English P1 Revision Introduction State the poem’s title, author, and a small introduction to the poem’s overall literal meaning. State the poem’s form, and any important literary devices which appear throughout it. Write about an important aspect of the poem which you will further discuss in your wildcard paragraph and eventually conclude in your last paragraph. Paragraph One: Structure and Narration Briefly mention the poem’s structure. Make note of the use of Enjambment or the juxtaposition of words. Write about the poem’s meter and its speed.
Make note of the poem’s speaker (do not use narrator) and his/her tone. Paragraph Two: Meaning State the poem’s literal meaning. State the poem’s figurative meaning. Paragraph Three: Devices Write about the poem’s literary devices. Write about important themes present in the poem. Paragraph Four: Combine Write how literary devices and meaning interconnect. This paragraph should begin to bring things together. Paragraph Five: The Wild Card Introduce an important theme or aspect of the poem in great detail. This could be a refrain, an extended figure or an apostrophe.
Conclusion The conclusion should combine the Wild Card with the above paragraphs. In this case, one could talk about how literary devices or the poem’s structure aid in supporting an extended figure. Literary Devices Simple Devices Simple Devices| Accent| Refers to the stressed portion of a word. An accent is used to place emphasis on a word. | Allegory| A description that has a second, usually moral meaning. | Alliteration| Is the repetition of initial (at the beginning) CONSONANT sounds (if it’s a vowel repetition, you would call it assonance.
Assonance includes any repetition of a vowel sound in any part of the word. It usually occurs in the middle of words). | Allusion| Refers to an event from an external content. It is understandable only to those with prior knowledge of the reference in question (as the writer assumes the reader has). | Antithesis| The juxtaposition of contrasting words or ideas to create a feeling of balance (e. g Too black for heaven, and yet too white for hell)| Apostrophe| Something that addresses an object or person or idea who is not present as though he/she/it could reply. Assonance| The repetition of vowel sounds may also add to euphony. | Aubade| Poetry referring to either the dawn, a love song or about parting lovers. | Ballad| A form of poetry in a specific meter meant to be sung. There is always a repeating refrain and it is always narrative in form. See below for more information. | Blank Verse| Iambic Pentameter that doesn’t rhyme. (Much of Shakespeare’s plays for example were written in blank verse. )| Caesura| A cut or break in a line, could be a comma or a semicolon. | Cacophony| Harsh sounding and generally unpleasant. |
Consonance| The repetition of consonant sounds NOT in the beginning of a word (which would be alliteration). Enforces relation. | Continuous Form| Lines follow each other without any type of structural organization except by blocks of meaning. | Didactic Poetry| Poetry with a directly morally teaching purpose. | Euphony| Pleasant sounding. | Extended Figure| An apostrophe, simile, metaphor, etc. which is developed throughout a poem. | Imagery| Language which appeals to each of the five senses. | Visual Imagery| Sight. The most frequent type. | Auditory imagery| Sound|
Olfactory imagery| Smell| Gustatory imagery| Taste| Tactile imagery| Touch, tangibility| Organic imagery| Human sensations| Irony| Dramatic or otherwise, conveying an aspect that is intrinsically unexpected or self-contradictory. | Metaphor| A comparison between two unlike things without using the words “like” or “as”. | Onomatopoeia| Words which are written to mimic a sound. | Paradox| A statement which appears to contradict itself but makes sense (usually in an abstract sense). | Personification| Animals and inanimate objects are given human characteristics. Phonetic Intensive| A word whose sound emphasizes its meaning. | Prose| Language which is not in meter. | Refrain| A repeated line, phrase, sentence, etc. which appears throughout a poem. | Rhetoric Poetry| Poetry written in superfluous language with the intention of being overdramatic. | Scansion| The process of measuring verse. | Simile| The comparison of two subjects using “like” or “as” or something similar| Sonnet| | Tone| The writer’s attitude toward the subject. | Advanced Devices| Anaphora| Repetition of the same word or words from the beginning of sentences, lines, or phrases. Ars Poetica| A poem about poetry| Conceit| The comparison of two dissimilar things. “Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day”| Dramatic monologue| Narrator speaks to himself. The speaker is not the author. | Epiphany| A realization or comprehension of the essence of something. | Feminine Rhyme| Two syllable (Disyllabic) rhyme consisting of stressed syllable followed by unstressed| Incantation| Use of words to create an archaic effect. (Opening scene of Macbeth and the Weird Sisters)| Incremental repetition| Repetition of succeeding stanzas with small substitutions of changes. Masculine rhyme| Monosyllabic rhymes. | Metonymy| Substitutes the name of one thing with something closely associated with it. | Synecdoche| Substitutes a part of one thing to represent the whole, or vice versa. | Pathetic fallacy| A reflection of the action/events through nature/weather. (A thunderstorm during the creation of Frankenstein’s monster sequence)| Persona| The character created by the narrator. | Synaesthesia| A blending of sensations. | Trope| A way of extending the meanings of words beyond the literal. | Types of Poem Alexandrine| Twelve-syllable poetic line of French origin. Couplet| A poem or section consisting of two successive lines, usually rhyming and having the same meter and often forming a complete thought. | Elegy| A poem of loss and consolation. | Panegyric| Praise for an individual, a group of people, or a body. | Sonnet| A poem of fourteen lines, usually following a strict rhyme scheme/structure. | Stichic| A poem which is a continuous sequence of lines without any division into stanzas. | Villanelle| 19 lines divided into 5 stanzas. | Apostrophe| A poem directed to a person or thing not present/alive. |