UNEMPLOYMENT Employment in simple words can be defined as an occupation by which a person can earn his living. And Unemployment is the inability of providing gainful work to people who are willing to work. And for a country like India, employment has become one of the major challenges of the current economy. Despite the economic reforms and the IT & BPO boom, the unemployment situation in India is getting worse. Therefore, emphasis is given on providing more employment opportunities which in turn reflects on economic growth of the country. Whenever we are talking about economic development, we cannot ignore young generation.
Youth have been recognized as “the most vital section of the community”. Among the other problems, the youths of India has been facing the unemployment problem. Life for an unemployed youth is very miserable in all aspects. They are in tremendous pressure from all sides. The question ‘what are you doing? ‘ without understanding the ground reality of employment opportunity questions the usefulness of his life. The problem lies with the high expectation of the family member and the society, who always nag him without knowing the mental tensions of the youth concerned and the situation around him.
So the educated youth rushes after tuition for his livelihood forgetting almost all-important aspects of his life and getting less chance to think for the society and for himself too. Quite appropriately, the problem of youth unemployment has been recognized as an aspect of national unemployment problem. Educated youths have no stable and durable employment. An unemployed youth takes a long time to find work and secures it at an inadequate remuneration since job seekers far outnumber the available opportunities. TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT Basically Unemployment is of three types: 1.
DISGUISED UNEMPLOYMENT:It is a situation which more people are engaged in an activity than the required ones. The people who are actually engaged in such an activity appear to be employed but are not fully employed. It is also known as underemployment. This problem is acute in rural areas. Eg: A work can be completed with 2persons but if there are 6 persons do the same work , the additional 4 persons are considered as disguised unemployed. 2. SEASONAL UNEMPLOYMENT:During off-season there is unemployment of people engaged in such types of work or activities which cater to the seasonal demand. Eg.
Agriculture in India is a seasonal activity as it depends on monsoon. 3. STRUCTURAL UNEMPLOYMENT:The mismatch of available capital and the size of the labour force create persistent unemployment both in agriculture and industry. Lack of resource to provide employment. OTHER TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT: When there is unemployment due to reduction of demand for goods, it is referred as CYCLICAL UNEMPLOYMENT. If unemployment occurs owing to changes in technology, it is referred to as TECHNICAL UNEMPLOYMENT. These types of unemployment are harmless and prevail for short durations only. RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT
According to the report on Global Employment Trends for Youth 2004 by the International Labour Organisation, (ILO) Geneva, there are 184 million unemployed people around the world, and among them, 47 per cent are young persons. Around 88 million young people between the ages of 18-24 are unemployed worldwide. India accounts for a major chunk of Asia’s unemployed. By 2001, there were 212 million young people in India, but only 23. 6 percent could be absorbed in the labour force. Simultaneously there’s been a marked decrease in the number of jobs on offer from the organized sector (less than 10 percent).
As a result, the emphasis of job creation has shifted to the informal sector Since the Labour force grew at a quicker rate of 2. 84 % than the Workforce, unemployment also rose. The incidence of unemployment increased from 7. 31 % in 1999-2000 to 8. 28 % in 2004-05. The decline in overall growth of employment during 1993-94 to 1999-2000 was largely due to the lower absorption in agriculture. The youth in India account for 25-29% of the total population. Among educated youth, the unemployment rate for females was higher than males. The unemployment rate for females in rural areas at 26. % was higher than in urban areas (20. 8%). For males, unemployment was also lower in urban areas (9. 1%) than in rural areas (13. 3%). Youth unemployment rate, aged 15-24, both sexes YearValue 19948. 3 200010. 1 200410. 5 Youth unemployment rate, aged 15-24, men YearValue 19948. 4 200010. 1 200410. 4 Youth unemployment rate, aged 15-24, women YearValue 19948 200010. 2 200410. 8 REASONS FOR UNEMPLOYMRNT The problem of employment in India is economic, due to the huge, increasing population, with jobs not increasing in the same proportion.
So a large section of the population is left unemployment. We also have huge numbers of educated people who are unemployed. They have the necessary skills to do only office works and there are not enough opportunities for them. *The mismatching of the Indian education system with the requirements of the industries. *Lacks of private investment promoters are also the key factor that has a major impact on growth and stabilization of economy. *Recession has become one of the recent threats and has aggravated the problem of employment all over the world and India is not an exception for that. The decline at the annual growth rates of the industrial production reduced job opportunities *Changing of labor laws: Small and medium scale enterprises are free to close down their enterprises without a prior notification submitted to the government. *In India, especially in the rural areas there is a great lack in regard of education and vocational training. The youth in the rural areas are not eligible for employment, as they do not have the chance to benefit from the education and training facilities.
