To Kill A Mockingbird ( Theme Analysis And Metaphor Analysis ) Essay, Research Paper
During the first half of Mockingbird Harper Lee constructs a sweet and fond portrayal of turning up in the vanished universe of little town Alabama.. Lee, nevertheless, returns to sabotage her portraiture of little town breeding during the 2nd half of the book. Lee dismantles the sweet fa? fruit drink to uncover a rotten, rural bottom filled with societal prevarications, bias, and ignorance. But no 1 in Mockingbird is wholly good or evil. Every character is human, with human defects and failings. Lee even renders Atticus, the idol of morality, symbolically weak by doing him an old and widowed adult male as opposed to immature and virile. It is how these flawed characters influence and are influenced by the major subjects underpinning their society.
Three major subjects run through To Kill a Mockingbird: instruction, courage, and bias. We learn how of import instruction is to Atticus and his kids in the first chapter when Jem announces to Dill that Scout has known how to read since she was a babe. Atticus reads to the kids from newspapers and magazines as if they are grownups who can understand issues at his degree. By the clip Scout attends her first twenty-four hours of school she is extremely literate, far exceling the other kids in the schoolroom and thwarting her instructor whose undertaking it is to learn her pupils harmonizing to a preset program.
It shortly becomes clear why Atticus thinks instruction is so of import. During his shutting statements Atticus explicitly acknowledges the ignorance blinding people & # 8217 ; s heads and Black Marias: & # 8220 ; the informants for the province & # 8230 ; have presented themselves to you gentlemen & # 8230 ; in the misanthropic assurance that their testimony would non be doubted, confident that you gentlemen would travel along with them on the & # 8230 ; evil premise & # 8230 ; that all Negroes lie, that all Negroes are fundamentally immoral existences, that all Negro work forces are non to be trusted around our adult females, an premise one associates with heads of their quality & # 8221 ; ( 217 ) . Education is the key to unlocking the ignorance that causes such bias. Jem begins to understand this lesson toward the terminal of the book when he wonders whether household position could be based more on instruction than on lineages.
Jem besides learns powerful lessons from his male parent sing courage and cowardliness. Early in Mockingbird we learn that Atticus does non O.K. of guns. He believes that guns do non do work forces weather and that the kids & # 8217 ; s captivation with guns is baseless.
To turn out his point, he sends Jem to read for Mrs. Dubose who struggles to crush her morphine dependence before she dies. He wants to demo his boy one shows true courage & # 8220 ; when you know you & # 8217 ; rhenium licked before you begin but you begin anyhow and you see it through no affair what & # 8221 ; ( 121 ) . Atticus besides function theoretical accounts his sense of courage by declining to transport a gun to protect Tom Robinson from angry husbandmans and declining to transport a gun to protect himself after Bob Ewell threatens guns. But courage runs deeper than the determination to transport a gun. Atticus shows courage when he takes Tom & # 8217 ; s instance despite cognizing that his town would turn against him and his kids. Jaish-i-mohammed shows courage when the kids intervene on behalf of Atticus and Jem refuses to go forth his male parent & # 8217 ; s side during the confrontation with husbandmans at the gaol. And, possibly the biggest lesson Scout must larn is to turn away and demo existent courage instead than contend when people antagonize her.
The most of import subject of
Mockingbird remains the impression of bias in all of its signifiers. Clearly, with the Tom Robinson instance, Lee’s characters deal with racial bias caput on. Mentions to black work forces as “niggers” and “boys” persist throughout the book. Black people occupy the lowest category degree of Maycomb society as Maycomb’s white population of every category waste no clip reenforcing their stiff category regulations. The fact that Atticus realizes that he has no opportunity to win his instance supporting Tom because Tom is black offers the most expressed index of deep-seated racism. His shutting statement in Chapter Twenty clearly outlines Atticus’s positions on racism. However, Lee besides shows us prejudice as it pertains to gender and societal category.
Although the full town subscribes externally to traditional gender functions and category differentiations, Aunt Alexandra stands plays the greatest function in reenforcing these impressions within the Finch household. Alexandra believes that because the Finch household comes from a long line of landholders who have been the county for coevalss they deserve greater regard than make other people and they must behave themselves harmonizing to their position. She refuses to tie in with both black and white citizens likewise because they do non make full the same societal place. Atticus, on the other manus, urges his kids to sympathise with others and to & # 8220 ; walk in their tegument & # 8221 ; before they judge or knock others.
Lookout suffers acutely from the stereotypes imposed upon her because of the stiff sexism and gender regulations that govern southern life. Scout hates to have on frocks and the discovery the accusal that she & # 8220 ; Acts of the Apostless like a miss & # 8221 ; extremely violative. Although the characters do non explicitly cover with gender issues, Lee does offer several characters, Miss Maudie and Miss Stephanie in peculiar, who illustrate the wide spectrum of southern muliebrity that lies beneath the simplistic & # 8220 ; southern belle & # 8221 ; stereotype.
Mockingbird: The mocker represents artlessness. Like huntsmans who kill mockers for athletics, people kill artlessness, or other people who are guiltless, without believing about what they are making. Atticus stands house in his defence of artlessness and urges his kids non to hit mockers both literally and figuratively. The mocker motive arises four times during To Kill a Mockingbird. First, when Atticus gives Jem and Scout air guns for Christmas and instructs them non to kill mockers. Second, when B.B. Underwood writes about Tom Robinson & # 8217 ; s decease in his column. Third, a mockingbird sings right before Bob Ewell attacks Jem and Scout. Finally, Scout agrees with Atticus that prosecuting Boo for Ewell & # 8217 ; s slaying would be like killing a mocker.
Boo Radley: Boo Radley represents fright. Small town folks fear that if they act bizarre and fail to adhere to societal regulations they excessively will stop up like Boo, isolated and remembered as a grotesque monster. It is this fright that supports the societal position quo and keeps persons from standing up for that which they believe. Until people can understand and accept Boo, as Lookout does at the terminal of the book, they will ever be stuck in a universe filled with fright, lies, and ignorance.
Guns: Guns represent false strength. Harmonizing to Atticus, guns do non turn out manhood or courage. Manhood and bravery come from a adult male & # 8217 ; s ability to persist and contend utilizing his marbless, his bosom, and his character. Neighbors use and venerate guns to the hurt of developing their ain personal strength.