• Romans adopted the engineering and be aftering accomplishments of the Greeks. They were more advanced than the Greeks in footings of technological accomplishments which they used to develop better infrastructural installations and building techniques.
• Lime concrete was invented
• Applied mechanics for traveling heavy multitudes developed.
• Roads were paved with rocks
• Advanced system of H2O supply ( Aqueducts & A ; H2O reservoirs ) . sewerage system and drainage system through canals and belowground cloacas in semi-circular domed signifier were used. • All public latrines were connected to underground sewage system. Peoples usually used the public latrines.
• The town planning was somewhat different in assorted countries depending on the geographics. resource potency. which determined the opinion scheme.
• Each metropolis occupied a dominating site. including constructing plants of tremendous graduated table and impressive stylistic quality. Margin of the metropolis was normally square/rectangular.
• Chessboard be aftering -expressing Torahs and orders.
o Crossing of analogue and equidistant streets at right angles to one another within the 2 chief hamlets “Decamanus” ( East –west ) through the centre of the town and the ‘Cardo’ ( North- south ) normally bisecting the ‘Decamanus’ at right angles towards one terminal. o “Secondary streets” finish the gridiron layout and organize the edifice blocks known as “Insulae” • Cross streets on occasion stepped and bridged around the metropolis. • Generally rectangular walled metropolis entered by several Gatess. demoing complete town organisation.
• From the spiritual significance of the Temples by the Greeks there was a alteration to the civic influence of Law Courts “Basilica” which became more of import than the public edifices.
• “Forum Area” normally located Centre of the town formed by the intersection of the Decamanus and the Cardo being the administrative. commercial and spiritual centre. usually consists of a colonnaded courtyard with a meeting hall built across one terminal. It was the lively cardinal topographic point of economic. cultural and friendly exchanges. The chief temple. the Theatre and the public baths were besides located near the “Forum” in the centre of the town.
• Outside Gate- bowl. Triumphal arches.
Aqueducts. sanitation. public wellness considerations were first-class for the baronial countries. Baronial people lived in affluent homes- “Domus” and the hapless lived in “Insulas” – Building blocks divided into flats. The flats went up to 3 narratives ab initio. Later it even went up to 7 narratives but because of their prostration the tallness had to be restricted to 70? .
Important metropoliss of ancient Rome
1. City of Pompeii
1. A colonial city- Extent 4/5 stat mi ( Length ) – 2/5 stat mi -width ( Maximum ) 2. The metropolis had 25. 000 dwellers.
3. A walled metropolis with 8 Gatess.
4. The Forum placed at the centre of an irregular street system. where the breadth of the streets was 32 pess. 5. Amphitheaters located near the center-elliptical within a cardinal country used for carry oning naval exhibitions and other exhibitions. 6. ‘Circus maxima’ at the southern corner for chariot races.
2. City of Rome- City of 7 hills
7. The country of the metropolis was 3465 estates.
8. The metropolis was bounded by 2 walls- 1. Republican wall ( BC 378-352 ) and the Aurelian wall to protect the metropolis from the Barbarian onslaughts from the North with protective towers at 100 Roman pess interval.
9. There were-1. Colloseum 2. Enormous forums 3. Circus Maxima.
It is to be noted that all buildings merged good with the general landscape. The edifice was proportionate. geometrical and good balanced with nature. Roman “Castras” formed the colony for the military cantonments. known as the impermanent metropoliss to house the soldiers.
3. Timgad ( Algiers. Africa ) ( 100AD -200AD )
10. Typically stiff chess board program.
11. 355m ten 325m -area 30 estates.
12. Chiefly designed for residential settlement.
1. Abundant H2O supply.
2. Rigid formality of the program
3. Eleven parallel cross-streets in either way with surface terrassing on the undulating land. 4. This gives an alone completeness in its architectural terms. 5. The forum is ( 160 pess ten 145 pess ) . The market. the temple site and the other non-residential edifices were unnaturally raised above the general street degree. 6. The public edifices had porticoes. colonnades and other characteristics giving assortment to the architectural scene. 7. Some houses were every bit large as 200 pess ten 200 pess.
1. Explain in item with studies the town be aftering consideration in metropoliss during medieval & A ; Renaissance Period. ( Eg. Florence. 2. Explain in item with studies the town be aftering consideration in metropoliss during industrial & A ; post industrial Time period
Town planning India
Development of town planning in ancient India. ( 3000B. C )
Town planning in Indus-valley civilisation ( 3000 B. C )
• The duplicate metropoliss of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were centre of all activities. Both metropoliss were a mile square. with defensive outer walls. Cities were divided into lower homes and the Citadel housed of import edifices.
