Toxic Shock Syndrome Essay, Research Paper

TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME ( TSS ) was discovered about 20 old ages ago. At first no 1 knew what was doing it, although it was rapidly linked with & # 8220 ; superabsorbent & # 8221 ; tampons ( which are no longer on the market ) . Eventually research workers discovered that a toxicant produced by a type of bacteriums known as Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for TSS. Some theorized that tampons may bring forth little ulcerations, which allow bacteriums to come in the organic structure. Another theory is that stagnating blood within or behind the tampon may allow the bacteriums to turn. Most instances of toxic daze syndrome have been associated with tampon usage. However, a few have been reported in adult females who use a stop for birth control, or during the first few hebdomads after childbearing. A really few instances have occurred in work forces and in kids. Symptom

Several marks and symptoms can attach to TSS, including

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& # 183 ; diarrhoea.

& # 183 ; freak out.

& # 183 ; fainting.

& # 183 ; high febrility ( 101o F or higher ) .

& # 183 ; kidney or liver jobs.

& # 183 ; musculus hurting.

& # 183 ; sickness and emesis.

& # 183 ; skining tegument.

& # 183 ; daze ( badly low blood force per unit area, which affects the organic structure? s operation ) .

& # 183 ; sore pharynx.

& # 183 ; sunburn-like roseola ( normally after a twenty-four hours or two ) .


To forestall TSS, make certain you change your tampons often, rinse your custodies before infixing one, and wear healthful serviettes some of the clip? particularly at dark. If you? ve of all time had TSS, it? s best to halt utilizing tampons and the stop, as the status can repeat.

If you? re a stop user, wear? Ts leave it in topographic point longer than the recommended clip? and wear & # 8217 ; t utilize it during your period or in the first 12 hebdomads after you? ve had a babe.

If you suspect you might be get downing to hold TSS symptoms and are have oning a tampon, take it right off. This stops bacterial growing in 80 % of instances. Besides make certain you visit a physician every bit shortly as possible.

Toxic Shock Syndrome

Toxic Shock Syndrome ( TSS ) , rare disease associated with strains of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, a common dweller of the tegument, unwritten pit, and vagina. Under certain conditions the bacteria produces a toxin that seemingly attacks the immune system through the blood stream, in bend allowing more toxin to be produced. Liver map is besides altered, ensuing in liver and kidney harm. Symptoms of TSS include roseola, high febrility, lowered blood force per unit area, diarrhoea, and purging. TSS has caused decease in approximately 3 per centum of reported instances. The disease can be treated with antibiotics.

The first identifiable instance of TSS dates back many old ages, but the disease merely drew great attending in the United States in the late seventiess, when an eruption led to frights of an epidemic. A few 1000 victims were finally involved, about 80 per centum of whom were flowing adult females. Almost all of them were utilizing superabsorbent tampons, which seemingly provided a more oxygen-rich ambiance in which vaginal bacteriums could readily bring forth their toxin. When adult females began to utilize such tampons merely intermittently or non at all, the eruption subsided.


& # 8220 ; Toxic Shock Syndrome, & # 8221 ; Microsoft? Encarta? Online Encyclopedia 2000

hypertext transfer protocol: // 1997-2000 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


toxic daze syndrome

ague, sometimes fatal, disease characterized by high febrility, sickness, diarrhoea, lassitude, blotchy roseola, and sudden bead in blood force per unit area. It is caused by several toxin-producing strains of bacteriums, peculiarly streptococcic and staphylococcal bacteriums. Streptococcal signifiers, in which the bacteria typically enters the organic structure through a cut, are more common. Staphylococcal toxic daze is most prevailing among flowing adult females utilizing high absorbency tampons.

The Concise Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Third Edition Copyright? 1994, Columbia University Press.

Toxic Shock Syndrome

In the 1980 & # 8217 ; s, an undiagnosed unwellness struck immature flowing adult females. The unwellness was serious and some of these adult females died. They had toxic daze syndrome, or TSS. Since the 1980 & # 8217 ; s, scientists have learned about toxic daze syndrome, and fortuitously the figure of instances has dropped dramatically.

