THE EFFECTIVENESS BETWEEN AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC EXERCISE TRAINING ON BODY COMPOSITION OF OVERWEIGHT FEMALE PATIENTINTRODUCTION
obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, which negatively
affects the characteristic of health-related physical fitness. Currently, more
than 35% of men and close to 40% of women are overweight or obese (Kong et al., 2016; Rostás et al.,
2017; Wang, Tan, & Cao, 2015).
Based on the study by Strasser (2013), both overweight and obesity are characterized by the accumulation
of excessive levels of body fat. Intraabdominal (viscera fat) increases by over
300% between the ages of 25 and 65 years, and this creates an increased risk
for the development of heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and
some cancers. According to Vissers et al. (2013),
obesity is associated with an increased risk of comorbidities and increased
risk of premature death.
physical fitness consist of body composition, cardiovascular function, muscular
function, and body flexibility. All these components are important factors
contributing to health and wellbeing Wang et al. (2015). Body composition is of interest to nutritionist because of the
impact that nutritional status, specific diet, exercise, disease, and genetic
can have on the major components of the human body. These components can be
considered at atomic, molecular, cellular, tissue system, and whole body
levels. Most interest has been directed at the two-compartment model, which
divides the body into fat mass and fat-free mass (FFM), largely because fat
proportion is a major issue in health (Brodie, Moscrip, & Hutcheon,
to Donges and Duffield (2012), It
has become standard practice for many health care professionals to pursue
optimization of relative FFM through the application of
“outcome-specific” modes of exercise such as aerobic endurance
training or resistance exercise training. Moreover, prescribed exercise is one
such intervention, as it increase energy expenditure, preserves free-fat mass
(including bone and skeletal muscle), and has been shown to be effective in
decreasing body fat in adults (Atlantis, Barnes, & Singh,
Aerobic training promotes changes in aerobic capacity, increasing mitochondrial
oxidative capacities and capillary density in skeletal muscle, whereas
resistance training increase muscle mass, which should increase maximal aerobic
capacity (Castro et al., 2017).
1.2. Research Problem
training can induce weight reduction and modulate body composition. According
to Goran, Fields, Hunter, Herd, and
total body fatness and aerobic are frequently used in association with each
other, and it is often implied that these physiological parameters are strongly
inter-related. Both body fatness and aerobic fitness have been shown to be risk
factors for future health outcome, but it is unclear whether these effects are
related to one another or are independent risk factors. Some recent studies
have shown that there are separate and independent health effects of aerobic
fitness and fatness.
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), consistently support the need for
more than 150–250 min/week of moderate intensity physical activity to prevent
weight gain. However, there is currently a lack of evidences for overweight
individuals on feasible exercise strategies for weight loss and prevention of
weight regain / improvement in body composition (Chih-Hui et al., 2017). It
is also unclear whether health benefits are limited to aerobic training or
anaerobic training that contribute more on the effectiveness in improving body
composition of overweight patients.
1.3. Purpose of
order to understand the problems as described above, the purpose of this
propose study is to determine the most effective exercise training between
aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on body composition of overweight female
following are the research questions that guides this propose study ;
What is the effect after getting the aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on
body composition in overweight female patient?
Is there any difference on body composition in the effectiveness between group
that received aerobic exercise training and group that received anaerobic
objectives of this propose study are ;
determine the effect after getting the aerobic and anaerobic exercise training
on body composition in overweight female patient, and
determine the difference on body composition in the effectiveness between group
that received aerobic exercise training and group that received anaerobic
H01 : There is no statistically significant difference
on body composition in the effectiveness between group that received aerobic
exercise training and group that received anaerobic exercise training.
of the study
study is focusing on the effectiveness between aerobic and anaerobic exercise
training toward body composition of overweight female patients. The ability of
them to choose exercises will give a great impact on their current health. As
in this study will be provided a training program for overweight female
patients to improve their body composition, so it will help them to choose a
Thus, the results
of the findings in this study will help the overweight people especially young
adult female to improve their body composition. Besides, by having this study
it can create the awareness on the important of having physical activity or
exercise training among overweight people. Moreover, it also help to promote a
healthy lifestyle towards them. Furthermore, with this study, it can help to
enhance the coaches knowledge to improvise the training program and provide the
variation of training in improving body composition.
definition of term
Body Composition –
in this study, it includes body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat
percentage, free-fat mass and lean mass.
