Tobacco Paper Essay, Research Paper
Every twenty-four hours 1000s of people start smoking. Knowing that ciggarette smoke is the taking preventable cause of decease, people continue to get down smoke. Everyday 3,000 kids start smoke, most them between the ages of 10 and 18. These childs account for 90 per centum of all new tobacco users. In fact, 90 per centum of all grownup tobacco users said that they foremost lit up as adolescents ( Roberts ) . This International Relations and Security Network T because of equal force per unit area, or merely kick desire to get down, it is due to the fact that immature people are the premier mark in the baccy wars. The coffin nail makers may deny it, but advertisement and publicity play a critical portion in doing these facts a world ( Roberts ) . It is for this ground that baccy companies should be held accountable for the dependences that they cause.
Perdominantely, kids are the premier marks of ciggarette advertisement media. The male monarchs of these media gambits are Marlboro and Camel. Marlboro uses a fictional western character called The Marlboro Man, while Camel uses Joe Camel, a high-rolling, singing sketch character. Joe Camel, the & # 8220 ; smooth character & # 8221 ; from R.J. Reynolds, who is shown as a dromedary with complete manner has been attacked by many Tobacco-Free Kids organisations as a major influence on the kids of America. Dr. Lonnie Bristow, American Medical Association spokesman, comments that & # 8220 ; to childs, cunning sketch characters mean that the merchandise is harmless, but coffin nails are non harmless. They have to cognize the male monarchs of these media gambits are Marlboro and Camel. Marlboro uses a that their ads are act uponing the young person under 18 to get down smoking & # 8221 ; ( Breo ) . The industry denies that these symbols target people under 21 and claim that their advertisement end is merely to advance trade name shift and trueness. Many people disagree with this statement such as Illinois Rep. Richard Durbin who states & # 8221 ; If we can cut down the figure of immature tobacco users, the baccy companies will be in problem and they know it & # 8221 ; ( Roberts ) . U.S. News late featured a treatment of the smoke issue with 20 adolescents from suburban Baltimore. The group consisted of 10 male childs and ten misss between the ages of 15 and 17. When asked why they started smoking, they gave two contradictory grounds: They wanted to be a portion of a equal group. They besides wanted to make out and arise at the same clip. & # 8221 ; When you party, 75 to 90 per centum of the childs are smoking. It makes you feel like you belong, & # 8221 ; says Devon Harris, a senior at Woodlawn High. Teenss besides think of smoke as a mark of independency. The more authority figures tell them non to smoke, the more likely they are to pick up the wont ( Roberts ) .
Nicotine is one of the ingreedients in ciggarettes and is considered extremely habit-forming. The single act of coffin nail smoke offers no benefits to a individual in any manner. Its effects on wellness have been proven to do any one of a assortment of fatal diseases including lung malignant neoplastic disease and bosom diseases. Tobacco companies know this and go on to sell their merchandises to the populace. These selfish companies are clearly unconcerned about the wellbeing of humanity, and are more concerned about their net incomes than their clients wellness. This is achieved, by the industry, through strategically planned legal, political, and public dealingss tactics, which are contrived in order to misdirect the populace and take the duty for doing decease and disease off from the companies ( Glantz ) . The effects of baccy on the organic structure are apparently eternal. After old ages of research and experimentation, the Surgeon General released his study on smoking and wellness. It concluded: Cigarette smoke is causally related to lung malignant neoplastic disease in work forces ; the magnitude of the consequence of coffin nail smoke far outweighs all other factors ( Glantz ) . Furthermore, the study linked smoking to chronic bronchitis, coronary arteria disease, malignant neoplastic disease of the voice box, and malignant neoplastic disease of the urinary vesica in work forces ( Glantz ) . The first clip the wellness dangers of smoking were officially brought to the American public s attending was in December, 1953. Experiments done by Drs. Ernst Wynder and Evarts Graham and their co-workers at the Sloan Kettering Institute in New York demonstrated that a big per centum of mice developed cancerous tumours when their teguments were painted with condensed baccy fume, or pitch ( Hilts ) . This was considered by many as equal confirmation that fume would make the same to human lungs since they, excessively, are made of tegument. The response in the U.S. was immediate: in less than two old ages, ingestion dropped to 384 billion coffin nails per twelvemonth & # 8211 ; down from 416 billion in 1952 ( Hilts ) . However, these mouse skin-painting experiments had their most enormous consequence on the baccy companies themselves. On December 15, 1953, for the first clip in history, the caput executives of the taking baccy companies in the industry met in order to invent an exigency program. The leaders of the market were the same so as they are today: Philip Morris, R.J. Reynolds, Brown and Williamson, American Tobacco, U.S. Tobacco, and Benson and Hedges ( Hilts ) . The industry s chief concern in response to the medical grounds was to do certain that consumers carried on smoke ( Taylor ) .