TSS is a rare but deadly unwellness. It is caused by a toxin released by a common bacterium found on people & # 8217 ; s custodies and in their oral cavities. TSS is a toxic toxic condition, instead than an infection. The syndrome develops when the proper conditions are present to let the bacteriums to turn and bring forth the deathly toxin.

Womans who are under 30 and who use high absorbency tampons during menses are most at hazard. The relationship between tampon usage and TSS is still under probe. It was discovered that TSS occured in males and females who had bacterial infections ( such as septic lesions, skin abscesses or vaginal infections ) which produced the deadly toxin.

The six symptoms of TSS are:

1. Fever greater than 38.9 grades Celsius.

2. Low blood force per unit area, which may do conking when standing up.

3. Vomiting.

4. Diarrhea.

5. Hurting musculuss.

6. Sunburn-like roseola which consequences in terrible desquamation in 1-2 hebdomads.

The symptoms can happen all of a sudden and may be confused with unwellness like the grippe or rubeolas. If the toxin gets into the nervous system, it may do concerns, confusion or unconsciousness. It may take to floor, or occupy the bosom or kidneys.

If your wellness attention practician suspects TSS, immediate admittance to the infirmary is critical as a TSS victim may decease without proper medical attending. Today, about all TSS victims recover because the symptoms and diagnosing are available to medical forces.

Preventive wellness steps have resulted in public instruction and the decrease of the figure of instances of TSS. To forestall TSS, follow the warning inserts enclosed in tampon boxes or wear & # 8217 ; t utilize tampons at all.

Toxic Shock is a Nightmare:

The Story of a Survivor


The narrative and images below may be upseting to sensitive individuals. I take this chance to show of import, yet lesser-known truths about preventable wellness hazards to adult females from deficiency of information about tampon ingredients and usage.

After about 5 old ages of garnering this information, it is my sentiment that the taking makers of tampons are good cognizant that many adult females will go soberly sick, suffer and dice after utilizing their merchandises. It is in their power to cut down the incidence of tampon-related Toxic Shock Syndrome ( TSS ) in adult females.

Because of its relationship to menses and the usage of tampons, TSS has non received equal attending from medical and authorities governments, as have other fatal diseases. It is classified as a & # 8220 ; rare & # 8221 ; disease. This categorization gives adult females a false sense of security about our opportunities of acquiring Toxic Shock. The truth is, that it is no more & # 8220 ; rare & # 8221 ; than certain signifiers of malignant neoplastic disease and AIDS.

Market research professionals are hired by tampon companies to happen out why people buy merchandises. The companies spend 1000000s of dollars for & # 8220 ; consumer studies & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; concentrate groups & # 8221 ; to happen out what adult females think about tampons. They know really good that menses is a forbidden subject of conversation for many people ( How many of us talk about our periods with colleagues or schoolmates? ) . Queerly, we talk about sweat, hickeies, holding & # 8220 ; to travel to the bathroom & # 8221 ; and other normal bodily maps in assorted company without embarassment, while handling conversation about the miracle of female birthrate as black. Using this sort of information has given companies power to maintain potentially detrimental information about their merchandises off from people, and enables them to writhe the & # 8220 ; facts & # 8221 ; so that most of us might ne’er cognize what sorts of opportunities we are truly taking.

Womans, all of us, need to believe about the merchandises that we buy, why they are ( or are non ) available in shops, who decides what we can purchase, and the effects of those determinations. Every dollar that we spend on merchandises made by companies who refuse to take duty for jobs with their merchandises, lets these companies & # 8220 ; acquire off & # 8221 ; with making pollution, decease and agony.

Dioxin, a byproduct of Cl, is a proved slayer ; chlorine-treated rayon fibres are contained in all taking trade names of tampons. What & # 8217 ; s truly chilling about this, is that dioxin besides weakens the immune system, our ability to contend disease. This means that a adult female with dioxin in her organic structure who gets TSS, may hold even less ability to contend the disease. All adult females who grow up in North America have already accumulated dioxin in the fatty tissue in their organic structures. Of class, tampon companies must cognize this excessively, musn & # 8217 ; t they?

