For this survey, the average entire polyphenol content in green tea produced in Asia and Europe were 33.84 mg/g tea foliages and 39.05 mg/g tea leaves severally. There was no important difference ( p & A ; gt ; 0.05 ) between the polyphenol content in green tea produced in Asia and Europe.

Harmonizing to Figure 4.1 ( B ) , Ahmad Tea London: Original Green tea ( 91.8038 mg/serving ) which produced in one of the Asia states have higher entire polyphenol content comparison to other tea used in this survey. Alternatively, TenRenTea: Fresh Green Tea ( 44.3021 mg/serving ) has the lowest entire polyphenol content comparison to the tea samples used in this survey.

When assessed as mg/g tea leaves, the highest entire polyphenol content no longer is Ahmad Tea London: Original Green tea, nevertheless, BOH: Green Tea has highest entire polyphenol content ( 54.1076 mg/g tea leaves ) comparison to other trade names of tea used in this survey. In contrast, the lowest entire polyphenol content for this survey is TenRenTea: Fresh Green Tea ( 11.0755mg/d tea foliages ) . The go uping order of entire polyphenol in tea was as follows: TenRenTea: Fresh Green Tea ( 11.0755 mg/g tea leaves ) , Duchy Originals from Waitrose: Organic Green Tea ( 29.2039 mg/g tea leaves ) , Teekanne: Finest Green Tea ( 32.2013 mg/g tea leaves ) , TeaZen: First Flush Pure Green Tea ( 33.3152 mg/g tea leaves ) , Dilmah: Particular Green Tea ( 34.7328 mg/g tea leaves ) , Nipponese Green Tea Sencha ( 36.8593 mg/g tea leaves ) , Lipton: Clear Green ( 37.5682 mg/g tea leaves ) , Ahmad Tea London: Original Green tea ( 45.9019 mg/g tea leaves ) , BOH: Green Tea ( 54.1076 mg/g tea leaves ) .

Harmonizing to Belde and Zoerb ( 2011 ) , the divergence of polyphenol content in tea might due to type, choice, station crop technique, processing technique, age and cultivation between commercial tea trade names. Besides, environment factors for case room temperature and extraction technique besides the ground that lead to divergence of polyphenol content in tea samples.

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The survey carried out by Kafley ( 2008 ) shown that entire polyphenol content of caffeinated green tea ranged from 52.4 mg/serving to 239 mg/serving. In this survey, the entire polyphenol content ranged from 44.3021 mg/serving to 91.8038 mg/ functioning and the norm is 70.1756 mg/ helping. The difference might do by the age of tea, dirt, season of havesting, period of storage, processing, species ( Belde and Zoerb, 2011 ; Zuo, Chen and Deng, 2002 ) .

Harmonizing to Yao, teas came from Indian or Sri Lanka assortments have higher polyphenol contents as comparison to those arising from China assortment. In current survey, Dilmah: Particular Green Tea ( 34.7328mg/g tea foliages ) originated from Sri Lanka have higher polyphenol contents compare to Duchy Originals from Waitrose: Organic Green Tea ( 29.2039 mg/g tea foliages ) which came from China.

Entire Flavonoid Content Assay

In this survey, the mean entire flavonoid content in green tea produced in Asia was 25.8662 mg/ g tea leaves while green tea produced in Europe was 29.62 mg/g tea leaves. There was no important difference ( p & A ; gt ; 0.05 ) between the flavonoid content in green tea produced in Asia and Europe.

As seen in Figure 4.1 ( degree Celsius ) , entire flavonoids in TenRenTea: Fresh Green Tea ( 23.9273 mg/ functioning ) was the lowest while Nipponese Green Tea Sencha ( 71.4898 mg/serving ) was the highest among the tea samples for this survey.

