Read the excerpt from the preamble to the Constitution.

. . . And secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity.

According to this excerpt of the preamble, who were freedoms and rights established for?

federal and state elected officials
executive and judicial officials
leaders and past generations
framers of the Constitution and future generations

framers of the Constitution and future generations
According to the Preamble, where does the power for government come from?

the welfare
the leaders
the defence
the people

the people
Why were the Articles of Confederation replaced with the Constitution?

The Articles of Confederation did not give strong power to the federal government.
The Articles of Confederation did not create a governmental structure for the states.
The Articles of Confederation did not provide powers for strong individual state governments.
The Articles of Confederation did not allow the federal government to deal with foreign countries.

The Articles of Confederation did not give strong power to the federal government.
The preamble begins with “We the People of the United States,” which establishes the idea of

popular sovereignty.
judicial review
checks and balances.
separation of powers.

popular sovereignty.
Which power does the federal government share with state governments?

printing money
collecting taxes
setting up local governments
conducting foreign affairs

collecting taxes
The power to create laws and to regulate taxes and commerce belong to which branch of government?

executive
legislative
federal
judicial

legislative
According to the Constitution, the right of freedom of religion supports

practicing religions that are national and official.
practicing religions approved by the government.
practicing religion only in private settings.
practicing any religion that one chooses.

practicing any religion that one chooses.
The purpose of the preamble of the Constitution is to

establish and maintain the sovereignty of individual states.
describe and enforce the powers of the confederation government.
introduce and explain the core ideas of the new government.
define and distinguish the roles of domestic and foreign policies.

introduce and explain the core ideas of the new government.
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

In the preamble, the phrase “establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility” means

to improve the government system and structure.
to create a system of laws for internal peace.
to identify the seat of power in the government.
to install this government system for the nation.

to create a system of laws for internal peace.
To which branch of government does the power to interpret laws and apply the Constitution to the law belong?

federal
executive
judicial
legislative

judicial
Under the Constitution, political rights protect the freedoms of

citizens accused of a crime.
elected representatives.
every American citizen.
state and national officials.

every American citizen.
The president vetoes a bill proposed to become law by Congress. In this situation, what is the purpose of this power?

to limit the power of the legislative branch
to replace the power of the legislative branch
to strengthen the power of the legislative branch
to remove the power of the legislative branch

to limit the power of the legislative branch
When the Supreme Court declares a law that was created by Congress unconstitutional, it is an example of

presidential veto.
popular sovereignty.
checks and balances.
habeas corpus.

checks and balances.
The idea of means that government is created by the people and for the people.
Popular sovereignty
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

According to the preamble, where does the power of government come from?

the order
the union
the defence
the people

the people
The Constitution regulates government powers by

providing guides and limits to the government’s power.
providing an undivided government power structure.
providing a weakened central government structure.
providing a majority of power to state governments.

providing guides and limits to the government’s power.
Which is the best example of how the Constitution made the federal government stronger in dealing with other countries?

The federal government has the power to regulate state trade.
The federal government has the power to maintain a military.
The federal government has the power to make laws.
The federal government has the power to collect taxes.

The federal government has the power to maintain a military.
Which best describes a role of the executive branch of the federal government?

governing commerce
interpreting laws
regulating taxes
enforcing laws

enforcing laws
The idea that government is not above the law is an example of

rule of law.
federalism.
limited government.
guaranteed rights.

limited government.
The framers of the US Constitution wrote the Preamble to

establish the sovereignty of individual states.
introduce the core ideas of the new government.
define the roles of domestic and foreign policies.
enforce the powers of the confederation government.

introduce the core ideas of the new government.
How does a writ of habeas corpus safeguard individual freedom?

by stopping arrest and detention
by allowing the accused to request a trial by jury
by providing a defense for committing a crime
by providing a way to avoid sentencing at trial

by allowing the accused to request a trial by jury
Which is an implied power of the federal government?

raising taxes
regulating trade
drafting soldiers
declaring war

drafting soldiers
Declaring war and coining money are considered

states’ rights.
implied powers.
national rights.
expressed powers.

expressed powers.
Which statement is an accurate description of the American federal system?

States can make their own choices, as they have power over all laws.
State and federal governments are run separately, without any overlap.
The federal government informs states of what is and what is not considered legal.
The federal and state governments share powers, but federal has the majority.

The federal and state governments share powers, but federal has the majority.
Powers shared by the federal government and state governments are known as .
Concurrent power
Which of these is considered a concurrent power?

establishing schools
drafting soldiers
coining money
collecting taxes

collecting taxes
Which term defines a power equally shared by state and federal governments?

concurrent
expressed
implied
reserved

concurrent
Which statement about federalism is accurate?

