Harmonizing to the study of World Tourism Organization international touristry grosss surpassed US 1 trillion in 2011, up from US 928 billion in 2010, grosss grew by 3.8 % . Tourism industry as a 3rd industry for a state, it can function as the chief beginning of bring forthing gross, offering more employment chances, and hiking the substructure development. Therefore most states place the development of touristry industry into national economic development scheme. Along with the increased of import of touristry industry development for a state ‘s economic development, the research refering how to develop a new coevals smart touristry information system becomes a hot research subject and besides is deserving to make in-depth research.
In this paper, the research inquiry required to answered is: what are the nucleus elements for the Smart Tourism Information System ( STIS ) development, before replying this inquiry, we should cognize what is the STIS, it is defined as follow: the system is a societal web information system which can place the tourer ‘s type and based on the concrete type of tourer and their penchant to supply value-added service, besides offer the consequences of comparing for the touristry information to fulfill the client ‘s farther demand.
This smart touristry information system focal point to the tourers who want to seek travel-related information and do all travel-related things by themselves alternatively of trusting on the travel bureau ( Morrison, Jing, O’Leary, & A ; Lipping, 2001 ) . However, the current touristry information systems ( TISs ) have many jobs, the biggest job is that current bing TISs tend to necessitate the tourers spend much clip to seek assorted touristry information due to the independence/isolation of TISs. Although it exists some e-commerce companies, supplying reserve service of hotel or/and flight, such as eDreams, Hotels.com, these services offered are merely a little portion in a whole trip agenda, which to some extents reduces the hunt cost ( e.g. energy and clip ) for tourers but ca n’t work out the job drastically. The advantage of utilizing the STIS is that tourer can accomplish one-stop services covering all travel-related things considered in the trips without the irritated procedure of seeking tourism-related information in different e-tourism systems and comparing the hunt consequences based on his/her existent demand and personal penchant to acquire better service with reasonable/lower monetary value.
The whole construction of this paper as follow: Section 1 introduce the background of current TISs and the motive of composing this paper, Section 2 presents the tourism-related reappraisals, Section 3 proposes a conceptual model for the STIS development, Section 4 discusses the deductions and restriction in the paper and suggests some hereafter researches, the last subdivision will reason the consequence of this paper and offer recommendation/suggestions to developer when they conduct a STIS development.
Buyukozkan and Ergun ( 2011 ) provided a new method to the selling scheme and set frontward the recommendation tool is recommend for the touristries when they make a program for trip. The proposed theoretical account mentioned in the reviewed paper gives a new position from concern position, it is better to plan a touristry information system benefiting for both client and travel bureaus. In add-on, in my paper, the component of value-added service contains the recommendation system, this reviewed paper can give some suggestion or point of views for it. Malaka and Zipf ( 2000 ) proposed a conceptual model of touristry information system which addresses several disputing research accepts such as integrating of information from different informations beginning, services of reserve system and geographical information systems ( GIS ) etc.. Besides, this paper besides mentions the 3D practical position will be a possible pick to voyage tourers. These are possible for me to take consideration into my paper, since I will besides research the similar issues in this paper. Based on the instance survey of TISover, Birgit proll and Werner Retschitzegger ( 2000 ) illustrates challenges from three facets such as high-quality entree to commercial minutess and the system via nomadic devices etc. , high-quality content provided, and system designed in an easy manner to custom-make. Although this paper was released in 2000, some issues may be non long the cardinal factor to impede the development of touristry information system, the issue of supplying high-quality content is still a hot subject to discourse in research of this feline. The paper aims to show how the tourer path planning and pilotage system ( TRPNS ) be designed and implemented. I n my paper, I besides antecedently reference that the system should hold the map of doing the path program for trip, so I may be inspired by point of view of path program in this paper ( Yun-Feng Nie, Xiang Fu, and Jie-Xian Zeng.2009 ) . This paper wrote by