Aerobic Exercise –
Physical activity with low intensity (20% – 60%) and long duration (30 minutes
per exercise) which training includes 4 times per week. In this study will be
using cycling ergometer and walking on treadmill.
Anaerobic Exercise –
Physical activity with high intensity (70% – 100%) and not above the patients
maximum heart rate that will be monitored using Polar Accurex monitor (Kempele,
persistence of the respondents in doing the 10 weeks exercise training program.
This is because respondents are volunteered themselves to join this study, so their
involvement are questionable whether they join just to fulfill their free times
or enthusiasm to improve their body composition.
target respondents in this study are sedentary lifestyle overweight female
students in Uitm Shah Alam only.
target age of respondents in this study is between 18 to 25 years old only.
assumption that would be are the capabilities to get 60 volunteered respondents
to fulfill this research is unknown.
training is frequently used for the treatment of overweight or obesity.
According to Wang et al. (2015), There is evidence that exercise training decrease body fat,
improve cardiovascular function, and increase muscle strength in obese or
overweight people. The exercise intensities are usually determined by a certain
percentage of the participants’ maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)
or maximal heart rate (HR).
study intense to find out the most effective exercise training between aerobic
and anaerobic exercise training on body composition of overweight female
patients. This section will provide some research from others researchers which
have some related to the proposed study that will be conducted. A review
of literature is provided to aid in the
understanding of the use of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training to improve body
2.2.1. Effect of
10 weeks exercise training program
The purpose of an experimental study by Donges and Duffield (2012) was
to examine the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic endurance training, resistance
exercise training, or a control condition on absolute and relative fat mass or
free-fat mass in the total body and regions of interest of sedentary overweight
middle-aged males and females. The subjects in the aerobic endurance training
group completed a cycling training intervention on stationary cycle ergometer while
the subjects in the resistance training group completes a whole body training intervention
which is chest press, shoulder press, lateral pull down, seated row, leg press,
leg curl and lunges (Panatta Sport, Apiro, Italy). The result form the study by
Donges and Duffield (2012) are,
changes in absolute and relative total body fat mass and total body free-fat mass
and regions of interest fat mass and regions of interest free-fat mass were
determined. After training, both female exercise groups showed equivalent or greater
relative improvements in strength and aerobic fitness than did the male
exercise groups (p < 0.05). However, the male exercise groups increased total body free-fat mass and reduced body fat mass more than did the female exercise groups (p < 0.05). Male AET altered absolute FM more than male RET altered absolute FFM, thus resulting in a greater enhancement of relative FFM. 2.2.2. Allied research section related study dgn you punya topic? on cardiovascular. on elderly people? on adults? on children? part ni yg ni umum 2.2.3. Critical research review something to do with what you want to do. yg lebih khusus. related study on specific target group you 2.3. Summary section *not more than 100 words *study have shown that interval training is the most effective exercise to be use compare to high intensity training. (example) * the literature review tell you that ...... but you want to do .... so what is the rational? maybe kata ada effect yg sama on the target popupaltion yg you buat tu ke? METHODOLOGY 3.1. Introduction This study will be conducted due to investigate the effect of different type of exercise training on body composition of overweight female patients. The training program are aerobic training and resistance training. This section will describe about the methods to be used throughout the course of the study and its methodology. 3.2. Research Design This propose study will be used an experimental randomized pre-test and post-test control group design to test the study's hypothesis. This design was selected because it can compare information on the respondents' original condition with the result of post-test after they are given treatment. The following is the research diagram that will be utilized in this study. R O1 ---------- X1 ----------- O3 R O2 ---------- X2 ---------- O4 Figure 1 : Experimental research design In this study, O1 and O2 are the pre-test while O3 and O4 are the post-test. The X1 and X2 are the treatment given to the respondents which is X1 is the aerobic training and X2 is the resistance training. The independent variables in this study will be the type of exercise training and the dependent variable will be the body composition. 