Virtual private web ( VPN ) is defined as a private computing machine web that utilize public web such as Internet to supply a unafraid distant connexion between hosts. This normally usage for remote users to link to their organisation web. Virtual private web frequently encrypted to maintain informations from being analyzed by 3rd party therefore supplying unafraid communicating between hosts. Different from normal private web, the practical private web encapsulates informations transportation to burrow the traffic. For illustration, in the Internet these tunnel are non physically entities but is created by utilizing encoding, protocols and security criterions. This will do the hosts virtually connect to each other straight. By utilizing public web substructure, the cost of the system can be reduced since the web did non necessitate any particular point to indicate connexion such as chartered line.

Internet Protocol Security ( IPSec ) is the protocol that make certain the cyberspace protocol ( IP ) is secured during the communicating. This is done by authenticating and coding each of the package IP during the communicating session. IPSec besides have the other map that is provided a protocol for set uping hallmark communicating between hosts at the beginning of the session and do the dialogue of cryptanalytic key that need to be used during the communicating.

The other definition of IPSec is an end-to-end security strategy operating in the one of the bed in cyberspace protocol suite that is Internet Layer. IPSec can be used for protecting informations flows between a brace of hosts, between a brace of security gateways or between a security gateway and a host. Secure Socket Layer ( SSL ) , Secure Shell ( SSH ) and Transport Layer Security ( TLS ) is the illustration of bed that operate in the upper beds of the TCP/IP theoretical account. IPSec will protect any application of traffic across an IP web. IPSec VPNs is one of the latest issues in VPN engineerings


IPSec VPNs set up secure tunnels through the public Internet.

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The benefits of IPSec VPN are the connexion through the cyberspace consequence is secured in enormous nest eggs over the cost of private web connexion dedicated for private web such as chartered line, private WAN connexion or long distance dial-up connexion. IPSec VPNs besides will be increased in organisation & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s productiveness. From IPSec VPN, the organisation can allow restricted web entree with clients, sellers or concern spouses which can better the efficiency of work related to remote entree and networking. For home-office workers, telecommuters and service workers, they can entree their corporate web by utilizing IPSec VPN distant entree through the cyberspace. The security services offered by IPSec is criterions for a scope of services to turn to a security hazards for all IP traffic which is in the public web such as confidentially, entree control, hallmark, rejection of replayed packages, and limited traffic flow individuality. The account of the security services as follow:


Data transmitted between hosts are encrypted therefore they are protected even being intercepted by 3rd party.

Access control.

Merely authorised users are allow to take part in the private communicating.


Verifies the beginning of received informations is non modified when in theodolite and the received informations is from the intended beginning.

Rejection of replayed packages.

An anti-replay service prevent the aggressor from play backing the intercepted package

Limited traffic flow confidentiality.

The interior IP heading of private web can be encrypted to conceal the traffic beginning and finish.

The working rule of IPSec is simple. Before two devices can set up the tunnel that is IPSec VPN tunnel and communicate by utilizing it, both of them must hold for the security parametric quantities. The map of security parametric quantities during the communicating is to set up the security association ( SA ) . The map of security association is to stipulate the algorithm or method for hallmark and encoding demand to be used. It is besides define the encoding key during the session, the expire clip of the keys and the security association to it are maintained. The Internet Key Exchange ( IKE ) protocol is used to find the association of security needed to do certain that the communicating through an IPSec VPN is secured.

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol ( L2TP )

The Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol ( L2TP ) is a burrowing protocol based on the Point to Indicate Tunneling Protocol ( PPTP ) . L2TP act as Data Link Layer Protocol ( Layer 2 in OSI theoretical account ) but it is really a Session Layer protocol. L2TP does non supply any encoding by itself and merely rely on the other encoding protocol to supply confidentiality. Thus it is normally use along with IPSec which can supply encoding to the information transportation. Both protocol usage together to set up a practical private web is called L2TP/IPSec VPN.

L2TP package construction have the followers

Spots 0 – 15

Spots 16 – 31

Flags and Version Info

Length ( optional )

Tunnel ID

Session ID

Ns ( optional )

Nr ( optional )

Offset Size ( optional )

Offset Padding ( Optional )


Flags and Version Info

Control flags that indicate the presence of the other field ( Length, Sequence, and countervail Fieldss )

Length ( optional )

Entire length of the message in bytes.

Tunnel ID

Identifier for the control connexion.

Session ID

Identifier for a session within a tunnel.