Ananthapadmanaban, Srimathi and Srivatsa ( 2012 ) besides aims to incorporate touristry information from different informations beginnings and provides effectual information retrieve service based on the penchant of tourers via semantic Web services. So this paper proposes a new position of different informations beginnings integrating method. Chaang-Iuan Hoa, Meng-Hui Linb, Hui-Mei Chenc ( 2012 ) presents a conceptual model refering web user ‘s online and offline hunt behaviour in touristry information. In my paper, it may can supply some point of views to cognize the user ‘s behaviour when they search touristry information, and assist me to place which sort of user ‘s group will be the bulk end-users for STIS. The paper ( Yeoryios Stamboulis, Pantoleon Skayannis. 2003 ) presents a point of view refering conventional touristry meets more problems than earlier, particularly when it face to the new tendency towards flexibilization, which means tourers should do the travel program, reserve tickets ( e.g. Airline ticket, train ticket, ship ticket ) , hotel and/or eating house, rent auto or bike etc. How and where can they derive such related touristry info? Although for some tourers, they possibly can seek aid from tourer bureau which can offer waiters mentioned above, in this instance, the flexibleness of touristry is restricted to some extents. So the STIS focal point to the group of tourers who want to set up the touristry info themselves and do their travel experience more flexible. Tuure Tuunanen, Michael D. Myers, Harold Cassab ( 2010 ) proposes a conceptual model for consumer information systems development, the model chiefly explains how to co-create the consumer value via system value propositions and client value driver. In this paper, the writers employ the instance survey as research attack which is merely what will besides be applied in my paper, and the six nucleus elements in the model were uncovered by reexamining the findings from instance studies.The paper ( Buhalis and Law. 2008 ) presents the comprehensive point of view to the e-Tourism and analyzes three chief subjects in the e-Tourism field, the subjects include consumer and demand dimension, technological invention and industry maps. In the subject of consumer and demand dimensions, the reviewed paper suggests the e-Tourism should quick place consumer demand and make the possible client by supplying latest, comprehensive and customizable merchandise and/or service, whose point of view I can utilize in my paper as a guideline of value-add service, and it besides give a penetration to point of view of the comparing and rinking for touristry information, for illustration, tourists search the low-price or price reduction air hose tickets, characteristic nutrient or touristry attractive forces in the touristry finish. The book ( Fesenmaier, Werthner, & A ; Wober, 2003 ) presents a point of view that some recommender TISs can back up tourers complete the complex decision-making procedure via placing better client ‘s demands and correlating the similar/same state of affairs with other clients, it besides describes the behavior of information hunt and the theoretical account of taking travel finishs, which can assist to in-depth understand the mental theoretical account of travel planing and how to plan value-added service.
Model of STIS
This subdivision chiefly illustrates the nucleus elements in the model of Smart Tourism information system ( STIS ) . The nucleus elements include: Identify tourer ‘s type, societal web, comparing for touristry information, value-added service and simple synergistic operation.
3.1 Identify tourer ‘s type
Harmonizing to the tourers categorization ( Barcelona filed survey centre ) , the tourer can be classified by merchandise ( e.g. Mass tourer, alternate tourer ) , nature of the activity ( e.g. Active, passive ) , location penchant ( e.g. Rural, metropolis, mountains, lake, coastal etc ) , continuance of trip and distant traveled ( e.g. Day trip for local-level, weekend interruption for national-level, one-year vacation for international-level ) , and intent ( e.g. Business- , pleasure- travel ) etc, in order to better understand and fulfill the consumer ‘s existent demands and their penchant, the STIS should roll up the client ‘s travel-related informations as possible. When to roll up these required informations, by and large the whole procedure of roll uping client ‘s informations, particularly for the ingestion informations before and during trip, can be identified to three phases ( Ref… . ) : before, during, after trip. In the first phase, it chiefly includes the information from reserve info of tickets ( e.g. Airline ticket, train ticket etc ) and hotel, the 2nd phase, viz. during the trip, tourer tend to take the local popular eating houses, attractive forces or lease a car/bicycle. The last phase focal points on the feedback of tourer, which can give penetration to tourist personal wont and penchant in order to supply recommendation service in the hereafter.