3.3. Population/Sample/Subjects/sampling techniques The target population in this study is the overweight female students in UiTM Shah Alam. A purposive non-randomized sampling technique will be used and the inclusion criteria of the samples are firstly, young adult between age 18 to 25 years old. This age range is chosen because of to prevent performance interruption throughout the study. Second, subjects with BMI between 25 to 29.9 kg/m2. Next, a sedentary lifestyle students which perform an exercise once or twice a week. Lastly, subjects that not having any medical condition that would limit exercise participation. In this study, 60 volunteered respondents will be randomly assign into two group using fishbowl techniques which the name of every respondents will be written on a piece of paper, place inside the pool and randomly pick the name in the bowl. Every respondents have equal chances to be selected. 30 subjects will be randomly assigned into 10 weeks of aerobic exercise training treatment group (N=30) and another 30 subjects will be randomly assigned into 10 weeks of resistance training treatment group (N=30). Two groups of 30 respondents in each group is created through random assignment because it is the minimum requirement of normality. 3.4. Treatment There will be 2 different group and will receive different treatment. The treatments are aerobic exercise training and anaerobic exercise training. 3.4.1. Aerobic Exercise Training This group will receive 10 weeks aerobic exercise training program and will performed 4 training sessions per week. The heart rate will be monitored continuously on a Polar Accurex Monitor (Kempele, Finland) for adjusting workload to achieve the target heart rate (Gao et al., 2015; Scott, Harrison, Hutchison, De Courten, & Stepto, 2017). The exercise training will includes cycling on cycle ergometer (Wallman, Plant, Rakimov, & Maiorana, 2009) and walking treadmill (Ho, Dhaliwal, Hills, & Pal, 2012). 3.4.2. Anaerobic Exercise Training This group will receive 10 weeks anaerobic exercise training program and will performed 4 training sessions per week. The heart rate will be monitored continuously on a Polar Accurex Monitor (Kempele, Finland) for adjusting workload to achieve the target heart rate (Gao et al., 2015; Scott et al., 2017). The exercise training will includes cycling with load exerted and running on treadmill. 3.5. Instrumentation 3.5.1. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is based upon the relationship between the volume of the conductor (i.e., the human body), the conductor's length (i.e., the subject's height), the components of the conductor (i.e., fat or FFMs) and its impedance (Z). Baumgartner's contribution reviews the assumptions, applicability, equipment, measurement procedure, precision, and accuracy of the BIA method and is highly recommended (Brodie et al., 1998). According to Salvadori et al. (2014), after triple time of retest, it shown the same result. Thus, this indicate it is acceptable and reliable diagnostic device. 3.6. Data collection (procedures) The ethical form from the Faculty of Sport Science and Recreation, UiTM Shah Alam will be fill up before this experimental study begin for the faculty ethical approval. This study will be demonstrate the aerobic exercise training program and anaerobic exercise training program for 10 weeks intervention. Pre-test monitoring of body composition will be measure before the subjects get the intervention for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks intervention, the body composition of the subjects will be monitored again to measure the post-test result. There are 2 statistical techniques will be used in this study. The first technique is paired t-test which to compared the pre-test and post-test result in this study. This will indicate the significance difference before and after the test. Meanwhile, the second technique will be used is independent t-test where to compare body composition between aerobic exercise training group and anaerobic exercise training group. Therefore, if there is any significance difference during this study, the null hypothesis wil be reject. 3.7. Data analysis After collecting the pre-test and post-test results, the data need to be key in and analyze by using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. This software is used to ease the data reading that have been transformed in the form of tables, charts, schedule and graph which will describe and assess the data collected in one page. In this study, 2 statistical techniques that will be used are the paired t-test which to compared the pre-test and post-test result in this study and the independent t-test to compare body composition between aerobic exercise training group and anaerobic exercise training group. Null Hypothesis Variables Data type Statistical technique proposed HO1 : There is no statistically significant difference on body composition in the effectiveness between group that received aerobic exercise training and group that received anaerobic exercise training. IV : Group 1 : Aerobic exercise training Group 2 : Anaerobic exercise training DV : Body composition Ratio scale Body weight ? kg Body height ? cm Fat mass ? kg Free-fat mass ? kg Paired t-test to compared the pre-test and post-test result. Independent t-test to compare body composition between aerobic exercise training group and anaerobic exercise training group Table 1: Data Analysis