Ns ( optional )

Sequence figure for this information or control message, get downing at zero and incrementing by one ( modulo 216 ) for each message sent.

Nr ( optional )

Sequence figure for expected message to be received. Nr is set to the Ns of the last in-order message received plus one ( modulo 216 )

Offset Size ( optional )

Locate the warhead get downing informations.

Offset Padding ( optional )

As filler, length is as specified by the beginning size.

Payload informations

The warhead informations

Secure Socket Layer ( SSL )

Secure Socket Layer, SSL is a cryptanalytic protocol which provide secure communicating over the cyberspace. It is a conveyance bed security provides end-to-end security for application. Until now, web pages are delivered utilizing HTTP ( Hypertext Transfer Protocol ) and this type of protocol did non supply encoding or any sort of information protection between hosts. SSL emerge into the universe broad web combined with Hypertext Transfer Protocol going the Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure, HTTPS. HTTPS is a standard protocol today and frequently used for communicating that require dealing of sensitive information such as cyberspace banking. HTTPS should non be confused with S-HTTP ( Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol ) .

The cardinal flow of SSL Service is:


The information is divided into blocks of 214 bytes or less.


Each fragment of informations is compressed utilizing lossless compaction. This service is optional.

Message Integrity

SSL uses a keyed-hash map to protect the information from corruptness.


The original informations and keyed-hash are encrypted utilizing symmetric-key cryptanalysis.


A heading is added the encrypted warhead and passed to a dependable transportation bed protocol.

The Goal of SSL are:

Confidentiality of communications

Integrity of Datas

Authentication of Server and Client

Secure Socket Layer Virtual Private Network, SSL VPN is a signifier of practical private web that utilize the SSL to set up connexion. Since the SSL usage criterion protocol widely in web browser, it is more various than the IPSec VPN. With SSL VPN, user can utilize SSL VPN utilizing their web browser. The communicating between the web browser and their device is encrypted by SSL.

SSL VPN engineering until now did non hold any official criterions other than SSL, HTTP and other SSL VPN subcomponents. With extremely competitory environment in SSL VPN market, sellers frequently unwrap the inside informations of how their merchandise work. Although SSL VPN offer user to set up unafraid remote-access from virtually any Internet connected web browser, SSL VPN have a really complex and advanced engineering.

SSL VPN merchandises can be a signifier of contraptions or package. SSL VPN merchandise that are sold as contraptions or device such as Safenet, Whale Communication and Juniper Network act like a black box, supplying easy setup despite of being complex engineering behind it. They function required no decision makers understanding of how the internal work. Appliance SSL VPN merchandise can cut down the operating expense costs of put ining, configuring and keeping a system since it is non necessitate much expertness to accommodate the engineering. Appliance SSL VPN frequently come with default scenes with their operating system hardened, SSL VPN installed and fundamental constellation option set. This will cut down the human mistake during the installing and constellation of the device that will probably to go forth security holes.

SSL VPN merchandise that come as a package require more cognition on how it is work. Puting up the web can be boring occupation and can take to human mistake during the installing and constellation. But, in organisation with expert in system hardening and web security prefer a package based merchandise which enable them to custom-make their system even more accommodating their demand.

With SSL, a secure tunnel between computing machine can be established in an unsecure web such as the Internet. Communication tunnel allows communications between two computing machines over webs firmly so that the other computing machines connected in the web can non entree the communicating.

SSL VPN create tunnels by executing two maps which are:

Authentication of the users

Coding all the informations transportation between hosts

These procedure affecting encoding protocols, cardinal exchange and so on. Compare to the other tunneling performed by the other such as IPSec which work on Network Layer ( Layer 3 ) , SSL VPN map at Level 4-5 in OSI theoretical account.

Degree 7

Application Layer

Degree 6

Presentation Layer


Degree 5

Session Layer

Degree 4

Transport Layer

Degree 3

Network Layer

Typical tunneling VPN

Degree 2

Data Link Layer

Degree 1

Physical Layer

Since the IPSec VPN operate at the lower degree in OSI theoretical account, to set up such connexion require installing and constellation of complicated client package on user ‘s computing machine. This client package pull off the network-level communicating tunneling. IPSec VPN besides harder to implement in restricted web such as university web as most of the protocol is blocked.

SSL VPN work at higher degree in OSI theoretical account. SSL VPN encapsulate information at Level 6-7 and communicate at Application Layer. To some extent, some SSL VPN can even burrow web degree information over SSL demoing that the capablenesss and flexiblenesss of SSL VPN over traditional VPN such as IPSec VPN.


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