It applies to specific state legislatures.
It divides power between state and national governments.
It is made up of implied and expressed powers.
It states that powers should be directly given to Congress.

It divides power between state and national governments.
Which powers are given directly to the people?

implied
reserved
concurrent
expressed

reserved
When an issue creates disagreement among the states, how does federalism solve the problem?

Each state is allowed to make its own decision about the issue.
Federal and state powers are equal, so the issue has to be debated.
Since federal powers are superior, the Constitution makes the decision.
The national government creates unique rules for each of the states.

Since federal powers are superior, the Constitution makes the decision.
Which type of powers does this quote describe?

powers held by the states alone
powers implied within the US Constitution
powers clearly identified for the federal level
powers shared by both state and federal levels

powers held by the states alone
Which of these actions is forbidden by the Constitution?

creating a law ex post facto
borrowing money from the government
passing “necessary and proper” laws
regulating trade with foreign countries

creating a law ex post facto
Which is an example of an expressed power Congress holds?

creating a national banking system
taking away the right of habeas corpus
declaring war and maintaining a military
adding and removing constitutional amendments

declaring war and maintaining a military
After a bill has been introduced, what happens next?

It is debated on the floor.
It is sent to the other house.
It is reviewed in committee.
It is approved by a vote.

It is reviewed in committee.
Which of these is an expressed power of Congress?

admitting new states
creating a national banking system
eliminating amendments to the Constitution
determining what is cruel and unusual punishment

admitting new states
Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution describes what kind of congressional powers?

proper
expressed
reserved
necessary

expressed
Why is the Necessary and Proper Clause a source of ongoing debate?

Congress cannot agree on what the clause entails.
The wording of the clause is often undergoing revision.
The clause deals with powers that are ambiguous and misinterpreted.
The clause establishes reserved rights, which vary from state to state.

The clause deals with powers that are ambiguous and misinterpreted.
What can happen if the president chooses to veto a law that has been passed?

The law returns to being introduced in one of the houses.
The president’s decision can be overridden by a majority of Congress.
The law is rejected and cannot be reconsidered.
The president’s decision is scheduled for review within a year.

The president’s decision can be overridden by a majority of Congress.
Congress has the express financial power to

establish a national banking system.
create and collect new taxes.
order the president to borrow money.
seize property for government projects.

create and collect new taxes.
If you are declared guilty of a crime without being given a trial, you can state Congress has given you

habeas corpus.
a bill of attainder.
an ex post facto law.
cruel and unusual punishment.

a bill of attainder.
Which of these is considered a power of governance?

regulating trade between states
maintaining armed forces
declaring war
admitting new states

admitting new states
A limitation on the president’s power to appoint ambassadors is that

the Senate must approve them.
the House must approve them.
the House and Senate must approve them.
the Supreme Court must approve them.

the Senate must approve them.
Article II of the Constitution defines the roles of

the president and the vice president.
the president and the legislative branch.
the vice president and the legislative branch.
the vice president and the judicial branch.

the president and the vice president.
Article II of the Constitution states that the president is also

leader of the Senate.
commander of the army.
commander in chief.
leader of Congress.

commander in chief.
A qualification for president under Article II of the Constitution is

being born in the United States.
being born in Washington DC.
living for ten years in the United States.
living for ten years in Washington DC.

being born in the United States.
According to the Constitution, the amount of time the president and vice president serve in office together for one term is

four years.
six years.
seven years.
ten years.

four years.
Who would the president most likely appoint to offer advice about national defense?

a senator
a cabinet member
a federal judge
an ambassador

a cabinet member
Which best describes how the executive branch affects the power of the military?

The executive branch shares power with the military.
The executive branch checks the power of the military.
The executive branch strengthens the power of the military.
The executive branch gives power to the military.

The executive branch checks the power of the military.
The State of the Union address requires the president to update the on what is going on in the country.
congress
A general limitation on the power of the president is

the possibility of impeachment.
the ability to grant pardons.
the ability to make treaties.
the threat of treason.

the possibility of impeachment.
What does the president do together with the State Department?

limit the judicial branch
appoint senators and judges
fund the military and declare war
negotiate and sign treaties

negotiate and sign treaties
Appellate jurisdiction refers to

the Supreme Court’s authority to hear a case for the first time.
the Supreme Court’s authority to hear a case from a lower court.
a lower court’s authority to hear a case from the executive branch.
a lower court’s authority to hear a case from the legislative branch.

the Supreme Court’s authority to hear a case from a lower court.
The Supreme Court is best characterized as

a federal court.
an appellate court.
a judicial court.
a inferior court.

an appellate court.
An unanswered Constitutional question about the judicial branch is

who should approve judges and justices.
how to create lower federal courts.
how to create a Supreme Court.
who should appoint judges and justices.

how to create lower federal courts.
Which explains a difference between an original case and appellate case that the Supreme Court hears?