Same tea samples which were TenRenTea: Fresh Green Tea ( 5.98183mg/g tea foliages ) and Nipponese Green Tea Sencha ( 35.7449 mg/g tea leaves ) possess the highest and lowest entire flavonoids severally when evaluated as mg/ ( g tea foliages ) . The increasing order of entire flavonoid in tea samples was as follows: TenRenTea: Fresh Green Tea ( 5.98183 mg/g tea leaves ) , Duchy Originals from Waitrose: Organic Green Tea ( 21.6033 mg/g tea leaves ) , Dilmah: Particular Green Tea ( 22.7939 mg/g tea leaves ) , Lipton: Clear Green ( 29.4684 mg/g tea leaves ) , Ahmad Tea London: Original Green tea ( 29.4684 mg/g tea leaves ) , Teekanne: Finest Green Tea ( 29.7717 mg/g tea leaves ) , TeaZen: First Flush Pure Green Tea ( 30.0981 mg/g tea leaves ) , BOH: Green Tea ( 35.3733 mg/g tea leaves ) , Nipponese Green Tea Sencha ( 35.7449 mg/g tea leaves ) . The grounds that can do the divergence of entire flavonoids are temperature on the extraction, extraction clip, ratio on the extraction of flavonoids, consequence of pull outing agent and figure of extractions ( Sathishkumar, et al. , 2008 ) . Besides, environmental factors such as temperature of environing environment and pureness of the H2O used for extraction besides the factors that cause divergence of entire flavonoids content in the tea samples. On the other manus, the current survey shown that entire flavonoid content ranged from 23.9273 to 71.4898 mg/serving and the norm is 53.1382 mg/serving.

HPLC analysis

Figure 4.3 ( a to g ) shows the chromatograms of standard solutions used to place the keeping clip of each of the analytes. In Table 4.3 ( a ) , the keeping clip for Gallic acid at 3.6401 proceedingss, second was Theobromine at 6.5788 minute, 3rd was catechin at 11.3382 minute, 4th was caffeine at 12.38 minute, fifth was Epicatechin-3-gallate at 14.994 minute, sixth was Theaflavin-3-gallic at 18.9623 minute and eventually was theaflavin at 18.984 minute. The peak country represents the concentration in a peculiar solution.

The standard additive curves obtained from concentrations of criterions and peak countries at the wavelength of 280nm were shows in Figure 4.3 ( H to J ) . The concentration of each polyphenolic and methylxanthine nowadays in each tea samples under analysis was determined by utilizing the standardization curve of each constituent. Subsequently, the sums of polyphenol, theobromine and caffeine in tea samples were analyzed to find the sum of several tea constituents per functioning and per gm of tea foliages. The consequences are shown in Table 4.3 ( H to J ) . Theaflavin and theaflavin-3-gallate which were the chief constituents in black tea, nevertheless, both of these constituents can non be found in the tea samples that used in this survey.

The go uping order of constituents in the tea-samples produced in Asia states was as followers: Gallic acid ( 0.0385 millimeter ) , catechin ( 0.0408 millimeter ) , theobromine ( 0.0537 millimeter ) , E3G ( 0.9112 millimeter ) , caffeine ( 1.2518 millimeter ) . Meanwhile, the increasing order of constituents present in the tea-samples produced in Europe states was as followers: Gallic acid ( 0.0548mM ) , theobromine ( 0.0554mM ) , catechin ( 0.0696mM ) , E3G ( 0.7572mM ) , caffeine ( 1.2717mM ) . There was no important difference ( p & A ; gt ; 0.05 ) between constituents present in green teas produced in Asia and Europe. Based on the analysis, the chief constituent in green tea produced in Asia and Europe that used in this survey was Caffeine with the mean concentration of 1.2518 millimeters and 1.2717 millimeter severally.

