardies that may happen on building site. Accident do n’t merely go on, they are caused. Harmonizing to Ridley 99 per cent of the accident are caused by either insecure Acts of the Apostless or insecure conditions or both ( Ridley, 1986 ) . Hazards will besides much contributed to the accidents. Hazard should be decently understood by safety participants every bit good as building participants and workers. Many people were non much wage attending on jeopardy at building site. Again, the stigma of the people was thought that the building industry can non be run off from the three 3-D syndromes viz. dirty, unsafe and hard. This mentality should be turning over to more realistic and harmonization in building towards sustainable building and do the building is instead making wealth.

Last, this research is to discourse about the enforcement of Act and Regulation in Malaysian to the building industry. There are few act and ordinance related to this wellness and safety in Malaysia and this act and ordinance are implementing by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health ( DOSH ) . Although, extended attempts have been taken in order to cut down the accident rate by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health ( DOSH ) , yet the statistic information shows it still non seen any betterment in the figure of accident on building activity. Largely in Malaysia, the building industry is merely follow the Occupational Safety and Health Act ( OSHA ) 1994 and Factories and Machinery Act ( FMA 1967 ) .

2.2 Construction safety direction

Construction industry is the most hazardous and it contribute high accident rate that had cause human death. Therefore, it really of import for the industry to follow / use safety and wellness direction to cut down the accident rate issue. Accidents can be happen at any clip, at anyplace, on any building activity to any people in the building site or else to outside people. Safety direction affecting few maps that include of planning, placing the job countries, organizing, commanding and directing the safety activities on workplace, all aimed at the bar of accidents ( figure 1 ) .

Figure 1: Safety organisation and direction must cover all facets of the employer ‘s or the contractor ‘s operations

Harmonizing to Tim Howarth and Paul Watson a successful wellness and safety direction system consist of the undermentioned component which is policy, administration, planning, measuring, and scrutinizing and reexamining. Harmonizing to Tim Howarth and Paul Watson ( 2009 ) , they were mentioned that how to guarantee the safety and wellness direction become successful. “ … successful wellness and safety direction systems require the undermentioned constituents:

The administration of all employees for direction of safety and wellness

The constitution of a clear policy for safety and wellness

The safety and wellness public presentation be step

The planning for safety and wellness by puting aims and marks, placing jeopardies, measuring hazard and set uping criterions against which the administration can mensurate public presentation

The auditing and reviewing of safety public presentation and pattern, in order to inform betterment. ” ( Howarth and Watson, 2009 )

Harmonizing to Tey ( 1999 ) , among the importance of safety is to understate the chance of accident and disease from happen to the workers. Therefore, the workers can execute their plants more conductively and be able to finish the undertaking as scheduled. It is besides to guarantee the advancement of work is flow swimmingly on site. If any accidents go on on site, therefore the work advancement will be stop impermanent due to do manner for the probe to be carried out by the responsible governments to happen out the accident ground. Consequently this will impact the completion of the whole undertaking advancement.

In order to forestall accident happened, they must place the causes of accident foremost so merely solve that job. There is a many of causes that will lend accident to go on within building industry. For illustration, struck by objects, fallings from tallness, electrical jeopardy and decease cause by works is the most accidents go on in the building industry ( MOM, 2009 ; US Bureau of Labour, 2009a ) . Besides, assorted reappraisals of safety direction in building industry have revealed that deficient safety steps and hapless safety consciousness is the major grounds for the high incidence of occupational accidents in this industry ( Sawacha et al. , 1999 ; Tam et al. , 2004 ; Angela and Ines, 2005 ; Aksorn and Hadikusumo, 2008 ) .