An original case has been heard by a lower court, while an appellate case has not.
An original case involves the executive branch, while an appellate case does not.
An appellate case involves the legislative branch, while an original case does not.
An appellate case has been heard by a lower court, while an original case has not.

An appellate case has been heard by a lower court, while an original case has not.
Compared with the executive and legislative branches, the main purpose of the judicial branch is

to make laws.
to execute laws.
to interpret laws.
to overrule laws.

to interpret laws.
Why did the Constitution grant the judicial branch the power to create “inferior courts”?

The Constitution anticipated there would be many cases and issues that courts would need to decide.
The Constitution feared the Supreme Court would become too powerful without other courts.
The Constitution wanted other branches of government to have their own courts.
The Constitution wanted federal and state courts to share power under the Supreme Court.

The Constitution anticipated there would be many cases and issues that courts would need to decide
People who make judgments in lower federal courts are called

justices.
judges.
officers.
lawyers.

judges.
During criminal cases, which are guaranteed by the Constitution?

judges and lawyers
trials and juries
judges and trials
justices and lawyers

trials and juries
The judicial branch has the power to try criminal cases by ? jury.
jury
The Constitution gives Congress the power to create federal courts

lower than the Supreme Court.
higher than the Supreme Court.
equal to the Supreme Court.
unaffected by the Supreme Court.

lower than the Supreme Court.
How would Federalists most likely respond to this?

They would agree but doubt the Constitution could make that happen.
They would doubt that any central government could meet these goals.
They would argue that the government does not need to control itself.
They would agree and be confident that the Constitution meets those goals.

They would agree and be confident that the Constitution meets those goals.
The Anti-Federalists wanted to

ratify the Constitution.
refuse to vote on ratifying the Constitution.
vote against the Constitution.
convince Federalists to ratify the Constitution.

vote against the Constitution.
It may be a reflection on human nature, that such devices checks and balances should be necessary to control the abuses of government… If men were angels, no government would be necessary.
—Publius

Which statement summarizes the publication’s view of government?

We need government so we have a means to control our leaders.
We need government because people are flawed.
We don’t need government because people are well behaved.
We don’t need government because it has too many checks and balances.

We need government because people are flawed.
How were Samuel Adams and Thomas Jefferson alike in their position on ratifying the Constitution?

They both opposed a strong federal government.
They both disagreed with Patrick Henry.
They both favored ratifying the Constitution.
They both sided with Alexander Hamilton.

They both opposed a strong federal government.
What was the Federalists’ view of the Constitution?

They would approve of the Constitution only if Anti-Federalists favored it.
They did not favor the Constitution.
They would only favor the Constitution if major changes were made to it.
They approved of the Constitution.

They approved of the Constitution.
Which idea does this excerpt support?

the Anti-Federalist idea that dividing the government into branches will not stop abuses of power
the Federalist idea that lawmaking power should be divided among the different branches of government
the Anti-Federalist idea that lawmaking should be a matter for states, not the federal government
the Federalist idea that branches of government should overlap so they can check on each other’s activities

the Federalist idea that lawmaking power should be divided among the different branches of government
What best summarizes the point of view the excerpt expresses?

In time, one unified government will run the country.
The Federalists prefer thirteen republics to one unified government.
One unified government probably will not lead to disruptions and civil wars.
Under one unified government, people will be robbed of their freedoms.

Under one unified government, people will be robbed of their freedoms.
Anti-Federalists argued that

branches of government would keep each other in balance.
it was impossible to separate government into equal branches.
the Constitution would create a Republican government.
a Republic should protect people from the government and from each other.

it was impossible to separate government into equal branches.
Which best describes Patrick Henry?

He agreed with Alexander Hamilton and opposed the Constitution.
He was a Federalist and opposed the Constitution.
He was an Anti-Federalist and opposed the Constitution.
He disagreed with Alexander Hamilton and favored the Constitution.

He was an Anti-Federalist and opposed the Constitution.
What is the purpose of checks and balances in the Constitution?

They would keep any one branch from having too much power.
They would give the president power over matters related to money.
They would allow states to have equal power with the federal government.
They would give Federalists and Anti-Federalists equal power.

They would keep any one branch from having too much power.
What was James Madison’s position regarding the Supreme Court ruling in Marbury v. Madison?

He agreed that the Judiciary Act of 1789 was constitutional.
He opposed the Supreme Court ruling in Marbury v. Madison.
He believed the Supreme Court should consider Marbury’s case.
He supported the Supreme Court ruling in Marbury v. Madison.

He supported the Supreme Court ruling in Marbury v. Madison.
What was a result of Gibbons v. Ogden?