Cigarette makers were forced to acknowledge that coffin nails cause decease and unwellness merely after adequate people knew the facts and demanded that appropriate action be taken. Now, every bundle of coffin nails sold in North America has a warning about the dangers of smoke. We know that smoke is unsafe, and we can take for ourselves whether or non we want to take that hazard.

The harm caused by tampons isn & # 8217 ; t so clear yet ; accordingly, approximately 90 % of instances of tampon-related TSS are ne’er diagnosed. This means that a adult female can endure or decease from the disease, and neither she nor her household will of all time truly cognize why.

This narrative is about the miracle of a female parent and girl & # 8217 ; s go oning battle to last the effects of this deathly disease. It offers the reader an chance to see, first-hand, the existent effects of determinations to purchase merchandises from companies who care more about their stockholders than their clients.

Jamie Cash: Abaco & # 8217 ; s Miracle Teenager

Jamie Cash was 13 old ages old at the clip. A happy, active adolescent, she enjoyed the things that immature adult females enjoy: music, school, friends, athleticss, and particularly, swimming.

Jamie & # 8217 ; s parents loved their girl and her 7-year old brother ; they were working hard to give their household a good life. Carrie Cash, Jamie & # 8217 ; s female parent, found a concern that allowed her the flexibleness to be at that place for her kids. She was proud that Jamie was an first-class swimmer with possible scholarship abilities. As a affair

of fact, she was her swim manager! The household lived good, loved each other, and were happy.

One twenty-four hours, Toxic Shock Syndrome changed their happy lives. At first, it seemed to be a bad grippe or cold, and Jamie was to pass a few yearss in bed. But it got worse & # 8230 ; Jamie became confused and the slightest motion caused her to experience swoon as her blood force per unit area sank lower. A all right ruddy roseola covered her trunk ; her kidneys had failed. She grew weaker and weaker. Her female parent rushed her by boat to the physician. They had to name an air ambulance. The paramedics were scared ; they & # 8217 ; d ne’er seen anything like this before. It was clear that Jamie & # 8217 ; s status was critical.

Jamie was flown to the nearest infirmary, over a 100 stat mis off, and admitted to pediatric intensive attention. Fortunately, the go toing physician was cognizant plenty of her symptoms to do a crystal-clear diagnosing: Menstrual Toxic Shock Syndrome. Every critical organ system except her encephalon had failed. An armory of drugs and life support equipment were rushed into the room to seek and salvage Jamie & # 8217 ; s life. After a heroic 14 hr attempt during which Jamie & # 8220 ; coded & # 8221 ; twice, the physicians brought her parents in to state adieu. The 3rd clip Jamie & # 8220 ; coded & # 8221 ; there was nil left to make.

Fortunately for Jamie and her household, they are born combatants. Her female parent has been a dedicated militant since the sixtiess. She besides knew a batch about tampon makers, holding once worked on their advertisement runs! Carrie Cash is non one to accept failure, or to accept & # 8220 ; facts & # 8221 ; at face value ; she fought for her girl & # 8217 ; s life so, as she continues to contend for her today. Somehow, she knew that her household could get the better of this crisis.

In sheer panic, her female parent cried, & # 8220 ; Get back here, Jamie Cash! I & # 8217 ; ve ne’er raised a quitter! This will be the longest endurance contest of your life, but I & # 8217 ; ll be with you every measure of the manner! & # 8221 ;

The first miracle of many more miracles happened & # 8211 ; Jamie started to come back, merely a small. The sense of hope felt by Jamie & # 8217 ; s household and the medical staff was bigger than their hurting, daze or incredulity. They did non cognize that they would travel through this ordeal once more and once more over the following three months. But they had hope. They still do.

Although Jamie has regained much of her former wellness, she will ne’er be the same. Now, she, her friends and household have to be improbably careful about her wellness. Toxic Shock Syndrome has robbed her of the full usage of her organic structure and she is still on occasion rushed to the infirmary with one or another baleful status ; the last clip I heard about, it was glandular fever. Other times & # 8230 ; . the list goes on and on & # 8230 ; Jamie has been on a regular basis enduring wellness jobs related to Toxic Shock four old ages subsequently!