2.2.1 Health and Safety Policy

Safety and Health Rules, Regulations, Policies Harmonizing to CSAO ( 1993 ) , a wellness and safety policy is a written statement of rules and ends incarnating the company ‘s committedness to workplace wellness and safety ( CSAO, 1993 ) . It demonstrates top direction ‘s committedness to guarantee safe working methods and environment at the building sites. Supply a safe workplace go a duty of the employer. In Malaysia, a legal demand is set by Department of Occupational Safety and Health ( DOSH ) and other authorities bureaus to guarantee the safety and wellness of all workers at the workplace. On the building, there is different degree of people work at that place ; assorted type of activities to transport out and different types of works and machineries to be operate. Therefore, wellness and safety policy is really of import for the undertakings. Health and safety policy can be the counsel or manual of the building site to do certain the people, activities and works follow on building site during the period of building.

Harmonizing to Tim Howarth and Paul Watson ( 2009 ) , they stated that there is nine ( 9 ) committednesss that should be archive while transporting out the wellness and safety policy statement by administration. The nine ( 9 ) committednesss of the administration are:

Recognise that wellness and safety is an built-in portion of concern public presentation

Achieve high degree of wellness and safety public presentation, with a minimal criterion being legal conformity and cost-efficient wellness and safety public presentation betterment

Provide adequate and appropriate resources to implement the policy

Set and publish wellness and safety aim, even if merely by internal presentment

Put the direction of wellness and safety as a premier duty of line direction, from the most senior executive to first line supervisory degree

Ensure that the policy statement is understood, enforced and maintained at all degree in the administration

Ensure employee engagement and audience to derive committedness to the policy and its execution

Sporadically reexamine the policy, the direction system and audit of conformity to policy

Ensure that employees of all degree receive a proper preparation and is competent to transport out their responsibilities and duties

( Howarth and Watson, Construction Safety Management, 2009 )

2.2.2 Planning and Implementation

Planing, to place the possible jeopardies and hazards to all workers and other people that besides may be affect by the building activity, puting out the criterions public presentation as a mark should be achieve by direction and guarantee all certification is perform follow the criterions ( Holt, 2001 ) .

Based on Tim Howarth and Paul Watson ( 2009 ) , they mentioned that few of import elements for planning and command the wellness and safety at building site. They have sum-ups the of import cardinal elements for the building site planning and control point of safety as followers:

The administration ‘s wellness and safety manual

The ‘pre-construction information ‘ provided by the client and interior decorator

The undertaking wellness and safety program

Site regulations

Site initiation

Communication of wellness and safety information and counsel to site forces

Sub-contractor co-ordination, communicating and co-operation, and competence direction

( Howarth and Watson, Construction Safety Management, 2009 )

2.3 Hazards and Hazards

Harmonizing to OHSAS 18001, jeopardy can be defined as “ anything that could do injury to people and harm to belongings, the environment and the combination of these ” . Source or state of affairs with possible for injury in footings of human hurt or sick wellness, harm to belongings, harm to workplace environment or combination of these. Harmonizing to OHSAS 18001, hazard can be defined as “ the opportunity, greater or little that person will be harm by jeopardy ” . Combination of the likeliness and effect of a risky event happening.

Harmonizing to Tim Howarth and Paul Watson ( 2009 ) , they mentioned that a jeopardy is the things that presented injury. In add-on, by mentioning to Frederick Gould and Nancy Joyce ( 2009 ) , they stated that a jeopardy is something presented can do of hurts. Besides that, harmonizing to Tim Howarth and Paul Watson ( 2009 ) , they mentioned that hazard is the opportunity or likeliness that person will harm or injury by jeopardy.

Normally, a jeopardy is a specific state of affairs connected with a production procedure or a work procedure and is characterised by such a constellation or province of factors of this procedure, which may ensue in an accident at work or an occupational disease ( Carter and Smith 2006 ; HoA‚a 2008 ) .