3.2 Social web
Tuunanen, Myers and Cassab ( 2010 ) indicated the system users tend to utilize the system which includes societal web and can let they interactive with other users. Most tourers are willing to portion the temper and experience during the trip with their friends or other tourers, and these experience is utile for other tourer to some extents. The societal web is non merely limited to the tourer group in STIS, the users in STIS can besides portion their blog/micro-blog stations to other societal web system, for illustration, the users in STIS write a web log to depict the experience of sing a metropolis, the STIS should let they disseminate the web log posts into their Facebook, Google blogger etc, which non merely simplify the operation of circulating info but besides appeal possible tourer to utilize the STIS.
3.3 Comparison of touristry information
The general touristry information hunt procedure can be divided into several phases: utilizing the hunt engine such Google, bing etc to acquire generic info, so utilizing keyword to acquire related info which is closer to what the users want, and utilizing the landmark web site such as eDreams ( e-commoner company provides hotel and flight engagement services etc ) and qiongyou ( a 3rd portion supplier of touristry info ) , eventually compare the hunt consequences and reexamine them once more. Normally tourists engaged in the comparison the alternate solutions, for illustration, how to acquire the same-level service at lower monetary value. It is really common to see the scene in our life: tourer pass much clip to seek touristry information in assorted TISs, unfastened many web page and compare the difference among assorted solutions. Ho, Lin and Chen ( 2012 ) besides mentioned the comparable scheme as one of on-line hunt scheme was often used in practical when tourers search touristry information. Besides the touristry info ranking is besides the consequence of info comparing, for illustration, list out the top 10 popular eating house, attractive forces each month, so the tourer can intuitively see the current hot events in touristry. In this sense, the component sing comparing of touristry information should be encompassed in the model for STIS development.
3.4 value-added service
Value-added service refers to the excess service ( compared with the standard service ) which can back up consumer determination devising and better fit the single tourer existent demands such as limited budget, available clip etc ( Nysveen & A ; Lexhagen, 2001 ) . Except the common value-added services such as hunt engine, maps, FAQ, and feedback processing etc, the STIS should besides incorporate budget computation, 3D-view pilotage, agenda devising, recommendation service etc.
Agenda devising is used to set up the all travel-related things and enter them in the format of calendar, similar with the Google calendar. The travel-related things involve conveyance between place and finish ( place – airport/wharf/train station ( place ) – airport/wharf/train station ( finish ) – hotel ) , adjustment in the finish, eating houses, attractive forces, travel way in finish etc. For illustration, a tourer program to go from Helsinki to Pair by aeroplane, he/she uses the agenda doing tool to put the start topographic point and finish, besides the going and return day of the month, the recommendation service will supply the flights info based on his/her penchant ( e.g. Low monetary value air hose ticket ) , he/her merely choose the flight and these informations will be stored in a information set which besides includes the hotel, conveyance between hotel to airport in finish etc. After the tourer complete all travel-related things, the agenda doing tool will bring forth a travel calendar based on the information set. In add-on, this tool can look into the clip struggle which is easy ignored by tourer and besides hard to happen in a complex travel agenda without some apps aid.
Budget computation, a decision-making support tool, should unite the agenda doing to utilize, it is used to cipher the fee cost on the conveyance between place and finish, adjustment in finish, attractive forces etc to acquire a preliminary budget. Some travel bureaus tailor the trip based on the tourer ‘s budget to better fulfill client ‘s existent demand and some employees in the travel bureau has the travel experience to the finish where tourers want to see ( Nysveen and Lexhagen 2001 ) , compared with the service offered by travel bureau, although the budget calculated via the system may disregard unseeable cost, it has already calculated the large portion cost ( except shopping in finish ) in the trip, therefore the existent cost in the trip will be near to this budget computation. In this sense, it help less-experience tourers have a basic cognition refering travel cost before trip and promote them pay an action to their travel program.