• A singular characteristic of the big urban colonies of the Indus Valley Civilization was the regularity and order in the town planning and consideration given to the civic comfortss. the sewage system and drainage.
• These metropoliss had extremely advanced systems of town planning.
City of Mohenjo-Daro & A ; Harappa
• The chief streets of the metropoliss at both Harappa and Moenjo-daro were by and large oriented from north to south. with linking streets running east to west.
• The streets of major metropoliss such as Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were besides laid out in a perfect grid form ; the street layout showed an apprehension of the basic rules of traffic. with rounded corners to let the turning of carts easy. • These streets ( 9m broad ) divided the metropolis into 12 blocks. Each of 365m tens 244m
• Citadels ever face west which served as sanctuaries for the cities` populations in times of onslaught and as community centres in times of peace.
• Except for the west-central blocks. the basic unit of metropolis planning was the single house.
• The houses were of changing in sizes and narratives ( normally two storied ) . constructed with brick walls. Wood and Stones were besides used in building. • Rooms were arranged around an unfastened to flip tribunal.
• The abodes had no direct entryway to the chief streets. The doors of the houses normally opened on to the side lanes instead than on to the chief streets.
• Common well was provided to the groups of edifices.
• The metropolis had an luxuriant sanitary and drainage system. Each and every house had a connexion with the chief drain. The drains were laid under paseos and eventually connected to chief cloaca laid under chief roads. Manholes were provided at different topographic points for cleansing and review. The urban program found in these metropoliss included the world`s first urban sanitation systems. • The luxuriant brick-lined drainage system for the remotion of rainwater is of alone technology accomplishment.
Granaries: Large garners were located near each of the bastions. which suggest that the province stored grain for ceremonial intents. times of deficit. and perchance the ordinance of grain production and sale.
Market halls. garners. offices were neatly planned.
The great bath which is surrounded by lavatories and private baths was 7m broad. 12m long and 2. 5m deep.
Town planning during the Vedic Period ( up to 400 B. C )
Town planning was more advanced and scientific during Vedic period.
The rules and importance of town planning were mentioned in some of the sacred books. In Viswa Karmaprakash it is stated that “First layout the towns so plan the houses”
In Mansara Silpashastra many facets of town planning. such as survey of dirt. clime. topography. orientation harmonizing to air current and sun etc. are described.
Besides this gives an thought about assorted layouts of towns such as
? The chief streets ( Raja Marga ) were aligned East-West to acquire the roads purified by the Sun beams. while short roads aligned north-south. ? The roads running around the town called Mangal Veethi were reserved for Priests. ? Besides this book refers to the accomplishments of a town contriver that he must hold a good cognition of cultural. societal and spiritual facets besides the scientific cognition of planning.
Many temple metropoliss in south India were planned based on these rules. Eg. Madurai
Buddhist period ( up to 320 A. D )
Arthashasthra. a treatise on town planning written by Chanakya during this period deals with assorted rules of town planning such as • Zoning ordinances – depending on communities • Main roads ( Raja Marga ) to be parallel to the central way. –Grid-iron form of development. • Raja marga should non be less than six “dandas”-nearly 30 pess.
Eg ; Patliputra ( Patna ) . Taxila. Nalanda
City of Pataliputra
• It was the capital of Magadha.
• The metropolis was 16km long and 3. 5 km broad was surrounded by a deep fosse 180m broad and fort wall 40km long. with 64 Gatess and 570 towers. • The town was laid on grid -iron form dwelling of 16 sectors. • Most of the houses had gardens with Wellss and pools
• Proper resistance drainage web was provided for the metropolis
Taxila and Nalnda were the metropoliss renowned for instruction.
These metropoliss were provided with installations like temples. inns and libraries etc.
Medieval period ( 12th to14th century )
There was gradual development of trade and commercialism during this period. Celebrated metropoliss during this period are
• Krishnanagar- famous for clay theoretical accounts
• Agra- celebrated marble and perfumery
• Jaipur – celebrated for palatial edifices of artistic excellence.
City of Jaipur
• The metropolis of Jaipur. the Pink City. is a good illustration of a planned metropolis.
• The metropolis was built in 1753 on a carefully prepared program. wide avenues and public edifices.