In the simplest instances jeopardies can be identified by observation, comparing the fortunes with the relevant information. A combination of the undermentioned methods may be the most effectual manner to place jeopardies. Methods of placing workplace jeopardy are including:

Previewing statute law and back uping codifications of pattern and counsel

NIOSH/ DOSH published information

Reviewing relevant Malaysian and international criterions

Reviewing industry or trade association counsel

Reviewing other published information

Hazard checklist be developed

Conduct walk-through studies ( audits ) and reviews

Reviewing information from interior decorators or makers

Measuring the adequateness of preparation or cognition required to work safely

Analyzing insecure incident, accident and hurt informations

Analyzing work procedures

Job safety analysis

Consulting with employees


Seeking advice from specializers

Materials safety been proving and bring forth the merchandise labels

2.3.1 Hazard cause by Materials

Harmonizing ( Howarth and Watson, 2009 ) , accident may be occur by the stuffs when building activity is carry out on site such as stuffs deliver or remove from the site. There is some potencies hazard cause by the stuffs on the building site:

Use of risky stuffs

Storage of risky stuffs

Managing of stuffs

Removal of bing stuffs

Dust from stuffs

Spillages of stuffs


Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System ( WHMIS ) which is incorporated into the Occupational Safety and Health Act and serve as a comprehensive and legislated programme that ensures workers to understand about the risky stuffs around workplaces. Furthermore, harmonizing to the WHMIS system groups the hazard stuff into six classs based on the stuff type and jeopardy which is shown in Table 2.2. Each class has its ain jeopardy symbol and it is of import that the worker be able to acknowledge those symbols ( WHMIS, 2011 ) .

Table 2.2: The Six Classes of Hazardous Materials and Symbols

Class A

Compressed Gas

i⤠A tight gas is a stuff which at normal temperature and force per unit area, packaged under force per unit area in a cylinder or other container.

i⤠The jeopardy from these stuffs is by and large arises from their chemical nature and sudden loss of unity of the container.

i⤠A tight gas cylinder is normally rather heavy and when ruptured can go a missile with the possible to do important harm.

i⤠For illustration: Acetylene and O

Class B

Flammable and Combustible Materials

i⤠Classifying stuff that will light and go on to fire in air if exposed to a beginning of ignition.

i⤠This category classified as a flammable gases, flammable aerosols, combustible liquids and flammable solids. Many laboratory dissolvers and cleaning stuffs used on this category.

i⤠For illustration: Methane, propanone, aminobenzine, and Li hydride.


Oxidising Material

i⤠An oxidising stuff may or may non fire itself, but will let go of O or another oxidising substance, and thereby causes or contributes to the burning of another stuff.

i⤠This type of substance gives of a big sum of heat when in contact with other substances. Besides, able to back up a fire and considered high reactive of these chemicals.

i⤠For illustration: Ozone, Cl, and N dioxide.


Poisonous and Infectious Material

These symbols represent the category of stuffs that pose the greatest possible jeopardy to our life and wellness.

Division 1: Materials Causing Immediate and Serious Toxic Effectss

i⤠These stuffs can badly damage our wellness in a individual overexposure. Fortunately, few of our work countries contain this type of stuff.

i⤠For illustrations: Cyanide compounds, cinnamene are really toxic substances.

Division 2: Materials Causing Other Toxic Effectss

i⤠This alone symbol identifies material that poses a menace to our wellness through long term exposure. Further, this stuff may be a suspected carcinogen or have other wellness damaging belongingss.

i⤠Our labs, work countries and stores contain stuffs marked with symbol.

i⤠For illustrations: Asbestos cause malignant neoplastic disease, ammonium hydroxide is an thorn.

Division 3: Bio risky Infectious Material

i⤠This categorization includes any beings and the toxins produced by these beings that have been shown to do disease or are believed to do disease in either worlds or animate beings.

i⤠For illustration: a blood sample incorporating the Hepatitis B virus is a bio risky infective stuff. It may do hepatitis in individuals exposed to it.

Class Tocopherol

Caustic Material

i⤠Caustic stuffs can assail ( corrode ) metals or do lasting harm to human tissues such as the tegument and eyes on contact.

i⤠Burning, scarring, and sightlessness may ensue from tegument or oculus contact.

i⤠Caustic stuffs may besides do metal containers or structural stuffs to go weak and finally to leak or prostration.

i⤠For illustration: Ammonia, F, and hydrochloric acid.

