psychiatrist
the socialist most likely to have a medical degree is a
forensic
the psychologist most likely to help an attorney make selections of jury members is a _ psychologist
evolutionary
professor crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the survival of our ancestors’ genes. this viewpoint best illustrates the _ perspective
community
dr. preston is a specialist who goes to areas that have been hit by natural disasters and works with teams there to manage the resulting cries among the members of the public who have been affected. dr. preston is most likely a _ psychologist
mental life; observable behavior
in its early years, psychology focused on the study of _, but from the 1920s into the 1960s, american psychologists emphasized the study of _
behavioral
mrs. thompson believes that her son has become an excellent student because she consistently uses praise and affection to stimulate his learning efforts. her belief best illustrates a _ perspective
biological perspective
dr. robinson conducts basic research on the relationship between brain chemistry and intellectual functioning. which psychological specialty does dr. robinson’s research best represent?
psychodynamic
a clinical psychologist who explains behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is employing a _ perspective
laboratory research
which of the following innovations differentiated wilhelm wundt’s research the most from any psychologist before him?
behavioral
which perspective most clearly focuses on how we learn observable responses?
industrial-organizational psychology
dr. ochoa develops tests to accurately identify the most qualified job applicants in a large manufacturing firm. which psychological specialty does dr. ocher’s work best represent?
a biopsychosocial approach
janna has low self-esteem because she is often teased for being overweight. appreciating the complexity of janna’s difficulties requires
sigmund freud
who would most likely to emphasize the role of the unconscious in affecting behavior?
william james
who was the american philosopher who authored a textbook in 1890 for the emerging discipline of psychology?
cognitive
which psychological perspective highlights the manner in which people encode, process, store, and retrieve information?
introspection
behaviorists dismissed the value of
developmental
dr. santaniello conducts basic research on how children’s moral thinking changes as they grow older. it is most likely that dr. santaniello is a _ psychologist
personality
dr. wilcox conducts basic research on the behavioral differences between shy and outgoing people. dr. wilcox is most likely a _ psychologist
clinical
working in a community mental health center, dr. thatcher treats adults who suffer from sever depression. dr. thatcher is most likely a _ psychologist
john b. watson
who would have been most likely to ignore mental processes and to define psychology as “the scientific study of observable behavior”
william james
the early school of psychology known as functionalism was developed by
neuropsychologist
dr. welker decided on his career path after seeing two of his grandparents experience alzheimer’s disease. because he now works in the diagnosis and treatment of alzheimer’s disease, he must be considered a _
social psychology
dr. mills conducts research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others. which specialty area does his research best represent?
introspection
in Wilhelm wundt’s experiments, participants were asked to press a key as soon as they were consciously aware of perceiving a sound. by asking participants to examine and report conscious experiences, wundt was making use of which of the following?
cognitive
which perspective is most concerned with how individuals interpret their experiences
examine additional psychological and social-cultural influences on shyness
margaret has difficulty speaking in front of her classmates and explains how everyone in her family is shy. using the biopsychosocial approach to understand her behavior, margaret should
biopsychosocial
which approach is most directly concerned with assessing the relative impact of both nature and nurture
the simplest mental processes
windiest early experiments were attempts to investigate
blood chemistry
biological perspective in psych would be most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by
social-cultural
dr. kozak has concluded that the unusually low incidence of alcohol dependence among citizens of a small african country can be attributed to strong fundamentalist religious influences in that region, illustrating _ perspective
experimental
the psychologist who would be least likely to participate in devising ways to improve teaching and learning in a classroom would be
biological
which perspective is most relevant to understanding the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory
adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions
functionalism was a school of psych that focused attention on
healthy growth potential
humanistic psychologists focused on the importance of
childhood experiences and unconscious thought processes; current environmental influences on potential
in explaining human behavior, psychoanalysts are likely to focus on _, whereas humanistic psychologists concentrate on _
margaret washburn
which psychologist was the first woman to receive a ph.d in psych after harvard declined to give mary calkins the ph.d
multiple levels on analysis
the biopsychosocial approach provides an understanding of social-culturla influences integrated within the larger framework of
psychodynamic
mrs. alfieri believes that her husband’s angry outbursts against her result form his unconscious hatred of his own mother. she’s looking at her husband’s behavior from a _ perspective
educational
mr. kay is interested in whether individual differences affect learning. he is most likely a _ psychologist
people encode, process, store, and retrieve information
the cognitive perspective in psychology focuses on how
cognitive neuroscience
which area of psych might be best suited to investigate the following research q: what happens in our brains when we forget details about stressful life events, and how does this process affect behavior
structuralism
unreliability of introspection contributed to waning popularity of
mary calkins
who was the student of william james that was the first female president of the apa
unconscious conflicts
distinctive feature of psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on
behavior and mental processes
contemporary psych is best define as the scientific study of
nature vs nurture
arguments as to whether psychological differences between men and women result from biological or social influences most clearly involved a debate over the issue of
experimental
dr. anderson spends much of his time studying the behaviors of rats who are learning to run mazes in his lab on campus, as well as teaching courses at the university. because of his focus on the basic behaviors of animals, he is considered to be a _ psychologist
evolutionary
which perspective highlights the reproductive advantages of inherited psych traits
social
dr. veenstra conducts basic research n the impact of racial prejudice on behavior. he is most likely a _ psychologist
providing therapy to troubled people
clinical psychologists specialize in
unsurprising
hindsight bias leads people to perceive research findings as
the hindsight bias
according to emily’s grandfather, adult hitler’s obvious emotional instability made it clear from the beginning days of his international conflicts that germany would inevitably lost wwii
the hindsight bias
formulating testable hypotheses before conducting research is most directly useful for restraining a thinking error known as
overconfidence
when provided with the unscrambled solution to anagrams, people underestimate the difficulty of solving the anagrams by themselves
overconfidence
thinking that she had outperformed most of her classmates, glenda was surprised to receive just an average grade on her psych test
what causes aggression?
