By the 16th century. the Western experience with faith had turned piercingly. The Catholic Reformation. besides referred to as a Counter Reformation. was a response to the great Protestant Reformation in Europe during this period of clip. There were two elements of the Catholic Reformation. First of all. Catholics were being called for a reclamation of piousness and of virtuousness in the signifier of renewed committednesss to prayer every bit good as mysticism. This constituent of the Reformation was peculiarly apparent in the clerical orders. The ordinary folks had nil whatsoever to make with this constituent of the Reformation. seeing that even the clerical orders were non looked upon as worthy ushers. Second. the Church was being asked to reform in order to cover with alone every bit good as Swift alterations in society. and abuses that accompanied those alterations.

There was turbulency witnessed in the social construction. and one of the grounds why it was necessary to originate the Catholic Reformation was that the humanists had revived classical heathen doctrine in the 15th century. utilizing the new miracle of publishing to switch the attending of society from the after life to the present. At the same clip as the classical heathen doctrine was being circulated. the Church was traveling through a period of diminution with a dehydration of scholastic thought. Internal maltreatments at the Church were besides well-known. and these involved barratry. the sale of indulges. multiple benefices. and much more.

The Church could non be trusted every bit much as it was meant to be. As a affair of fact. the status of faith in the 16th century was characterized by convulsion. King Henry VIII of England created the Church of England in the twelvemonth 1533 A. D. by dividing from the Roman Catholic Church. Around the same clip. the Gallic Wars of Religion were waged between the Catholics and the Huguenots in France. How much confusion such pandemonium would hold given birth to in the heads of Western Christians with regard to their faith could merely be imagined. Christianity was. after all. supposed to be a faith of peace and unconditioned love. The Western faith around 1500 A. D. was chiefly Christian. and the 16th century has been described as “probably the most intolerant period in Christian history. ”

It was non the scientists that were killed during this clip because they came up with new thoughts. Rather. in the 16th century. there were 1000s of people that were killed because they were called misbelievers. Michael Servetus was merely one such single. He was burned in 1553 A. D. . alive. on the order of John Calvin in add-on to the metropolis governments. because he had made theological guesss that Calvin was certain were falsities. To set it another manner. the spiritual governments of the clip would non let people even to divert in their thought with regard to faith. Christians of the West were required to believe of Christianity in the manner that the spiritual governments felt was appropriate.

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Critical thought or inquiring was non allowed by any agencies. What is more. the spiritual governments themselves were known to be corrupt plenty for topographic points of worship to be closed down. Lindsay Clarke studies: In January. 1535. the freshly appointed Vicar-General of the English Church. Thomas Cromwell. sent out his agents to carry on a committee of question into the character and value of all ecclesiastical belongings in the land. Overtly. they were reformists. exerting the new powers accorded to the Crown by the Act of Supremacy: “from clip to clip to see. repress. damages. reform. order. correct. restrain and amend all such mistakes. unorthodoxies. maltreatments. offenses. disdains and outrageousnesss. . . which ought or may be legitimately reformed. ” But Dr. Richard Layton. Dr. Thomas Legh. Dr. John London. and the other unsentimental and corruptible functionaries chosen for the occupation had no uncertainty what the Crown expected of them.

It took them merely six months to subject for Cromwell’s scrutiny an accurate and elaborate tax-book. the Valor Ecclesiasticus. Along with it came grounds of corruptness and disgraceful immorality in England’s monasteries. Such grounds was non difficult to happen. for by the sixteenth century many of the spiritual houses had long since lost their sense of intent. The spiritual turbulency of the 16th century was continued into the 17th century. The authorities of England had become known for its torment of Catholics every bit good as Jesuits. On 20 May 1604. certain spiritual work forces began to plot the devastation of the authorities after holding heard Mass. A priest knew of this plotting. and was made to pay the monetary value of this cognition subsequently on.

And yet. the spiritual governments of the Near and Far East were non confronting spiritual convulsion around this clip. Nor were the people of the advanced civilisations of the Near and Far East being confronted with spiritual confusion. Furthermore. scientists of the Near East were particularly involved with their work during the 16th century. as for a figure of centuries before. The Ottoman uranologist. Taqi al-Din. created astronomical tabular arraies in the 16th century. These tabular arraies were considered every bit accurate as the 1s made by Tycho Brahe in Denmark during the same period of clip. All the same. the Ottomans are known to hold ceased their support for scientific inventions and research a century subsequently. as their precedences took a displacement.

The West. nevertheless. continued scientific geographic expeditions even after the 16th century. The East had maintained its faiths. It was merely the West that had showed huge intolerance toward different spiritual beliefs and patterns. even with regard to its ain religion. Whereas spiritual governments stopped Westerners from believing and concluding. scientific discipline opened up a new universe to the ordinary people. They were non called misbelievers because of their new scientific thoughts. Rather. people who came up with new scientific thoughts were in the company of many others who came up with great new thoughts in the scientific sphere. Giordano Bruno. Girolamo Cardano. Leonardo district attorney Vinci. Galileo. William Gilbert. Johannes Kepler. Paracelsus. John Napier. and Andreas Vesalius are merely few of the of import Western scientists of the 16th century.

Besides. this century saw the parturition of Copernicus’ theory. the import of new works species from the Americas into Europe. and new innovations that revolutionized fabrication and other characteristics of life. The wheel-lock musket. the chopper. the whirling wheel. the pocket ticker. the diving bell. the seed drill. the camera obscura. the knitwork machine. the compound microscope. the Gregorian Calendar. and the enameling of clayware were all brought into the universe in the 16th century. So. while faith defeated people. scientific discipline brought renewed hope of being through new merchandises and finds. No scientist could be killed in the name of scientific discipline. Hence. scientific discipline was safely meant to remain on in the West despite the good or bad fortune of faith.


1. Clark. Lindsay. “The Dissolution of the Monasteries in the sixteenth Century. ” Available from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. historynet. com/ . Internet ; accessed 31 March 2007. 2. Hogge. Alice. God’s Secret Agents: Queen Elizabeth’s Forbidden Priests and the Hatching of the Gunpowder Plot. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. 2005. 3. MacroHistory. “How the Idea of Religious Tolerance Came to the West. ” Available from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. fsmitha. com/review/index. hypertext markup language. Internet ; accessed 31 March 2007. 4. Lewis. Jone Johnson. Women Saints: Doctors of the Church. London: Penguin. 1998. 5. Magic Dragon Multimedia. “Timeline sixteenth Century. ” Available from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. magicdragon. com/UltimateSF/timeline16. hypertext markup language. Internet ; accessed 31 March 2007. 6. Olin. John. Catholic Reformation: From Cardinal Ximenes to the Council of Trent. 1495-1563. New York: Fordham University Press. 1990. 7. Pollen. J. H. “The Counter Reformation. ” The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: K. Knight. 2004.


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