By 1975, Brown & A ; Williamson already had cognition of the erroneous repute of low-tar coffin nails for over a twelvemonth: Compensation survey conducted by Imperial Tobacco Co. shows that a tobacco user adjusts his smoke wonts when smoking coffin nails with low nicotine to double his normal coffin nail nicotine consumption. ( Glantz ) . The Surgeon General did non carry on a survey on compensation until 1980 ; the survey was non confirmed until 1983. Despite their cognition of compensation, the baccy industry advertised its tow pitch, low nicotine trade names as less risky than the higher-yield trade names, and succeeded in lead oning the public one time once more. Even today, over 60 per centum of the market is lead
by these low-yield trade names – up from two per centum in 1967. A study in 1993 found that 48.6 per centum of grownups think that smoking low-tar is safer while, in actuality, it has found to be more risky to wellness ( Segal ) . It was non until1988 that the Surgeon General, C. Everett Koop, concluded that Cigarettes and other signifiers of baccy are hooking, that Nicotine is the drug in baccy that causes the dependence, and that The pharmacologic and behavioural procedures that determine baccy dependence are similar to those that determine dependence to drugs such as diacetylmorphine and cocaine ( Glantz ) . Although the industry has detailed cognition of the effects of nicotine and it has recognized, internally, that it is in the concern of selling nicotine, the industry publically insists that nicotine is non habit-forming and is in baccy simply for gustatory sensation intents ; there are several grounds for this place. One of the statements by the baccy industry in merchandise liability cases is that baccy companies should non be held responsible for the diseases associated with smoke since smoke is a affair of personal pick. If the industry admitted that nicotine is habit-forming, it would non be able to claim that people can take to halt smoke anytime they want. In add-on, acknowledging that nicotine is habit-forming would doubtless measure up nicotine as a drug and hence capable to FDA ordinance. This would finally take to authorities policies sing baccy advertizement and publicity ( Glantz ) . So, alternatively of baccy companies acknowledging – what they knew before anybody else and cognize better than anybody else – that nicotine is habit-forming, they assert that nicotine s sole intent in baccy is for gustatory sensation. Brown & Williamson s president and CEO, Thomas Sandefur, testified in 1994 that [ he does ] non believe that nicotine is habit-forming. . . nicotine is a really of import component in the coffin nail for gustatory sensation ( Glantz ) . However, despite many similar testimonies by baccy executives, there is no grounds in any of the companies paperss that nicotine was of all time handled by the gustatory sensation sections of the companies ( Hilts ) . Furthermore, Philip Morris paperss show that No 1 has of all time become a coffin nail tobacco user by smoking coffin nails without nicotine ( Hilts ) . Ross Johnson, while the main executor of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco, did his responsibility and denied the habit-forming nature of smoke. After he left the industry, nevertheless, he was obviously about it: Of class it s habit-forming. That s why you smoke the material ( Hilts ) .
Following to dependence, the baccy industry depends on advertisement as its most powerful tool in keeping its success. Addiction is what keeps people smoking twenty-four hours after twenty-four hours ; advertisement coffin nails with false images is what causes 1000000s to be tempted adequate to get down the deadly wont. Cigarettes are the most to a great extent advertised merchandise in America. The baccy industry spends one million millions of dollars each twelvemonth to guarantee that its merchandises are associated with elegance, prosperity and delicacy, instead than lung malignant neoplastic disease, bronchitis and bosom disease ( Taylor ) . For illustration, Newports are advertised with the subject Alive with pleasance, alternatively of with the opposite statement which would bespeak the true consequence of utilizing the merchandise & # 8211 ; Dead with hurting ( White ) . Since there is small to separate one trade name of coffin nails from the following, cigarettes must be advertised through emotional entreaties alternatively of merchandise benefits. Marsha Bell Grace of the advertisement house of Wells, Rich, Greene said that coffin nail advertisement is publicizing in its purest sense & # 8211 ; no merchandise difference, but a perceptual experience of difference in the merchandise ( White ) . Therefore, the coffin nail s entreaty to the consumer is wholly a affair of perceptual experience, or instead, misperception. Since Congress banned coffin nails publicizing from telecasting in 1970, the one million millions of dollars worth of advertizements from the baccy industry are used in the print media alternatively of through the airwaves ( White ) . There are a few American publications & # 8211 ; such as the Readers Digest, Good Housekeeping, the New Yorker, and Washington Monthly & # 8211 ; that do non accept coffin nail advertisement as a affair of rule. But for the bulk of American publications, the 1000000s of dollars they receive each twelvemonth from baccy advertizements is non merely plenty to maintain the advertizements running throughout the twelvemonth, but plenty to command the stuff they publish. On many occasions, newspaper and magazine editors have pulled out articles on smoke and wellness that they would hold otherwise published if the articles did non hold the ability to interfere with their dealingss with the coffin nail companies.
The misrepresentation of the baccy industry has late become better publicized through the disclosure of internal paperss which antecedently have been suppressed by the companies. Every twenty-four hours, organisations such as the Food and Drug Administration are taking stairss to command the virtually unregulated sale of coffin nails and other baccy merchandises. Until something effectual is done, nevertheless, the best manner to contend the merchandisers of decease is to act upon their quarry & # 8211 ; the waxy heads of kids & # 8211 ; before they do. Recently, telecasting has been used to act upon the heads of kids through runs such as Truth, and besides, compulsory anti-smoking commercials from the baccy companies themselves.
Roberts, Steven. & # 8221 ; Teenss on baccy ; childs smoke for grounds all their own. & # 8221 ; U.S. News & A ; World Report. 18 Apr. 1996: 38.
Breo, Dennis L. & # 8220 ; Kicking Butts-AMA, Joe Camel and the & # 8216 ; Black Flag & # 8217 ; war on tobacco. & # 8221 ; JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association. 29 Oct. 1993: 1978.
Glantz, Michael. Tobacco Today. New York: Knopf, 1998
Hilts, Joseph. Tobacco Kills. Britannica Online. 1999
Taylor, Stephen. The overall effects of nicotine on the human organic structure Newsweek 16 Dec. 1994: 116+