In 2008, the metropolis of Liverpool, UK was selected to be the European Capital of Culture programme among 11 metropoliss of the UK. This was a particular event that was introduced from 2005 in Europe and each twelvemonth, one metropolis in Europe would be selected to stand for the civilizations of assorted states. The event was called ‘Liverpool 2008 ‘ or ‘Liverpool 08 ‘ . Such an event gives the host metropolis the chance to showcase its attractive forces and civilization, besides giving local concerns the chance to increase their gross revenues and develop their concern on a long term footing. While Liverpool 08 lasted for one twelvemonth, the impacts of the event can still be felt today, and concerns see increased gross revenues even now. The event brought the people together as a community and they all worked as a squad to do the event a success. It is estimated that the entire investing in Liverpool and the environing countries was in surplus of 4 billion GBP ( Liverpool 08, 2009 ) . The consequence was that 1000s of occupations were created ; over one billion people visited the metropolis from 60 states. A figure of cultural events were conducted throughout the twelvemonth and the general feeling was that the event was a expansive success. Effective selling, close teamwork, first-class public presentations, and a metropolis that has been celebrated as a finish selling mark helped the undertaking to be a success. However, before naming the event a success, it is of import to understand the steps used to estimate the success of the event. This thesis analyses the selling run of the event, and discusses if the run worked and succeeded in run intoing the aims.
Background to the Thesis
With the post-9/11 onslaughts and the outgrowth of low cost bearers or LCC, Destination Marketing Organisation or DMO has become progressively popular. DMO acts as a cardinal organic structure for an country or parts, and pulls in faraway travelers from other states. A reappraisal of literature shows that Liverpool 08 and its organising commission is a DMO and finish selling activity.
Kotler ( 2002 ) has identified DMO as authorities or private administrations that cover all the activities and procedures to convey together clients or purchasers and Sellerss, and places a focal point on reacting to the demands of the clients and competitory placement. The activity is a set of uninterrupted and co-ordinated stairss that create consciousness of the finish and put up an efficient web for the finish. Finishs can be continents such as Antarctica, states, big and little metropoliss, specific parts or countries in a state, a little small town, touchable and intangible services, and natural offerings available in the topographic point. Brey ( 2007 ) posits that finish selling involves utilizing touristry as a agency to an terminal instead than an terminal in itself.
Reichel ( 2007 ) has pointed out that DMOs trade with varied undertakings that can include bettering and driving that image of a finish to pull visitants, supplying varied duties for different categories of clients runing from the back pack traveler who would be comfy kiping in a collapsible shelter, to a ‘well-heeled ‘ traveler who demands a lavish suite. He speaks of increasing the sum of installations and substructure for journey, housing, F & A ; B, giving local occupants and installation proprietors more rationale and support, bettering the local environment, conveying in cultural activities, taking local barriers of civilization and linguistic communication, and doing finishs more beguiling, hospitable, and a place off from place. Zupanovic ( 2007 ) argues that the activities of DMOs are of a really ambitious field and are related to the stakeholder ‘s attitude, the complexness of the finish, and many other factors. Porter ( 1998 ) has defined competitory advantage as a place that an administration has created or occupied with mention to rivals, and it allows the house to gain higher grosss. With mention to DMOs, certain characteristics of the merchandise such as historical and tourist attractive forces, and natural scenic beauty like beaches, mountains and so on attract and pull visitants. Kotler ( 2002 ) points out that while supplying tourers with an first-class means to do their stay enjoyable, the primary ground for the DMO is to guarantee that investors and stakeholders make net incomes, and that their fiscal wagess are attained. Merely after these aims are satisfied can the DMO activity be regarded as successful.
Liverpool 08 has been actively supported by the University of Liverpool and the University of Manchester, and the pupils and module of the universities have published a figure of really good written paperss about the event. These paperss would be used as mentions for the research. Garcia ( 2009 ) notes that the benefits of Liverpool 08 have extended beyond 2008 when the event was conducted. The entire income from the programme was about 130 million GBP and this is more than that of any other European Capital of Culture or ECoC plan. There was an extra 27.7 million people sing Liverpool, the North West part, and the Merseyside in 2008, and this was 35 % of all visits. About 2.9 million visitants from Europe and other states came to Liverpool. The tendency of visitants has extended to until beyond 2010 and during 2009, Liverpool besides saw a ample flow of visitants. It was estimated that by the terminal of 2008, Liverpool was regarded as the Centre for humanistic disciplines and cultural personal businesss. In 2008, there were more than 70,000 humanistic disciplines and cultural activities conducted. The event has delivered four major consequences and these are: advantages and benefits to multiple stakeholders, multiple impact of civilization ; regeneration of the interior metropolis countries and the dockyards, and the handiness of a research model that can be used by other metropoliss that want to retroflex the success ( Bond, 2008 ) . It is by and large claimed by the organizers that Liverpool 08 has obtained sufficient degrees of success.
Benefits in Liverpool Dockyards
The Liverpool Dockyard countries have seen a great transmutation during the Liverpool 08 event. The dockyard has many sites that are a portion of the Maritime Mercantile City UNESCO World Heritage Site and the history of the dockyards go back to the early tenth century. Of particular note are constructions such as the Albert Dockyard. This site was chosen to be the locale for the FETTU exhibition. Albert Dockyard sees a figure of visitants, and it has many of import and worthwhile attractive forces such as the Tate Liverpool gallery, the New Arena and Convention Centre, Kings Waterfront, Three Graces in the North country, Wapping Dock, Birkenhead in Merseyside, and other countries ( FETTU, June 2008 ) . One of the most outstanding constructions that were built for Liverpool 08 was the Arena and Convention Centre constructed at the Kings Waterfront dock country of Liverpool. This is a futuristic convention Centre with an country of 7600 square metres, and provides 10,000 seats and an auditorium of 1350 seats. In add-on, the Centre has hotels, multi-story auto parking, eating houses, and an first-class public plaza. Before the Liverpool 08 event, these ancient dockyards had fallen into neglect and decay with all the societal ailments of old dock countries. However, the cultural festival has succeeded in transforming the countries into a rich cultural and economic hub. The best portion is that the new constructions that have been constructed and the old 1s that have been repaired would go on to convey in more and more cultural activities through the old ages ( Wilkinson Eyre, 2008 ) .
As per the study by ENRS ( June 2009 ) and Bond ( October 2008 ) , there are multimodal factors and subsectors to be considered in the methodological analysis for analyzing the impacts on touristry. The impact of touristry would be felt in subsectors such as transit, adjustment, attractive forces and visits to topographic points of involvements, mediators, and tourers such as twenty-four hours tourers and full clip tourers. Considerable work has been done by the University of Liverpool pupils to measure the impact created by the event. For this research, it is proposed that the secondary method should be used. The secondary method would include a reappraisal of published studies and literature about the festivals. The findings would subsequently be triangulated with the literature reappraisal of finish selling to supply the needed decisions.
It is estimated that the undertaking would take about six months from start to complete. What follows is the undertaking timeline.
How the thesis is organised
There would be a figure of chapters in the thesis, with each chapter devoted to a specific event. A brief overview of thesis construction is as given below:
Chapter 2: Literature Review. This chapter would set about a thorough literature reappraisal of Liverpool 08 and how the cultural event has affected the dockyard country. The chapter would besides analyze theories and illustrations of finish selling administrations and how they advertise finishs.
Chapter 3: Decisions and Recommendation. The chapter would sum up the findings from the literature reappraisal to find if Liverpool 08 was successful. Some recommendations would besides be made to convey out the best patterns.