Table 4.3 ( H ) shows that Ahmad Tea London: Original Green tea ( 0.0983 millimeter ) produced in London ( Europe ) and TenRenTea: Fresh Green Tea ( 0.0825 millimeter ) produced in Taiwan ( Asia ) possesses the largest Catechin concentration comparison to other tea samples under analysis. The constituent of Gallic acid ranged from Nipponese Green Tea Sencha ( 0.0121 millimeter ) to Duchy Originals from Waitrose: Organic Green Tea ( 0.0887 millimeter ) . Alternatively, the concentration of theobromine ranged from BOH: Green Tea ( 0.0917 millimeter ) to Nipponese Green Tea Sencha ( 0.0325 millimeter ) . Duchy Masters from Waitrose: Organic Green Tea possesses the highest concentration of Caffeine ( 2.3429 millimeter ) every bit good as E3G ( 1.5930 millimeter ) comparison to other tea samples under analysis. Meanwhile, TeaZen: First Flush Pure Green Tea have lowest concentration of Caffeine ( 0.5304 millimeter ) , Catechin ( 0.0275 millimeter ) and E3G ( 0.135 millimeter ) in this survey. The grounds that lead to the divergence of Gallic acid, polyphenols and methylxanthines in commercial green tea were species, season, horticultural conditions and grade of agitation in fabricating procedure ( Zuo, Chen and Deng 2002 ) .

When evaluate as mg/serving, the increasing order of tea constituent in tea samples produced in Asia and Europe states under analysis was non similar as the average concentration of tea constituents. The increasing order of constituents in the tea-samples produced in Asia states under analysis when evaluated as mg/serving was as followers: Gallic acid ( 1.6392 mg/serving ) , Theobromine ( 2.4192 mg/serving ) , Catechin ( 3.358 mg/serving ) , Caffeine ( 60.774 mg/serving ) , E3G ( 67.714 mg/serving ) . Alternatively, the go uping order of constituents in tea-samples produced in Europe states in this survey was as followers: Gallic acid ( 2.3321 mg/serving ) , Theobromine ( 2.4961 mg/serving ) , Catechin ( 5.3626 mg/serving ) , caffeine ( 61.743 mg/serving ) , E3G ( 86.776 mg/serving ) . There was no important difference ( p & A ; gt ; 0.05 ) between constituents present in green teas produced in Asia and Europe states. In this survey, E3G was the chief constituent per functioning in five out of nine tried samples produced in Asia and Europe states. Caffeine was the major constituent another four tested samples.

Under this survey, TeaZen: First Flush Pure Green Tea possesses the smallest sum in all the tried constituents per functioning which were Gallic acid ( 0.3457 mg/serving ) , Theobromine ( 1.3573 mg/serving ) , Caffeine ( 25.749 mg/serving ) , Catechin ( 2.1194 mg/serving ) and E3G ( 15.471 mg/serving ) as comparison to other trade names of tea. The selected green teas produced in Asia states in this survey have the highest sum of all the tea constituents per functioning except catechin. The green tea involved was Duchy Originals from Waitrose: Organic Green Tea which has 3.7724 mg/serving for Gallic acid, 113.75 mg/serving from Caffeine and 182.56 mg/serving for E3G. In add-on, Boh: Green Tea has the largest sum of theobromine in a helping ( 4.1289 mg/serving ) among the tea samples under analysis. Alternatively, Ahmad Tea London: Original Green tea has the largest sum of catechin per functioning ( 7.5783 mg/serving ) . It was about two to three times higher than other trade names of teas in this survey.

When assessed as mg/g, the increasing order of tea constituent in selected tea samples was similar as mg/serving. The go uping order of tea constituents in green tea produced in Asia states under analysis when assessed as milligram per gm tea leaves as following: Gallic acid ( 0.7254 mg/g tea leaves ) , Theobromine ( 1.1591 mg/g tea leaves ) , Catechin ( 1.5427 mg/g tea leaves ) , Caffeine ( 27.234 mg/g tea leaves ) , E3G ( 29.508 mg/g tea leaves ) . In contrast, tea-samples produced in Europe states under analysis has lowest sum of Gallic acid at 1.2277 mg/g tea leaves, followed by Theobromine at 1.3218mg/g tea foliages, catechin at 2.7937 mg/g tea leaves, caffeine at 32.819mg/g tea foliages and E3G at 47.117 mg/g tea leaves. There was no important difference ( p & A ; gt ; 0.05 ) between constituents present in green teas produced in Asia and Europe states. In this survey, E3G was the chief constituent for five out of nine selected tea samples. Caffeine was the major constituents for another four selected tea samples.

