People train to reach professional success all their lives, for many years. Before retirement can be considered, very few is known about the years to come once retirement arrives because people do small to no training on retirement. For most people and cultures, retirement is the time where people step back from the work force because they feel they have done all their bodies and minds have allowed them for. It is hard to predict what exactly will happen once a person decides to retire and everyone responds to retirement differently. The question is what kind of effect does retirement have on an adult’s well-being?
There should be a public awareness in order for people to know what to expect or what possible outcomes might develop in their lives. Just like we prepare for our college years, adults should prepare for their retirement years. Many researchers argue that the transition to retirement and stop working varies across genders, race and culture. Mezzo, Shakers, Hudson and Rattail (2011) stated that while work related stress is associated with low wages, there will be a bigger adaptation period for these individuals, especially because the adjustment time is shorter and most never stop working completely.
Mezzo, et al. (2011) argued that employment in corporate America is associated with a lot of health complications, which is directly associated with retirement in the long run. For the study, Mezzo, et al (201 1), utilized a sample over the age of 50 who were already a part of the Health and Retirement Study. 50% of their sample was selected for an in person interview and the other 50% were assigned. Both groups were given self-administered questionnaires to complete after the interview to collect the data on retirement.
The analysis focused on partially retired individuals who provided individual consent for heir Job strain, hypertension and workplace discrimination to be evaluated. Mezzo, et al (2011) showed that the biggest health issues people face during retirement are hypertension and blood pressure. This calls to a need in order to examine how education or retirement age should be viewed. According to None, Stephens and Alphas (2010), stated that retirement was strictly accompanied by planning and there are factors that differentiate those who plan for it and those who don’t.
The main end result being that those who plan have a better and positive outcome. Besides None, Stephens and Alphas (2010) stated that financial planning and expected retirement wealth has been greatly associated with socioeconomic status. In any scenario, planning has been related to retirement wealth, regardless of income. In addition, None, et al (2010), explained that planning is a process divided into 4 preferable stages, the first being the preparation for the future by envisioning the problem. The second stage: to establish goals for the future and start preparing.
Last, the third stage is the formulation of a strategy and finally, follows through and revises if necessary. In the research procedures implemented by None et al. 2010), it was stated that they were able to strongly correlate planning for retirement with a near to retirement age that varies across gender and culture. Similarly, to assess the face validity of the study a pilot study was implemented. In this pilot study, questionnaires were distributed throughout the academic staff of the School of Psychology at Massey University.
Fifty two participants over 40 years of age returned their questionnaires and were invited to a group session where they commented on any difficulties for answering individual questions. No major revision was done on the questions, but he stud changed to a 5 point Liker scale. The overall face validity of the questionnaires was considered to be acceptable. None, et al (2010) utilized a sample size of 3000 New Slanderer between the ages of 49 and 60 who were randomly selected from the New Zealand electoral roll.
The age group difference allowed capturing the different levels of retirement planning. Participants were surveyed by mail and given the benefit of participating in a drawing for a fuel voucher to increase response rates. The 80 individuals from the sample who were already retired were eliminated and the rest of the participants were equally surveyed disregarding ender, ethnicity, and educational level. 14 items where eased for each questionnaire, including financial representation, financial goals, financial preparedness, etc.
In the end, results showed that there is no definitive age where people start planning for retirement, because it depends of
their work culture, socioeconomic status and personal preference (None, et al, 2010). It can be inferred that the older the population gets the higher the retirement age will be. In European countries the retirement age is higher than the retirement age in South America because of coloratura differences. However, the one constant predicting factor for financial preparedness during retirement across all variables is the economic living standards (None, Stephens &Alpass, 2010).
High economic living standards have been associated with high income, but regardless of income, preparedness for retirement is linked with better economic results when there are clear representations, goals and decisions from an early age. Mainly because individuals with higher preparation skills develop stronger mind sets and are able to prepare for a future process that they are not completely familiar with (None, Stephens &Alpass, 010) Similarly, Hoodwinks (2010) established that retirement is an ongoing process because it involves learning new behaviors at different stages of life.
Learning is a primary and reciprocal aspect of the retirement process. To assess and deepen the understanding of retirement life, a sample size of 100 retired individuals was used. Longitudinal qualities interviews were done from 2004 to 2007. The sample form both genders, different ethnicity and varying educational and occupational experience participated in eight individual interviews where their early life was related to retirement experiences. Findings were grouped according to similarity among cases.
Hoodwinks (2010) recognized retirement as a problematic concept, mainly because it has a different meaning in different cultures and different expectations in different parts of the world. According to Hoodwinks, there are four main approaches to retirement. The first is the economic approach, which establishes that retirement applies to older individuals in their mid-ass that no longer work for money. The second approach is the psychological approach, which states that only when people think of themselves as retired is when their mindset will change and this perspective Aries from person to person.
The third is the sociological approach, where people are considered to be retired when they leave their career and are socially accepted to be in a group without work. The last is the commonly considered approach that applies to most middle classes, where retirement is associated with a form of occupational pension from a company they worked for (Hoodwinks, 2010). Lewis, Edwards and Burton (2009), aimed to identify the variables associated with older adults coping with their retirement years. In the study, 133 participants over the age of 60 and living in the community were surveyed.
Recruited on the basis on being retired from full time Job and convenience, the final participants had an ethnic, gender and occupational level differences. The final questionnaire administered had 10 close ended questions and only took them 10 minutes to finish. Lewis, et al (2009), showed that variables that are directly associated with life coping play a mediatory role in retirement and lead to optimal aging. A high internal locus of control, faith in nature and good self-related health are all positively related to life coping. A successful retirement is linked to increased longevity and successful aging (Lewis, et al, 2009).
In order to enjoy retirement people need to have reasonable levels of health, that way they can retain a sense of control in their lives. Leaving a full time employment can be traumatic, and it is necessary to help communities have an ensured painless and satisfying transition. In conclusion, retirement is a stage of life. Eventually, all individuals should get a chance to enjoy the fruit of their hard work. For some individuals the time to sit back and relax comes later than for others, but sometimes this never happens. A retirement age will change depending on many aspects, some of them being cultural, gender based, and even religious.
Health is one of the aspects people have little control over, especially if they have lived an unhealthy life style. Without good health conditions it gets harder to enjoy retirement benefits, because they will all most likely be going to medical bills. Many programs assist individuals to transition from a full time Job to retirement, but not everything is that predictable. Being prepared for retirement includes having a financial plan, control over one’s life and a good health. Having this will play a major role in giving a sense of life coping to retired elderly. References Hoodwinks, H. (2010).