Transgenic species are genetically altered organisms that have had their normal genome modified to have a gene from another organisms DNA transferred into its chromosomes so it can pass it on to its future generations. The aim of this research is to investigate the use and reasons for transgenic species and how they are produced while taking in consideration the various issues that may relate to the process that is undertaken as well as the final outcomes.
There are various methods involved with producing this species which generally involve the removal and transferring of the arranges, which is the desired gene from the donor organism, and inserting it into a plasmid of DNA which holds and transfers the gene into its host species. The modified DNA can be delivered into the host organism through a variety of different methods which include the use of a Gene gun, DNA microinstruction and Electrification.
A Gene gun is a delivery system that can deliver any type of genetic information into the cells of any organism by injecting small pieces of gold, silver or tungsten along with the DNA into the nucleus of the host organism. DNA surjection is another technique used for gene delivery which involves the direct injection of the recombinant DNA (the genetically modified DNA) into the nucleus of the host species using a fine glass microcomputer under an optical microscope.
Isolate the DNA segment through the use of recombinant DNA technology and restriction enzymes: 0 Recombinant DNA technology -radar- refers to the combination of two or more DNA strands (I. E. The entire process, including the use of restriction enzymes etc… ). Restriction enzymes cut out the DNA that is to be transferred (transgender) which produces ‘sticky ends’ on the strand. The restriction enzymes also cut the host DNA strand also producing sticky ends. The process of annealing will then occur; this is when the matching sticky ends of the two different organisms’ DNA strands, cut by the same restriction enzymes, connect.
The two strands will link up and form ‘recombinant DNA’ which is the final DNA to be used including only the desired Aliases are then used to strengthen the bond of the recombinant DNA. 0 genes. 0 DNA regulator sequences are also used to ensure that the isolated desired gene that was inserted will be focused on and copied and will in turn function as there are a lot t genes therefore it not promoted, the desired gene may not be expressed. 3. Once the recombinant DNA has been completely formed, gene cloning will occur and multiple copies will be made using polymerase chain reaction (PC).
This step is usually carried out in the bacteria ‘host’ cell. For this process to occur the recombinant DNA, a large amount of the nucleotide bases (Adenine, Guanine, Thymine and cytosine), the enzyme polymerase and multiple primers (short nucleotide sequences used to start the process) are mixed and heated which causes the two DNA strands to separate. They are then cooled causing the primers to stick to he ends of the strands and the polymerase then brings complementary DNA strands for the current DNA strand which doubles the quantity of new recombinant DNA.
This process is repeated multiple times. 4. The process following the gene manipulation process outlined above is the process of delivering of the new gene. DNA microinstruction is an example of the multiple techniques that can be used. An advantage of using DNA microinstruction is that it is a process that can be used on various species although due to the actual insertion of the gene being a random process there is a high chance that the squired gene may be inserted into a host cell where it is not accepted. 5. The process of culturing/ growing the transgenic species then occurs.
Human insulin is produced in order to treat people who may lack insulin producing factors or may have mutations in them such as diabetics. This insulin is made through the use of genetically-engineered microbes/bacteria such as E. Coli cell being the host species and the insulin producing gene in humans as the donor. The reason for the production of human insulin and not the insulin of other organisms such as pigs is due to allergic reactions which can be avoided when human insulin is reduced in its pure form.
The production of insulin aids in the survival and treatment of diabetics and other organism that may lack insulin or the insulin producing factors. The procedure of the production of human insulin is outlined below. 1. The desired gene producing insulin is identified in the donor organism which is the human. 2. Locate the desired gene through the use of the technology FISH in the human DNA. 3. Isolate and obtain this gene by using restriction enzymes to cut it out of the donor organisms DNA (the humans DNA makeup) and insert it into an E. Coli plasmid. Enzyme aliases are used to strengthen the newly formed recombinant DNA. 5. The recombinant DNA is copied using PC. 6. A gene gun is used in this procedure to insert the recombinant DNA into the E. Coli host cell. 7. The transgenic bacteria now formed is left to multiply which automatically copies the desired gene located in the recombinant DNA. 8. The essential amino acids are provided to the growth medium to complete the process of producing insulin as the bacteria uses the amino acids to synthesis insulin. 9. Extract insulin to supply it to diabetics etc…
There are many ethical issues in relation to the production of transgenic species which often relate to the rights of humans, the welfare of animals and various environmental factors. The risk of any problems arising and whether we will be able to deal with them or not, is also a common issue that often causes people to question the production of transgenic species. Some of the general ethical issues against transgenic species include: – Concerns about long term effects on transgenic animals themselves as well as their offspring. Health risks to humans due to the consuming f transgenic animals such as cows that may have adopted a bacterial infection such as mastitis. – Animal rights may be violated; for example the transgenic pigs that grow faster and bigger are unable to stand due to the development of arthritis. – There is a high concern that the genetic modifying of transgenic species may disrupt the natural way of transferring genes and eventually disrupt evolutionary relationships between organisms. – Concerns that new diseases may be introduced or that the resistance to medications/drugs may increase. Risks associated genetically modified drugs.
An example of this is the case in the United States in the sass’s, where a genetically engineered sleeping pill was produced with the accidental insertion tot an extremely toxic amino IAC d known as EST. This lead to the development of a disease called championship analytic syndrome in all the people that consumed this pill. Other ethical issues that support the production of transgenic species include: -The improved quality and shelf life of transgenic foods such as tomatoes which are genetically modified to block the enzyme that causes them to soften quickly resulting n harder tomatoes that stay fresh for longer periods. Research programs for the cure of cancer often use transgenic species to study human diseases. – Improved quality of crops such as strawberries that have been modified in order to grow in colder conditions. – Genes can be modified and stored providing improved genetic diversity of a particular breed for future cloning. – Genetically modified pigs grow faster and fatter which is an advantage for farmers and human consumption. – Economically wise to produce transgenic species as money can be saved in situations where large quantities of chemicals need to be used.