which of the following q’s most likely could be answered using an empirical approach
theory
what do scientists call an explanation that organizes observations and predicts future behaviors or events
theory
professor shalet contends that parents and children have similar levels of intelligence largely because they share common genes
testable prediction that gives direction to research
define hypothesis
predictions
hypotheses are best described as
classroom size has been operationally defined
dr. roberts hypothesized that students in a classroom seating 30 would get higher course grades than students seated in an auditorium seating 300
operational definition
a specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as
operational definitions
the process of replication is most likely to be facilitated by
repeated research with similar results increases confidence in the reliability of the original findings
importance of replication to science
case study
which research method is typically used to examine one participant in depth, usually because the individual’s situation/behavior is rare of unusual?
may be unrepresentative of what is generally true
the biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence
naturalistic observation
psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzee societies in the jungle are using what research method
the survey
which research method would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between religious beliefs of americans and their attitudes toward abortion
population
in order to learn about the political attitudes of all students enrolled in asu, professor randomly selected 800 of these students to complete a questionnaire. all students enrolled in asu are the
random sampling
to assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college, ariana sent a questionnaire to every 15th person in the college registrar’s alphabetical list, using what technique
a sampling bias
georgoe was worried about his baker’y new cupcakes after 2 customers disliked them on the first day, but when he surveyed his customers over the next week, more than 90% said they loved them. by giving too much weight to those 2 customers before the survey committed an error known as
prediction
correlational research is most useful for purposes of
direction and strength of the relationship between 2 variables
a correlation coefficient is a measure of the
scatterplot
to graphically represent the correlation between 2 variables researchers often construct a
negatively correlated
if psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their marriages than poor people, what correlation is this
better reading ability is associated with greater physical weight among children
if the correlation between the physical weight and reading ability of children is +.85 this would indicate
-.12
weakest correlation coefficient
-.67
strongest correlation coefficient
correlational measures
to discover the extent to which economic status can be used to predict political preferences, researchers are most likely to use
confusing correlation with causation
following the scientific discovery that a specific brain structure is significantly larger in violent individuals than in those who are nonviolent, a news headline announced “enlarged brain structure triggers violent acts”
correlation indicated the possibility of a casual relationship, but it does not prove causation
which of following statements about correlation and causation is most correct
a perceived but nonexistent correlation
define illusory correlation
experiment
a researcher interested in proving a casual relationship between 2 variables should choose which research method
experimental research
the most foolproof way of testing the true effectiveness of a newly introduced method of psychological therapy is by means of
random assignment
to assess the effect of televised violence on aggression, researchers plan to expose one group of children to violent movie scenes and another group to nonviolent scenes. to reduce the chance that the children in one group have more aggressive personalities than those in the other groups, researchers should make use of
random assignment
to study the effects of noise on worker productivity researchers have one group of subjects work in a noisy room and the other quiet. to ensure that any differences result from different noise, the researchers would use
the double-blind procedure
both the researchers and participants in a memory study are ignorant about which participants have actually received the drug
control condition
to provide a baseline against which they can evaluate the effects of a specific treatment, experimenters make use of
the experimental treatment is absent
which of the following is true for those assigned to a control group
time of day
in the hypothesis “students who study a list of terms in morning will recall more terms than those who study at night” what is the IV
numbers of terms remembered
“morning studiers remember more than night studiers” DV
mean
in a distribution of test scores, which measure of central tendency would likely be the most affected by outliers
standard deviation
which of the following is a measure of the degree variation among a set of events
students’ scores tended to be very similar to one another
professor woo noticed that the distribution of students’ scores on her last biology test had an extremely small sd, indication
68
mean of 100 sd 15, what percent fall between 85 and 115
they want to make sure an observed difference isn’t due to chance
why are researchers so careful about drawing conclusions regarding statistical significance
there is less that a 5% likelihood that the results occurred by chance
if a result is statistically significant, this means that
minimize infection, illness, and pain in animal subjects
professional psychological associations require researchers to
debriefing
a researcher who deceives participants about the goals of the research need to fully inform them of the true nature of the study later
informed consent, protection from harm, confidentiality, debriefing
which of the following defines ethical principles that should guide human experimentation
x

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