The agony of the Cash household could hold been prevented. They are non to fault for what happened. The incrimination lies with the tampon companies and determination shapers who continue to let the confederacy of silence about the true wellness hazards from tampons: rayon, Cl, dioxin, additives, absorbency foils, appliers, the hazards of tampon usage in certain athleticss activities & # 8211 ; the list goes on and on. ( For more information about wellness hazards and tampons, delight see our web page Tampons and Health. ) Women need to hear the truth, all the truth, right now, before one more adult female dies an unneeded decease at the custodies of the blind and avaricious people who run these companies.

It & # 8217 ; s high clip that the companies and the & # 8220 ; nameless bureaucrats & # 8221 ; who have been leting this misrepresentation to go on came clean, wouldn & # 8217 ; t you say? And I & # 8217 ; vitamin Ds say it & # 8217 ; s a safe stake that, like other large corporations that spend a batch of money covering up their & # 8220 ; soiled secrets & # 8221 ; ( retrieve the coffin nail companies? ) , they won & # 8217 ; t state the truth until they & # 8217 ; re forced to.

At the clip of this authorship, a tampon company is publicizing that it & # 8217 ; s safe to utilize tampons overnight, & # 8220 ; up to 8 hours. & # 8221 ; I & # 8217 ; ve heard that they will pass over $ 60 million dollars in one twelvemonth to sell this message to adult females. They, like you and I, know that many immature adult females ( immature adult females are at highest hazard of Toxic Shock ) will kip much longer than 8 hours if they & # 8217 ; re given a opportunity. They besides know that it & # 8217 ; s safer for a adult female non to utilize tampons at all, or if she does, for no longer than 3 to 6 hours. But publicizing these sorts of facts won & # 8217 ; t sell as many tampons, will it? Besides, adult females are told they can & # 8220 ; trust & # 8221 ; tampons.

Mothers, girls, sisters, friends & # 8211 ; allow & # 8217 ; s acquire those companies, their advertisement and their unsafe tampons out of our lives right now! State the shop directors that those tampons are unsafe, that what they & # 8217 ; re purchasing is destructing adult females & # 8217 ; s lives and the environment ; state them that adult females can action shops for selling merchandises that have harmed them ( and have! ) . State them that one adult female & # 8217 ; s agony and decease from toxic tampons is excessively many. Let & # 8217 ; s talk freely about our periods, about the pollution and it & # 8217 ; s effects on our wellness, and state all the adult females we know to make the same.And Lashkar-e-Taiba & # 8217 ; s talk truly aloud about companies that treat cases from victims of their merchandises as a & # 8220 ; cost of making business. & # 8221 ;

You & # 8217 ; ve heard the narrative of one household & # 8217 ; s enduring with the disease. The Cash household is integral ; Jamie lives. Sadly, other adult females have died, some that we know about ( see mentions to research ) . But there have been some adult females whose physicians weren & # 8217 ; t taught plenty about TSS in medical books. We & # 8217 ; ll ne’er know about those adult females.

We have the power to halt the makers from taking opportunities with our lives & # 8211 ; we can state the truth. We can maintain stating it. And we can halt purchasing their merchandises.

In wellness,

Willi Nolan

P.S. As ever, your remarks, narratives and suggestions are welcome. Thank you for taking clip to portion the information that we offer ; we ask that you portion it with others, and state them how you found the information. Be good.

Toxic Shock Syndrome ( TSS )

Toxic Shock Syndrome ( TSS ) is a bacterial unwellness that has been associated with the usage of tampons since tardily in the 1970s. Tampon-induced TSS is a comparatively rare, potentially deadly disease, caused by a strain of Staphylococcus aureus bacterial toxin known as TSST-1. The TSST-1 toxin enters the blood stream, and has been found in vaginas, and about entirely affects adult females who use tampons.