Class F

Perilously Reactive Material

i⤠This symbol identifies perilously reactive stuffs. These stuffs may respond violently under certain conditions of daze or an addition in force per unit area or temperature or respond violently with H2O.

i⤠They may besides respond smartly with H2O to let go of a toxic gas.

i⤠For illustration: Ozone, hydrazine, and benzoyl peroxide.

( Beginnings: WHMIS, 2011 )

2.3.2 Hazard cause by Movements Plant and Machinery

Most of the jeopardies in building is more or less has related with motions works and machinery, it is identified to be more important at site involve in substructure plants and industry edifice. In building site, there is a batch type of works and machinery be used during behavior the building activities. The figure of works and machinery utilizing in site is depending on how large the graduated table of that undertaking. Therefore, the direction squad besides need to see of motion works and machinery as one of the possible jeopardies while be aftering the safety and wellness.

Harmonizing to Tim Howarth and Paul Watson ( 2009 ) , there is some potencies hazard cause by the motion works and machinery on the building site:

Lack care for works and machinery

No proper separation for works and machinery and prosaic path on site

Failure to procure stuffs during haling / raising

Operating works and machinery without authorization

Operating works and machinery by non-qualify individual

Mechanical failure of works and machinery

Lack of warning system

Lack of signboard / signage

Plant and machinery reversing, supply equal halt blocks

2.4 Construction Acts and Regulation in Malaysia

Under the section of Ministry of Human Resources, there still has another section known as Department of Occupational Safety and Health ( DOSH ) . Normally, there is still has two Acts that need to be implement to the building industry which is Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 ( OSHA ) and the Factories and Machinery Act 1967 ( FMA ) . This Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 are under Law of Malaysia Act 514 and Factories and Machinery Act 1967 is under Law of Malaysia Act 139.

2.4.1 Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994

By and large, OSHA 1994 policy is to supply a safe and healthy work environment for all its employees and protect others who may be affected by its activities. The direction and staff will work together to accomplish the purposes and aims of this policy through treatment / dialogue ( conference ) and cooperation. Specifically, the section policy comprises the undermentioned aims:

To fix a safe and healthy workplace ;

To procure the safety and wellness of individuals at work ;

To protect individuals at workplace other than employees

To guarantee that all staff is provided with the relevant information, preparation and supervising sing the methods to transport out their responsibilities in a safe mode and without doing any hazard to wellness ;

To look into all accidents, diseases, toxicant and/or unsafe happenings, and to hold action to guarantee that these happenings will non be repeated ;

To follow with all demands of statute laws related to safety and wellness as stated in the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994, every bit good as ordinances and codifications of pattern which have been approved ;

To supply basic public assistance installations to all workers ; and

To revise and better on this policy whenever necessary.

The formation of OSHA came was upon three rules. The first is the demand for employers to develop a good direction system that starts with a safety and healthA policy. Second, employers, employees and theA governments must negociate to settle issues and jobs associating to occupational safety and wellness at the workplace. The first rule is self-regulation. To manage issues associating toA occupational safety and wellness, employers must develop a good and orderly direction system. Get downing with formation of a safety and wellness policy and accordingly employers have to do the proper agreements to be carried out. The 3rd and last rule is co-operation, where the success of the occupational safety and wellness plans will win with the co-operation between employers and employees. With the ensuing co-operation, there willA be an addition of quality of occupational safety and wellness at the workplace ( Laws ofA Malaysia 2000 ) .

The section is without any uncertainty certain that safety and wellness must be an built-in portion of our day-to-day activities, and that the proper pattern of safe and healthy working processs would be the chief factor in accomplishing the success of our mission.

Basically, the Act assembles by 15 parts and consists of 67 subdivisions.













Part Thirteen APPEALS



2.4.2 Factories and Machinery Act 1967 ( FMA 1967 )

Factories and Machinery Act 1967 ( FMA 1967 ) is “ to command the affairs that related to the safety, wellness and public assistance of the workers, the enrollment and behavior review to the works and machinery and for any affairs connected therewith ” ( Law of Malaysia, 2005 ) . Under this Act, it consists of 6 Part and subdivides to 59 subdivisions:








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