The selected green teas produced in Asia states in this survey have the lowest sum of all the tea constituents. The tea samples involved were TeaZen: First Flush Pure Green Tea, TenRenTea: Fresh Green Tea and Duchy Originals from Waitrose: Organic Green Tea. TeaZen: First Flush Pure Green Tea have lowest sum in three out of five tried constituents per gm of tea foliages. The constituents involved were Gallic acid ( 0.1729 mg/g tea leaves ) , caffeine ( 12.875 mg/g tea leaves ) and E3G ( 7.7355 mg/g tea leaves ) . In add-on, TenRenTea: Fresh Green Tea has lowest sum of theobromine ( 0.6663 mg/g tea leaves ) and Duchy Originals from Waitrose: Organic Green Tea has the lowest sum of catechin ( 0.9248 mg/g tea leaves ) . Alternatively, the highest sum of all tea constituents can establish in tea-sample produced in Asia states under analysis except catechin. It comprise of Duchy Originals from Waitrose: Organic Green Tea have greatest sum of Gallic acid ( 1.509 mg/g tea leaves ) , Caffeine ( 45.498 mg/g tea leaves ) and E3G ( 73.025 mg/g tea leaves ) . Besides, BOH: Green Tea has the highest sum of theobromine ( 2.7526 mg/g tea leaves ) as comparison to trade names of tea that used in this survey. Alternatively, the sum of catechin in Ahmad Tea London: Original Green tea was about three times more than other trade names of green teas under analysis. Horzic et Al. ( 2009 ) reported that the catechin content in teas fluctuate based on the tea assortment, beginning, season of crop and Sun exposure. In add-on, Kumamotot and Sonda ( 1998 ) stated that catechin content addition with the intensifier of Sun exposure. This can explicate that Ahmad Tea London: Original Green tea which has the largest sum of catechin when evaluate every bit mg/g every bit good as mg/serving.

Friedman et Al. ( 2005 ) concluded from their researches that the extracted caffeine content was 10 times more than extracted theobromine content. When evaluated as mg/serving and mg/g the ratio of extracted theobromine content to extracted caffeine sums in this survey was ranged from 0.0284 to 0.0804. Conversely, the ratio ranged from 0.0306 to 0.0866 when assessed as average concentration. The factors contribute to the difference were the type of dissolver used, temperature applied, extraction technique, environment status and clip of extraction.

Harmonizing to Liang et Al. ( 2007 ) , caffeine was more readily spread and fade out into H2O as comparison to catechins due to its little molecule size and higher H2O solubility. In this survey, when evaluated as average concentration, the ratio of catechin to caffeine was ranged from 0.0128 to 0.0692. Alternatively, the ratio ranged from 0.0203 to 0.1099 when assessed as mg/g and mg/serving.

When assessed as average concentration, the methylxanthine which consists of caffeine and theobromine ranged from 0.5605 millimeters to 2.4262 millimeter. However, it ranged from 27.1063 mg/serving to 117.5035 mg/serving when evaluated as mg/serving. In this survey, the upper limit and minimal sum of methylxanthine was 46.9994 mg/g tea foliages and 13.5536 mg/g tea leaves severally. The grounds that lead to the fluctuation of methylxanthine among the tea samples under analysis for case clime, beginning ( Roberts and Barone 1983 ) and age of the tea leaves ( Ashihara and Kubota 1986 ) .

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