The population of Europe nearly doubled in the 18th century. After 1740, the climate changed and it got warmer, so fewer people died from exposure. The death rate went down, the birth rate went up (because the amount of food went up). The potato is the fourth of the great starches and was very good nutrition during this time. Made people stronger and healthier and the population grew. Farmlands grew. Swamps were drained and turned into farmland. This had the effect of removing disease because the mosquitoes and malaria went away.
In 1788 there is a terrible harvest that produces terrible results. A time of constant warfare: (1700-1714) The War of Spanish Succession. (asses) The War of Polish Succession. (1740-1748) The War of Austrian Succession. (1756-1763) The 7 years war. (1778-1783) The War of the American Colonies. Wars cost “Blood and Treasure. ” (Lives and money) The Church and the Aristocracy were exempt from taxes. To pay for the wars they had to increase taxes. 4 examples how to deal with the cost of war: 1 . GREAT BRITAIN- Constitutionalism. No taxation without representation. They were more willing to pay taxes. (SUCCESSFUL) 2.
PRUSSIA- The ruling family? Homelessness. Came up with a way to tax the nobility. If you are willing to pay taxes and have your sons be officers in the army, you get to run local affairs and we will not interfere with you. (SUCCESSFUL) 3. FRANCE- Absolutism, ran by Louis XIV. The French tried to overrun this rule after he died. The government’s money turned into loans and bonds and tried to pay for everything through borrowing. (NOT successful) 4. POLAND- Weak form of government. Only government where Kingship was elected. Shared power with an assembly but could not pass anything without a unanimous vote.
Picked a fight with Parliament trying to fix what his father and grandfather did. Stopped his coach and got out and shook a tree branch and said he was glad to shake the hand of the Prussian Ambassador. He was coo coo. George the third guaranteed that Parliament would have the decisive hand in British Government. GEORGE 1. “. (1820-1830) FRANCE: LOUIS XV (ruled from 1715-1774) In 1715 LOUIS w takes the throne, he 5 YEARS OLD. He outlived his son, but his grandson took over in 1774. LOUIS He became king in 1774. He married Marie Antoinette in 1770. (She was an airhead. ) Her uncle came to France and looked over Louis WI.
The one sentence of appreciation he said was, “He is not altogether an idiot. ” Louis and Marie will eventually lose their heads to the guillotine. AUSTRIA: CHARLES FL- became king of Austin 1711. (HAPSBURG) He had a daughter Maria Theresa. In 1740 Charles dies and Maria must take the throne PRUSSIA: FREDERICK WILLIAM l- becomes ruler 1713 (HOMELESSNESS) He created a regiment of men who were six feet tall. (Average male was only 5’5) In 1740 he died and was succeeded by his son. FREDERICK II, FREDERICK THE GREAT- ruler 1740 He wrote music for the flute that is still performed today.
He was a top class musician, but also a great military commander. He had a correspondence for years with Voltaire, so he had to be very smart. He is known for the fact he had GUTS. “NO GUTS NO GLORY. ” He was determined to win war. SILLIES: Part of Austria, full of mineral reserves, a very productive group of people. THE WAR OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION: Frederick goes to war with Austria because he wants to rule Sillies. Prussia wins the war and it is a great victory, but a great loss for Austria. AUSTRIA & GREAT BRITAIN fought against PRUSSIA AND FRANCE. These were the allies of Austria and Prussia.
When Prussia wins Frederick gets the nickname, “THE GREAT. ” THE 7 YEARS WAR: Years later they have another war, but Russia has Joined the alliance of Austria and Great Britain, and the outcome does not look good for Prussia. This is why Louis married an A NECKS (Marie Antoinette), and Prussia is able to win war. He is not named Frederick the Great for nothing. The war ended in 1763. THE WAR OF THE AMERICAN COLONIES: LAFAYETTE- A great Military commander, George Washington becomes very fond of him. The BATTLE OF YORKTOWN: BRITISH COMMANDER CORNWALLIS could not break the blockade of the port, and hey could not get supplies.
ADMIRAL DE GRASSES- was blockading the port. GENERAL WASHINGTON After the war, LAFAYETTE goes home and has a son by the name of GEORGE WASHINGTON DE LAFAYETTE. ***There are more towns called Lafayette in America than towns called Washington. The French helped the Americans win their independence from Great Britain. This war made it impossible for the French to pay their bills. This leads directly to the FRENCH REVOLUTION OF 1789. IMPORTANT DATES: 1789 1791 1792 1793-94 French Government built up a huge debt, NATIONAL DEBT. 1788- HARVEST FAILURE- it guaranteed a great deal of suffering.
By spring the food began to run out. Put pressure on Louis WI. He was forced to call a meeting of the ESTATES GENERAL. ESTATES GENERAL (1789) Called for the first time in 175 years Made up of 3 houses: CLERGY NOBILITY COMMONS Each house had about 300 members. 3 votes on each issue, one from each house. Said the Estates General should meet in a different version: Double the common, 600 Vote by HEAD, not by ORDER. Said they should meet altogether as a single group. King Louis said they could double the Commons, but that they could not meet altogether, and this did not change anything.
CLERGY-Every bishop (wealthy) made p part of the 300 of the Clergy, the rest of the clergy was made up of parish priests who had a real understanding of how people lived. (Because they lived among the people. ) COMMONS- mostly professionals like lawyers; they were influenced by the ENLIGHTENMENT. They were incredibly unrepresentative of the people they were supposed to represent. (Most people in France were uneducated peasants, workers, artisans, and poor. ) This leads to the beginning of the Revolution…. 14 July 1789 When the rioters broke into the Pastille. A symbol the Kings power had been decisively broken.
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY The new name for the ESTATES GENERAL. Entirely different in meaning. It implies it represents THE NATION. They began a REFORM AGENDA (VERY RADICAL). ***let will be summed up in 3 words, supposed to represent the essence of the FRENCH REVOLUTION: LIBERTY- It meaner, the Kings power is limited by assembly, and it meaner LIBERTIES, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, THE BILL OF RIGHTS. EQUALITY- meaner all men are equal in the eyes of the law, everyone is treated the same under the law, no privileges for specific people. The most radical thing.
FRATERNITY- meaner we are part f a nation and we are ALL IN THIS TOGETHER, a type of nationalism, POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY>THE RULE OF PEOPLE (people rule themselves). REVOLUTIONARIES- made the church an institutionalized state. Said they will elect bishops, priests. Everyone who has the right to vote will vote. ?? How much money did Jesus have? French said the revolution has gone too far. The revolution finishes writing its first Constitution. THE CONSTITUTION OF 1791 : Gave the right to vote to 2/3 of adult males. Before this only land owners and property owners could vote.
After this nothing would be the same, once you give people rights they don’t give them up easily. The revolution went to war. Every other country and ruler in Europe wanted to crush the revolution and restore Louis’ power in France. They wanted to keep the revolution from spreading. Did not want people in their countries to want what the French had, all their liberties and equalities. XVI was COMPLETELY REMOVED FROM HIS THRONE, France adopted a REPUBLIC RULE-everyone now to be E
He was a lawyer and politician. He had CHARISMA, made people want to follow him. He was all for the Revolution and all of its ideas. He believed e en , the survival tot the Revolution, would Justify the meaner. He would do whatever it takes to make the Revolution survive. He created armies large enough to win against the other countries. He decreed “LEVEE EN MASSES”, the mass manipulation of the state, every unwed man is drafter. If you don’t like it, we will shoot you. There was a place for everyone, which is why it was called a mass manipulation. The largest army in Europe. He made sure the officers were good.