Tribes Essay, Research Paper

Test of Tears and the Five Civilized Tribes

During the early old ages of 1800s, valuable gold sedimentations were discovered in tribal lands, which by old cedings had been reduced to about seven million estates in northwest Georgia, eastern Tennessee, and southwest North Carolina. In 1819 Georgia appealed to the U.S. authorities to take the Cherokee from Georgia lands. When the entreaty failed, efforts were made to buy the district. Meanwhile, in 1820 the Cherokee established a governmental system modeled on that of the United States, with an elected principal head, a senate, and a house of representatives. Because of this system, the Cherokee were included as one of the alleged Five Civilized Tribes. The other four folks were the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and the Seminoles. In 1832 the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Georgia statute law was unconstitutional ; federal governments, following Jackson? s policy of Native American remotion, ignored the determination. About five hundred taking Cherokee agreed in 1835 to yield the tribal district in exchange for $ 5,700,000 and land in Indian Territory ( now Oklahoma ) . Their action was repudiated by more than nine-tenths of the folk, and several members of the group were subsequently assassinated. In 1838 federal military personnels began physical evicting the Cherokee. Approximately one 1000 escaped to the North Carolina Mountains, purchased land, and incorporated in that province ; they were the ascendants of the contemporary Eastern Band. Most of the folk, including the Western Band, was driven west about eight 100s stat mis in a forced March, known as the Trail of Tears. The March West included 18,000 to 20,000 people, of whom about 4000 perished through hungriness, disease, and exposure.

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The Cherokee are of the Iroquoian lingual household. Their economic system, like that of the other southeasterly folks, was based on intensive agribusiness, chiefly of maize, beans, and squash. Deer, bear, and mooses were hunted. The folk was divided into seven matrilinear kins that were dispersed in war and peace medieties ( half-tribes ) . The people lived in legion lasting small towns, some of which belonged to the war mediety, the remainder to the peace mediety. In the early nineteenth century, the Cherokee demonstrated unusual adaptability to Western establishments, both in their governmental alterations and in their acceptance of Western method of animate being harvest home and agriculture. Public schools were established and in the 1820s, a tribal member invented an 85-character syllable book for the Cherokee linguistic communication. Widespread literacy followed about instantly. In 1828 the first Native American newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix, began publication. Today in Oklahoma, much of the civilization has remained the same. Their traditional trades are most strongly preserved by the Eastern Band where their basketry is considered to be equal to or better than that of earlier times. In Oklahoma the Cherokee live both on and off the reserve, scattered in urban centres and in stray rural parts. Their businesss range signifier fishing to industrial labour to concern direction. In North Carolina, agriculture, forestry, mill work, and touristry are beginnings of income. As of 1990 there were 308,132 Cherokee posterities in the Un

ited States.

Another member of the five folks is the Seminoles, a Native American folk of the Muskogean linguistic communication household. Most now live in Oklahoma and southern Florida. The Seminole folk developed in the eighteenth century from members of the Creed Confederacy, largely Creeks and Hitchiti, who raided and finally settled in Florida. After the United States acquired Florida in 1819, the territorial governor, Andrew Jackson, initiated a vigorous policy of tribal remotion to open the land for white colonists. After the gaining control of their leader Osceola in 1837 and the terminal of the Second Seminole War in 1842, several thousand Seminole were forcibly moved west to Indian Territory. At the terminal of the Third Seminole War in 1858, approximately 250 more were sent west. The remainder were allowed to stay, and their posterities signed a peace pact with the United States in 1935. In 1964 the Miccosukee signed a 50-year understanding with national Park Service that allows the Miccosukee entree to more than 300 estates of the Everglades. The Florida Seminole have five reserves. They farm, Hunt, fish, and some run tourist-related concerns. Many still live in thatch-roofed, open-sided houses on piles and wear hodgepodge and appliqu? vesture. The Seminole in Oklahoma were given a smaller reserve after the American Civil War. In the late nineteenth century they yielded to coerce to split their tribal land into single allocations and yield the excess to the United States ; this land was opened to colonists in 1889. In 1990 Seminole posterities numbered 13, 797. Many were Baptist churchs, but both the Florida and Oklahoma groups retained traditional Muskogean observations.

The three staying folks, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and the Creek, are all close in relationship. All folks are of the Muskogean lingual household and all occupied an country that now includes Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Kentucky. The Chickasaw lived in homes constructed alongside watercourses and rivers instead than in small towns. They obtained nutrient by runing, fishing, and farming. The Creek were an agricultural folk, populating in small towns dwelling of log houses. Creek adult females cultivated maize, squash, beans, and other harvests, and the work forces hunted and fished. The Choctaw were less warlike that their traditional enemies, the Chickasaw and the Creek. They lived in clay and bark cabins with thatched roofs. They were besides agricultural people, likely the most able husbandmans of the southeasterly part. They besides raised cowss, fished, and hunted. In 1990 the Chickasaw and their posterities numbered 20,631, the Creek heritage numbered 43,550, and a big figure of Choctaw and their posterities live chiefly in Oklahoma and besides in Mississippi and Louisiana.

During the 18th and 19th centuries the Choctaw were forced to travel further and further west to avoid struggle with European colonists. By 1842 they had ceded most of their land to the United States and were relocated in Indian Territory, land set aside for them in contemporary Oklahoma. Here the Choctaw became, along with Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Seminole, portion of a group of Native Americans known as the Five Civilized Tribes, so called because they had organized authoritiess the constitution of public schools and newspapers.

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