Recommendation service suggests the services related to tourist ‘s penchant, nonsubjective demands in practical and suggestions/feedback from other tourers. As the illustration mentioned in the agenda devising, the tourer can non merely have the recommendations refering the ingestion but besides the non-consumption recommendations service such as conditions prognosis study. Besides, the suggestions/feedback from other tourers appeal to be easier accepted by tourers, since they believe other tourers ‘ feedback is more utile for their finish determination devising. For the same ground, another practical instance can besides back up this point of view: most Chinese shopping on taobao.com ( a e-commoner web site ) , they tend to take the merchandise with many other buyer ‘s remarks, the more remarks for a merchandise, the more nonsubjective info of merchandise can be presented to clients. In this instance, recommendation service evidently necessitate the societal web to collaborate with.
3D-view pilotage refers to tourist can acquire the 3D-view pilotage service, similar with the Google 3D street position, the ground why demand this service is based on the consideration that some metropoliss has complex streets where tourer is easy to acquire lost on the manner from one attractive force to another, of class they can straight utilize Google map, but at least the tourers should place the where they are, what ‘s worse, the tourer have the linguistic communication job to inquire the passer, in this state of affairs, the STIS have recorded all travel-related info which can assist the tourer skip this measure and straight acquire the 3D-view pilotage. In this sense, it is besides run into the rule of simple synergistic operation.
3.5 Simple synergistic operation
Before users to utilize most touristry information systems, by and large the system requires users to register a history, although the whole procedure merely cost you serval proceedingss, most users resist the procedure of subscribing up, even they give up to utilize this system if there are other replaceable systems provides the same service. From the system position, the system merely mean to roll up some client basic information, why non utilize the 3rd portion history mandate method, for illustration, the TIS gives the users another manner to subscribe up a new history via Google history, Facebook history etc, the personal basic info can besides be receive by the TIS, and the event of this users utilizing this TIS besides be shared via societal web system. Besides, the user do n’t necessitate to retrieve the history and watchword which are used to entree to TIS. Simple synergistic operation purposes to cut down unneeded procedure and do the synergistic operation more fit users ‘ favorite wont.
Identify tourer ‘s type, societal web, comparing of touristry information, value-added service, simple synergistic operation, as the nucleus elements of STIS, really they jointly affect the client ‘s experience to STIS. The first phase of travel planing for the STIS is to place the tourer ‘s type, so the STIS can supply the value-added service based on informations of client ‘s penchant. The STIS besides provide tourists the entree to societal web which is non merely the societal web edifice in the STIS but besides other current popular societal web ( e.g. Facebook, Twitter ) . The feedback/experience of tourer and postings related to touristry in the societal web can be used into recommendation service as basic informations analysing the tourers consumption behaviors and tendency in the touristry. The comparing of touristry information can do some hunt consequences presented to tourist in a direct and meaningful manner, which does n’t straight urge any services but connote some information and encourage certain ingestion behavior. Finally, during the whole procedure of utilizing STIS, the simpler human-computer synergistic operation, the better feedback of user ‘s experience. The restrictions of this paper are the ignorance for the issue of direction & A ; taging in touristry industry and the technique issues of informations integrating from bing touristry information system. The nucleus elements are found by reexamining the literations in footings of touristry direction, it still looks like empirical survey, therefore the future work of using the concrete instances to formalize the conceptual model is indispensable.
This survey aims to suggest a conceptual model for Smart Tourism Information System ( STIS ) development and research the nucleus elements in the model which is expected to supply guidelines or suggestions during the procedure of developing a new coevals touristry information system where the tourer can bask the simple and convenient manner to fix for all travel-related things in the whole trip. The model includes five nucleus elements: place the tourer group, societal web, comparing of touristry information, value-added service, simple synergistic operation, they normally jointly affect the tourers experience to STIS, the restrictions of this research are the ignorance to the issue of touristry direction, taging and societal web collection etc. The future work of formalizing the conceptual model via concrete instances in practical is indispensable.