The university graduates enter the labor market without skill building due to the fact that the training in the universities do not match with the needs of the labor market. *The migrant workers are also another problem of youth unemployment. The migrant workers can work for lower wages and for longer hours. The Reality We have a conception that education is supposed to reduce the chances of unemployment. The fact is that the youth with higher degrees tends to be more choosy about available jobs unlike their illiterate counterpart who are staying in the shadow poverty, ready to do whatever work available.
The educated unemployed obviously come from comparatively better-off families, which can afford to support them until they find a job matching their status and living standard. Statistics do not, and cannot, tell the whole truth about unemployment. In case of village youth, the family supports after university pass-out is in terms of materials and not in form of money. After their study, they are generally becoming full time tuition masters, which make them sufficient for short term but in long run it rarely helps them to build a sound career.
He has to spend almost six to seven hours a day in tuition. As a result he got very less time to think up his own matter and own career. Out of forty respondents, almost all educated rural youths depend upon tuition and only very few fellows are getting money from his house and that is based on the condition of only another six months only. METHODS TO CONTROL YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT The problem and solution have two aspects: Individual and collective. As an individual you have to choose your courses carefully. You have to interact with the industries to know their requirements.
You must choose an institute very carefully. Ensure that they are covering above mentioned three aspects in their syllabus. It is in your best interest to ensure that your institute is interfacing with the requirements of industries before you admit into it. What should be done as a general measure to solve the problem? The one point solution of the problem is a change in education system, a radical change. There must be an interface among Government bodies looking after education, Universities, all India committee of technical education and the representatives of the industries.
The institutes must educate as per industries’ needs. Have these done, India will not face problem of unemployability and the youth force of India will not be remain unemployed. EMPLOYMENT SCHEMES FROM THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA The 11th five year plan has special schemes to encourage the organised sector to employ more labour and simultaneously, to improve labour productivity in the unorganised sector. It also aims at making employment generation an integral part of the growth process and devise strategies to accelerate not only growth of employment but also wages of poorly paid workers.
STRATEGIES TO REDUCE UNEMPLOYMENT: The govt has undertaken many special programmes to generate employment opportunities. The major ones among them are: •ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT: In order to inherent the entrepreneur attitude in the youth of India, the government has delivered the following services: -Training and implementing schemes which are necessary to promote self-employment. -Low cost capital provided by the Govt to small enterprises and self-employed persons to develop their entrepreneurial ability. -Giving technical and professional help in running the business. Banks providing credit facilities at concessional rates. All the above steps help the youth to develop their own employment opportunity •REVISION OF SYLLABUS Government is revising the syllabus for the youth right from the school level to the graduate and post graduate colleges. Develop different courses to improve their (youths) communication skill, analytical skills and problem solving. •TRAINING INSTITUTES With a view to impart skills through training, the govt of India has taken many steps: There are around 4300 Industrial Training Institutes (ITI) to produce specialized workers.
Various ministries of the govt of India are providing vocational Education and Training which has introduced vocational education in the school system and there is a provision for vocational education after class X CONCLUSION Educated youth face a situation of isolation and pressure from the family, government, and from the locality, where they stay. Not only the government, but also every individual should concentrate on this burning issue. Unlike the Americans, Japanese, Germans even Indian are always reluctant to start self-employment professions.
Now time has come to use our talent, start something not for our self but for our community by which we can give opportunity to our youths. At the same time the government should take some initiative to help the young generation to come forward from the sphere of untouchables and create a sphere, which appreciate by the mankind. The State Government should also vigorously pursue industrialization and big companies and set up industries, which will have a sustainable impact on the development of the State from a backward image to a modern image.
The say that youth is the future of the society is no more a slogan of the day as an unemployed youth is behaved like untouchables in all sphere of life. At last we would like to say that: Not only our future economic soundness but the very soundness of our democratic institutions depends on the determination of our government to give employment to idle men. BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www. thehindubusinessline. com/life/2005/07/22/stories/2005072200100400. htm