Analyses hoe the structure or organization of the written texts affected your understanding of the theme. In the novel, To kill a mockingbird, by Harper Lee, the way in which the novel is written in two parts encourages the reader to personally assess the major themes of social Justice, courage and empathy. In part one of the novels, the author uses both Scout and Attic’s as her mouthpiece to voice her view that neighborhood legend leads to stereotype and fear, that courage is more than using a gun and that empathy helps you to get along with others.

In contrast, the narrative of part two goes not simplify lessons, but rather exposes the double standards of a town that believes it to be Christian. In part one, Scout declares her father old and useless, unable to rouse the admiration of anyone. In part two, there is no more opinion given of Attic’s’ action, but the reader sees for themselves that he is extremely moral and merciful. This essay will explain how the structure and organization of this text assists the readers understanding of courage, Justice and social Justice. He organization of part one leads the reader through a series of incidents which eliminate on Attic’s giving his children a lesson about what true courage is. The first incident of note is Scout finding her very first day and school and teacher very disappointing. She tries to bargain with her father Attic’s and instead is given advice about standing in Miss Carolina’s shoes. This is one of three references in the novel to empathy. Attic’s tells her, ” if you can learn a simple trick, Scout, you’ll get along a lot better with all kinds of folks.

You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view – until you climb into his skin and walk around in it. POP cunningly, this lesson is given in the context of discussing school. The next time this idea is referred to be in part two. Attic’s applies it to Mr. Cunningham when discussing the lynching mob scene outside the Jail the night before “you children last night made Walter Cunningham stand in my shoes for a minute. ” Again, Attic’s is teaching his children about relating to people well. The final time this idea appears is in the last chapter, and Scout has internalized it for herself.

She stands on Arthur Raddled front porch seeing the street as he would. She literally, but also insightfully s seeing the world as he would. She has learned the lesson her father so very much wanted her to. “Attic’s was right. One time he said you never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and walk around in them IPPP Scout realizes that Arthur(Boo) is a kind and shy neighbor who gave his small treasures, but also their lives. She realizes he was neighborly and that she was not. “He gave us two soap dolls, a broken watch and chain, a pair of good- luck pennies and our lives.

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But neighbors give in return. We never put back there in the tree want we took out AT It: we Ana given NV nothing. “Scout releases Tanat Do was also courageous outside to give her a blacked and also save both Gem and her from Mr. Lowell. She realizes that he was no monster, it was the town that was monstrous, and no wonder he preferred to be a recluse and hide away from it. Courage is developed throughout part one as the reader is involved in a series of incidents that involve the children taking risks. In believing neighborhood legend about the Raddled house, the children play dare games to run up and touch it.

This is physical courage and shown most clearly through the mad dog shooting. Just pages before this incident Scout complains that her father is useless, old and cannot do anything. When both Scout and her brother Gem see him shoot the dog accurately and effortlessly, they are amazed. They had thought he was unable to do anything to impress anyone – except read. Attic’s knows they are impressed ‘he is the deadliest shot in Macomb County. ‘ but wants his children to value other kinds of courage more than his marksmanship ability.

It is through the children learning a little of irritable Mrs. Dubos and her eventual death that Attic’s explains her morphine diction issue. He explains to them that she was determined to break the addiction before she died and die ‘beholden to nothing and nobody. This meaner that she would not depend on anything except herself as she died. Attic’s’ opinion was that so sick it would have been fine for her to take anything to make it easier. This was a deeply personal decision that went to the core of her as a person. Attic’s continues,’ “but it wasn’t all right for her.

She said she meant to break herself of it before she died, and that’s what she did. ” ‘This deep personal struggle to do what is right spite personal pain and personal cost is what Attic’s is referring to when he states on the next page that she was a great lady. This is the last page of part one and sets the stage for the second part of the book in which Attic’s will champion an innocent black man, falsely charged with rape. This leads the reader from childish games and fatherly lessons to his children into a serious situation of racist courtroom. Attic’s is the Mrs. Dubos of part two.

It is here that he will outwork a deeply personal decision to defend Tom Robinson to the best of his ability. Earlier, toward the end of part one, Attic’s has told his children that this case went to the essence of his conscience and that he couldn’t go to church or worship God if he didn’t try to help Tom. It is in Attic’s addressing the Jury and to Scout’s horror sweating a little, that the reader come to love what Attic’s stands for. He is solid, upright and morally consistent, the same at home as on the street corner With all his ability Attic’s implores the Jury to right by this handicapped black man. Being black is also his handicap, Just as Attic’s as marksmanship by what he says, hitting home point after point). Attic’s points out Amylase’s weakness; the circumstantial evidence that the punches came from the left and the sad truth that Tom’s fault was that he showed compassion. This leads to the deepest issues that Harper Lee addresses: social injustice. Macomb is blind to its own injustice, believing itself to be a Christian town. In Attic’s addressing the Jury about the shortcomings of the court system, supposedly the ‘great leveler’ of society he points out that the court is only as sound as the Jury.

The Jury is only as sound as each man there. The issue that Attic’s is pointing out is ten secret Dallas Monolinguals may nave nave. Mr. unaware wall later ret to tons as the secret courts of men’s hearts… In which Tom Robinson was guilty the minute Male screamed, Just because he was black and Just because of racism. ‘ In Conclusion, Harper Lee intentionally divides the novel into two parts. The first provides a platform for the very serious nature of the second. Attic’s is the star of part two. He is Mrs. Dubos from part one.

He is determined to do what his omniscience dictates even though he knew he was licked before he had even begun. He gave it his best anyway and it becomes up to the reader to decide that he is not useless, feeble father unable to impress anyone that Scout initially believes him to be. He is a great man a brave one. Against all odds, he is courageous, empathetic and socially Just. Harper Lee does not bother to find characters to praise him although Dollops Raymond is close when he says… Harper Lee expects the reader to search their own conscience and decide like Attic’s, to see the best in people.

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