• Jaipur has good laid roads with geometric preciseness and arithmetic truth. consistently designed unfastened squares and fountains.
• Assorted spaces/land uses inside the metropolis were zoned carefully.
Moghul period ( 1526-1707 AD )
• Cities like Agra & A ; Delhi were redeveloped during this period • Faterpur –Sikri was wholly planned
• Many gardens and Parkss were developed as portion of the metropolis planning. eg. Shalimar Bagh. Lal Bagh etc. This was a new tendency in planning.
Pre-independence period ( till 1947 )
• Britons started independent settlements on the out skirts of the bing towns. known as Camps and Barracks for the military occupied country and Civil Lines for the abode of Civilians. • They adopted grid- Fe form of layout for roads. • Major town planning work during this was the period was the planning of New Delhi- the new capital of India in 1911.
The program was prepared based on modern town planning rules by high town contriver Edwin Lutyens assisted by Herbert Baker. It is laid out in the Versailles manner of Renaissance. Hexagonal grids are adopted in the layout.
• The administrative edifices like Government house. Council hall. Secretariat has been designed with their monumental architecture. • Industrial edifices were separated from residential sector • Residential sector is arranged around commercial and civic edifices.
Post independency period ( after 1947 )
The first metropolis planned after independency was the capital of Punjab- Chandigarh
Chandigarh may be said to hold started a new motion in the planning of towns and public edifices in India.
Master program of Chandigarh was prepared by Le Corbusier assisted by Maxwell Fry. It took three old ages to finish the project- ( 1950-1953 )
Chandigarh is located on the sloping fields at the pes hills of Himalaya. holding about 3600 hectares of country.
Natural beauty of the site is taken into consideration while be aftering the layout. its scenic appeal is farther enhanced by organizing an unreal lake on its northern portion.
The metropolis is planned for population of 500. 000 and conceived as a human organic structure.
• Therefore placed the Secretariat edifice and the Legislature Complex. being the caput and the encephalon of the metropolis. at the top ( northern terminal ) .
• Industries were placed at the southern terminal. to give a strong terms or base to the metropolis. as the legs do.
• The city-centre being the bosom was placed at the Centre.
• The full communicating system was conceived as arterias and blood vass. to complect the assorted parts of the metropolis and to ease smooth flow of work forces and stuffs.
Sector planning is adopted in Chandigarh. City is divided into assorted sectors ( 47 sectors ) . each 1200m x 800m size. with grid-iron form of roads. Population of each sector vary from 10000 to 15000
Sector -1 is the best portion of the metropolis – that is the Head of the human being where the administrative edifices ( High tribunal. assembly hall. secretariat. Governors castle ) were located. Sector -17 the Centre of the metropolis is the bosom of adult male. holding concern centres. offices etc.
Sector 14 & A ; 26 are the right and left custodies of adult male –that is educational and industrial portion of the metropolis.
Outstanding characteristics of chandigarh planning
Sector planning: – to acquire maximal comfort and convenience of the occupants the metropolis is divided into 47 sectors. There are 3 to 4 vicinity units in each sector. • Each sector is made self sufficient by supplying day-to-day demands like shopping centres. meeting topographic points. baby’s rooms. schools etc. • All the schools are within 15 proceedingss walk able distance. • A cardinal uninterrupted green set of unfastened infinite passes through one sector to another which enables the walkers to walk in perfect safety and comfort along the shaded pathwaies.
Transportation system system: – 7 Vs system of roads for different traffic. – for the perfect safety of the dwellers. • V1- national high way-leading into the metropolis from out side • V2- connects to V1 and forms the chief axes.
• V3-surround the sectors organizing the grid form of the metropolis. • V4 –shopping streets bisecting the sectors.
• V5- cringle roads inter sect the V4s at two points in each sector. ( for slow traffic inside the sector ) • V6-roads giving entree to abode.
• V7- sole walker or rhythm waies running through the park belt of the metropolis.
Landscape & A ; unfastened infinites:
• The metropolis has a planned landscape. Merely one sort of trees are planted along the route side to place the different roads from the sort of trees grow along the side. • Green set of unfastened infinites runs from one sector to another. • There is proviso for big cardinal park and sufficient unfastened infinites in all sectors. • A 90m broad avenue with attractively designed park manner leads to the capitol.
• There are ample commissariats for physical substructures such as H2O supply. drainage. electricity. telephone etc. • Proper zoning of assorted land utilizations
• Residential and industrial zones are segregated by broad green belt and wind way is considered while puting the industries.