Which of the following substances is not normally found in filtrate?
Blood and proteins
What is the primary driving force (pressure) that produces glomerular filtration?
Hydrostatic Pressure
Which substance would be found in higher concentration if the membrane were damaged?
Proteins
If the osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries increased from 28 mm Hg to 35 mm Hg, would net filtration increase or decrease?
Decrease
Calculate the net filtration pressure if capillary hydrostatic pressure is 60 mm Hg, capillary osmotic pressure is 25 mm Hg, and capsular hydrostatic pressure is 10 mm Hg.
25 mm Hg
Which of the following best describes glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
the volume of filtrate created by the kidneys per minute
GFR regulation mechanisms primarily affect which of the following?
glomerular hydrostatic pressure (HPg)
Which of the following are mechanisms of intrinsic control of glomerular filtration (renal autoregulation)?
myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback
Macula densa cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) regulate GFR through which intrinsic mechanism?
tubuloglomerular feedback
The myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulation primarily involves smooth muscle in which blood vessels?
afferent arterioles
What does a high concentration of NaCl in the renal tubule at the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) most likely indicate?
insufficient NaCl reabsorption due to high GFR
Through the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism, how would an increase in filtrate NaCl concentration affect afferent arteriole diameter?
Afferent arteriole diameter would decrease.
Granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) regulate GFR indirectly through which mechanism?
renin-angiotensin mechanism
Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle?
a vasa recta
The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________.
is drained by an efferent arteriole
The renal corpuscle is made up of ________.
Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus
The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.
The nephron
The filtration membrane includes all except ________.
renal fascia
The macula densa cells respond to ________.
Changes in solute content of the filtrate.
Which of the choices below is the salt level-monitoring part of the nephron?
Macula densa
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