Aaron Ogden got permission to operate his steamboats in New York.
Thomas Gibbons was allowed to operate his steamboats in New York.
Thomas Gibbons won a federal license to operate his steamboats.
Aaron Ogden maintained a monopoly on steamboat operation in New York.

Thomas Gibbons was allowed to operate his steamboats in New York.
Which is the best definition of “supremacy”?

highest authority
limitless power
superior judgment
greater aptitude

highest authority
What was the purpose of the Judiciary Act of 1789?

It created the state court system.
It created a federal court system.
It created the judicial branch.
It created the Supreme Court.

It created a federal court system.
Before McCulloch v. Maryland went to court, the state of Maryland

argued that James McCulloch must pay federal taxes.
created the first federal bank in the state.
said that only state banks were allowed within Maryland’s borders.
passed a law that required federal banks to pay state taxes.

passed a law that required federal banks to pay state taxes.
Why did William Marbury support the Judiciary Act of 1789?

It allowed Marbury to take his case to the Supreme Court.
It overruled James Madison and confirmed Marbury’s appointment.
It said that James Madison’s actions were unconstitutional.
It limited the Constitution’s power to affect Marbury’s case.

It allowed Marbury to take his case to the Supreme Court.
Read the excerpt from the Constitution of the United States, Article 1, Section 8.

Congress shall have power to regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States.

This excerpt reinforces the idea of

federal supremacy.
implied powers.
balance of powers.
judicial review.

federal supremacy.
In McCulloch v. Maryland, what did the State of Maryland argue?

Banks cannot be created by Congress.
States can determine which institutions within its borders must pay taxes.
A federal bank must pay taxes to the state in which it is located.
Banks may only be created by Congress, not by individuals.

Banks cannot be created by Congress.
Which key idea in the Constitution creates a division of power between national and state governments?

habeas corpus
individual rights
federalism
republicanism

federalism
Passing laws, creating courts, and collecting taxes are examples of

concurrent powers.
politician’s rights.
implied powers.
individual rights.

concurrent powers.
The Judiciary Act of 1789 gave powers to the judicial branch that went beyond what the Constitution outlined. Because of this, the act

was ruled unconstitutional.
was an example of original jurisdiction.
led to an amendment to the Constitution.
overruled the Supreme Court.

was ruled unconstitutional.
Why is the Supremacy Clause considered to be “the root of federalism”?

It describes the relationship between federal and state power.
It outlines the basic rights due to every American citizen.
It lists the powers that are directly reserved for each of the states.
It identifies the “supreme law of the land” as the US president.

Why is the Supremacy Clause considered to be “the root of federalism”?

It describes the relationship between federal and state power.
It outlines the basic rights due to every American citizen.
It lists the powers that are directly reserved for each of the states.
It identifies the “supreme law of the land” as the US president.

Protection of habeas corpus means that

citizens cannot be punished without a trial.
laws cannot apply to past situations.
citizens cannot be held without legal action.
laws cannot include cruel or unusual punishments.

citizens cannot be held without legal action.
An inference that can be drawn from the Supremacy Clause is that

state laws are superior to federal laws.
federal laws are superior to state laws.
judges do not have to follow federal laws.
judges have to follow state laws.

federal laws are superior to state laws
Which is the term used for the legislative branch setting aside or reversing a decision?

override
reject
veto
table

override
Writing a state constitution is an example of

an implied power.
a reserved power.
a concurrent power.
an expressed power.

a reserved power.
As part of the executive branch, the vice president

advises the Supreme Court.
advises Congress.
presides over the Senate.
presides over Congress.

presides over the Senate.
The power to declare war belongs to

state and local governments.
national and state governments.
national government.
state governments.

national government.
Which of these powers are under the control of the state?

administering elections
regulating commerce
coining money
declaring war

administering elections
One of the powers the president has is the ability to

appoint senators.
approve pardons.
appoint mayors.
confirm judges.

approve pardons.
Which statement reflects Thomas Gibbons’s view of interstate commerce?

State and federal governments should jointly negotiate interstate commerce.
The federal government should have power over interstate commerce.
Individual operators should negotiate interstate commerce.
State governments have power over interstate commerce.

The federal government should have power over interstate commerce.
The decision in Gibbons v. Ogden most likely resulted in

more cases about state versus federal licenses.
fewer applications for steamboat licenses in New York.
fewer disputes about state monopolies.
more challenges to federal supremacy.

fewer disputes about state monopolies.
Which is a true statement about James McCulloch of McCulloch v. Maryland?

He ran a federal bank in Maryland.
He refused to pay federal taxes.
He paid state and federal taxes.
He owned a state bank in Maryland.

He ran a federal bank in Maryland.
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