Most officially diagnosed instances of tampon-related TSS occur in adult females under 30 old ages of age, particularly adolescent adult females 15 to 19 old ages of age. Sixty per centum of tampon-induced TSS human deaths are reported to be in adult females 15 to 24 old ages, 98 per centum of these being white adult females. U.S. estimations of the incidence of TSS are between 1 and 17 instances per 100,000 flowing adult females per twelvemonth. The U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC ) in Atlanta received 216 studies of TSS in 1993, 244 instances in 1992. The CDC studies that 99 per centum of all TSS instances were in adult females and 98 per centum of these adult females suffered the oncoming of the disease during a catamenial period. The instance human death, or decease rate, for tampon-induced TSS is about 6 per centum. Experts say that merely 10 per centum of all instances are recorded.

Womans and misss suffer and die every twelvemonth from tampon-induced Toxic Shock Syndrome. Womans who have survived TSS have suffered, among other jobs, abortions, loss of hair, loss of limbs and palsy.

Recent surveies, released at the 1994 convention of the American Society for Microbiology have demonstrated a nexus between the usage of tampons incorporating rayon and TSS. The research demonstrates a leaning for tampons incorporating rayon fibres to magnify the production of the TSST-1 toxin, known to be responsible for tampon-induced Toxic Shock Syndrome.

These surveies besides show that the TSST-1 toxin is non produced on the cotton used to bring forth terra femme tampons.

TSS Symptoms and Prevention

Symptoms of toxic daze syndrome:

& # 183 ; Sudden oncoming of a febrility of 102 grades or higher

& # 183 ; Diarrhea

& # 183 ; Vomiting

& # 183 ; Dizziness

& # 183 ; Muscular hurting or failing

& # 183 ; Fainting

& # 183 ; Suddenly experiencing unwell ( flu-like symptoms )

& # 183 ; Disorientation

& # 183 ; Skin roseola resembling a tan peculiarly on the thenar and the colloidal suspensions of the pess

& # 183 ; Skining tegument

& # 183 ; Headache

& # 183 ; Sore pharynx

& # 183 ; Bloodshot eyes

& # 183 ; Rapid autumn of blood force per unit area

If you experience high febrility, purging and diarrhea together or surmise toxic daze while have oning a tampon, instantly take the tampon and consult a doctor. State the physician your symptoms, how long you have had them, and when your period started. Keep the tampon in instance your physician wants to prove it.

Tampon-related Toxic Shock Syndrome is fatal in approximately 6 per centum of instances. Womans who do non decease may endure a scope of serious and painful hurts, including terrible organ harm, loss of hair, limbs and fingertips, reduced lung capacity and assorted other conditions.

Reduce the hazard of TSS with these preventative steps:


& # 183 ; Refrain from utilizing tampons overnight or between catamenial periods.

& # 183 ; Use the lowest absorbency tampon necessary to absorb your catamenial flow.

& # 183 ; Change tampons at least every 3 to 6 hours.

& # 183 ; Wash your custodies and fingernails good before and after infixing a tampon.

& # 183 ; Alternate the usage of tampons with catamenial tablets.

& # 183 ; Don & # 8217 ; t utilize tampons between catamenial periods.


1. A Medical Time Bomb, Robb Cribb, Hamilton Spectator, September 10, 1994, p. A6.

2. Emerging Patterns of Tampon Use in the Adolescent Female: The Impact of Toxic Shock Syndrome, Charles E. Irwin, Jr. , MD and Susan G. Millstein, MS, American Journal of Public Health, May 1982, Vol. 72, No. 5, pp. 464-467.

3. Analysis of New Generation Tampons for Propensity to Magnify Staphyloccocus aureus Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1 ( TSST 1 ) , Philip M. Tierno, Jr. , Bruce A. Hanna, Departments of Microbiology and Pathology, NYU School of Medicine. Presented at the 94th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, May 24, 1994.

4. & # 8220 ; Truth about tampons demands to be told: These convenient small fluff balls are non every bit benign as everyone believes. & # 8221 ; , Ann Montgomery, Ottawa Citizen, Sept. 1, 1992.

5. The Price of A Life, Tom Riley, Adler & A ; Adler Publishers, Bethesda Maryland, 1986.


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