Values and Attitudes constitute Human Resource Management ay elfin Resource Contents What Is value and attitude? -? -? Value -? -? . 2 2. 2 Why they are considered as asset? -? -? 3 v. How organizations can use HER as integrate value? 4 Reference -? 1 OFF 2 2. 1 Introduction Human Resource is recognized universally by organizations as valuable assets (Weathered, 2003). ). Humans and the potential they possess, like knowledge, skill and experience, maintain an organization running and producing (SWOON, 2009; Frank & Banker, 2007).
However, as Mayo (2001:12) stated that, ‘People are often spoken as sets but are generally treated as costs, because we have no credible system of valuing them’. This statement is arisen the question inspired by many researchers to explore that how organizations use the value of human resource to integrate organizations value (Young &Berman, 1997; White & Bryon, 2013). Mayo (2001) also considered that the problem is the lack of credible measures that relate to people and their value.
Specifically, different organizations require different values and attitudes constituting human resources applied with difference strategic human resource management. This essay is to examine how organizations contain and use human resource which is constituted by specific values and attitudes to integrate organizations’ value. What is value and attitude? 2. 1 value Value is defined as ‘a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence’ (Paragraphs et al. , 2004: 143).
Namely, value is a Judgmental element of what is right, good, wrong and bad. In this context, value means work value. As Buy & Mencken (2001:166) stated, the concept of work values is the end states that individuals desire and expect through working. Meanwhile, work value plays a central role on shaping individual’s expectations of work, their response to specific work situations and their performance in a work role (Huff & Kelly, 2004). Egger Hefted has a significant contribution on the research of the relationship between work value, attitude and organizational culture (1998).
He points out an individual’s work values is based on the effect of national cultural because an individual’s work value is shaped by family, social, and cultural values and beliefs (Hefted, 2001). For example, to Japanese, their understanding of loyalty not only stretches to their family but also to their workplace (Chew & Putt, 1995). Therefore, the turnover rate of employment is relatively low in Japan. 3 2. 2 Attitudes The concept of attitude captures ‘a learned predisposition to respond in a & Bryon, 2013).
That is, attitudes affect behavior at a different level than values do. Whereas attitudes appear to be transitive and context specific, values are usually presented as having a degree of immutability (Sage et al. , 1996). For example, in an employee survey, ‘how satisfied are you with your career opportunities? S an attitude question, but ‘how important is it to you to have career opportunities? ‘ is a value question. White & Bryon (2013) regarded organizational commitment and intrinsic Job satisfaction as measurement of attitudes during human resource management.
Moreover, Arthur (1994) pointed that organizational effectiveness affected by human resource practice systems of ‘high commitment’ through creating conditions where employees involved in the organization highly and regard achieving organization’s goal as their responsibility. Similarly, Whitener (2001) stated that employee’s attitude an be displayed by increasing their employees commitment to the organization. Why they are considered as asset? Recently, organizations seek to gain competitive advantage during occupy the market place positively (Chadwick & Daub, 2009).
Chadwick & Daub (2009) pointed out that apart from update technology support; comprehensive marketing strategic, excellent customer service to build up competitive advantage, human resource is also the magnificent element to gain the advantage for organizations. The skill, knowledge and experience of each employee constitute the intangible asset of human resource (Manson, 2007). In order to keep organizational effectiveness maximize, human potential-?individuals’ capabilities, time, and talents-?must be managed.
Nevertheless, as mentioned above in second part, different work value and attitude will lead different effect, therefore, only employees’ work value and attitude align with organizational culture that human resource can be regarded as asset. Meanwhile, strategic human resource management play an important role during organization development in the competitive market. Moreover, HARM through human resource practice to ensure the function of the great asset in organizations is insistent with goal of organizations. Namely, the purpose of strategic HER framework aims to be consistent organizations win in the marketplace (Young &Berman, 1997:328).
Young & Barman (1997) in their Journal use the case of Eastman Kodak to illustrate that how organizations align HER practice with strategic HER framework to build competitive organizational capabilities. Eastman Kodak develops three HER measurement to track critical organizational capabilities, which include leadership effectiveness, workforce competencies and performance-based culture (Young wert-Nan, 1997:331). How organizations can use HER as integrate value? HARM practice will help fulfill intrinsic work value, hence, it also influence employees’ attitudes to their Jobs and ensure employees in a right direction (White & Bryon, 2013).
Thus, through ensure employees hold consistent vale and right attitudes with organizations, HER use strategic HER to integrate organizational strategy. Specifically, Young & Barman (1997:324) explains that employee attitude and behaviors will impact customer’s satisfaction and will influence shareholders’ satisfaction and retention, correspondingly, which will finally result employees’ bonuses and salaries by shareholders’ satisfaction. That reflects HER practice as a bridge connect employees’ satisfaction and customers’ satisfaction and shareholders’ satisfactions through management of employees’ work value and attitude.