1. Introduction In this paper. I will discourse what qualities should be cultivated. possessed. and practiced for an ideal individual harmonizing to Confucius. Although Confucius respects humanity. wisdom. and bravery as the basic threefold towards being a junzi ( superior man/ideal individual. ? ? ) . there has been an on-going dissension among bookmans sing the qualities that are needed to go an ideal individual or a junzi.
I shall carry through my intent by first supplying a basic background of information on the subject. so placing two conflicting readings of the qualities that are required by Hosung Ahn and Ha Poong Kim. adding my ain critical response. and in conclusion offering my declaration utilizing Antonio S. Cua’s reading on the subject. I will utilize Confucian Analectss ( 1895 ) by James Legge as my primary beginning. along with “Junzi as a Tragic Person: A Self Psychological Interpretation of the Analects” ( Ahn. 2008 ) . “Confucius’s Aesthetic Concept of Baronial Man: Beyond Moralism” ( Ha. 2006 ) . and “Virtues of Junzi” ( Cua. 2007 ) as my secondary beginnings.
2. Background Information Harmonizing to Chinese tradition. Confucius is one of the most outstanding mind. political figure. pedagogue. philosopher. and the laminitis of the Ru ( ? ) School of Chinese idea. Our text edition “The Eastern Paths to Philosophic Self-Enlightenment: An debut to Eastern Philosophies” ( 2002 ) written by Professor Phan points out that Confucius’s ideas are preserved in the Lunyu ( ? ? ) or the Analects. which is one of the Four Books. It is deserving observing that the Analects was non written by Master Kong Zi ( Confucius. ? ?
) himself. but complied by his close adherents when they recollected his “sayings” after Confucius’s decease. Defined by Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Confucius’s instructions create the foundation on most of subsequent Chinese guess on the instruction and bearing of the junzi ( ? ? ) . and how such an person should populate his life. interact with others. and the types of society and authorities in which he should take part. On one manus. in 14:20. the Master said. “The manner of the superior adult male is treble. but I am non equal to it.
Virtuous. he is free from anxiousnesss ; wise. he is free from perplexities ; bold ; he is free from fright. ” While on the other manus. bookmans have attempted to construe the qualities of junzi otherwise. In the following subdivision. I shall analyze the conflicting readings of Ahn and Kim. 3. First Interpretation by Hosung Ahn A. Background on Confucianism and Psychological Connotations of Junzi In Ahn’s article. he provides historical background information on Confucianism being the most efficient ideological agencies of medieval and modern autocratic authoritiess in China and Korea ( Ahn. 2008 ) .
Yet. Ahn argues that in the class of citing Weber ( 1968 ) . Confucianism and Daoism could non be introduced into modern capitalist economy due to their “thisworldliness. ” Ahn depicts Confucianism as one of the major hinderances in the route toward modernisation and industrialisation and considers Confucius as a obstinate and conservative moralist whose ethical codifications were oppressive. By presenting Heinz Kohut. an Austrian-born American psychoanalyst. Ahn compares Kohutian depth psychology such as self-psychology with Confucianism’s ideal individual in the Analects.
Ahn provides the basic background information in the intent of placing Confucianism as being neither sophisticated nor systematized ; yet. Ahn suggests that the Analectss could be interpreted as a pre-psychoanalytic self-psychology owing to the abundant ego psychological penetrations in the Analects. Ahn so defines junzi as “a prince literally and a gentleman normally. ” and that in Confucianism. “a junzi is a baronial individual who attempts to realize Confucian central virtuousnesss in concrete human relationships at any cost.
A junzi has frequently been considered a conformist or a conservative” ( Ahn. 2008 ) . Furthermore. Ahn states that Confucianism being established as an ethical and political orthodoxy in Korea was a stiff and autocratic formalistic. and of which courtesy. rites. and humanity were the cardinal criterions of being a junzi ( see Shun 2002 ) . B. Ahn’s Thesis In this article. Ahn ( 2008 ) specifically points out that “a junzi is a tragic individual in the Kohutian sense. Like a tragic individual. a junzi follows his or her ideals with values profoundly anchored in oneself even at the disbursal of one’s decease.
” Ahn thinks the most of import criterions of being a junzi are courtesy and rites ; he states that. “Confucius himself badly criticizes the externalized beauty and magnificence without the internalized quality of character” ( Ahn. 2008 ) . Most significantly. Ahn addresses that the nucleus feature of the Kohutian tragic individual is about identically expressed in the Analectss: humanity ( ren. ? ) . which is the ultimate virtuousness of Confucianism and that a junzi would instead decease than giving up his or her ideals and values ; which Ahn refers to as strikingly similar to Kohut’s definition of a tragic individual.
In footings of Ahn’s statements for back uping his claim. he brings out the subject of xiaoren ( little adult male. ? ? ) and defines it as “those whose ideals and values are superficially situated on the mind as compared to junzi in the Analects” ( Ahn. 2008 ) . Ahn so identifies the difference between a xiaoren and a junzi using Confucius’s stating. “The gentleman ( junzi ) is familiar with righteousness ; the little adult male ( xiaoren ) is familiar with profit” ( Analects. 4. 16 ) . Ahn points out that because a xiaoren focal point on what is good to him or her merely. he or she can non but be vulnerable to the external vicissitudes.
Similarly. harmonizing to Kohut. a xiaoren would “quickly and opportunistically set his or her strong beliefs under the influence of external pressures” ( cited in Ahn. 2008 ) ; whereas a junzi is determined to “adhere to the good ( Way ) until death” ( Analects. 8. 13 ) . Ahn so considers this finding as bravery. and he quotes Kohut ( 1985 ) that “The culminate peace ( in his decease ) achieved by the hero is…the ultimate dominance of a house and life-affirming self” ( p. 27 ) .
Ahn farther proves that Confucius has expressed the same thought through: “If a adult male in the forenoon hears the right manner. he may decease in the eventide without regret” ( Analects. 4. 8 ) . Therefore. Hosung Ahn summarizes that a junzi. harmonizing to Confucius. is a individual who searches for “the accomplishment of a psychological synthesis at all costs” ( Ahn. 2008 ) . In other words. Hosung Ahn interprets that Confucius thinks the quality an ideal individual should cultivate. possess. and pattern is the spirit of accomplishing a psychological synthesis or continuing his or her ideals and values at all costs. 4.
Second Interpretation by Ha Poong Kim A. Background on Aesthetic Concept of a Baronial Man In Kim’s article. he provides historical background information of the Analects being narrowly and moralistically interpreted. Kim points out that Confucius’s comments such as from “the Book of Songs and Music” are normally given an ethical significance owing to the tradition of Confucius’s cardinal term ren ( humanity. ? ) as being an ethical term. Through offering a historical footing as a foundation. Kim attempts to broaden Confucius’s humanistic reading of ren as humanity or the human spirit.
In inside informations. Kim ( 2006 ) addresses that “while the word ren merely seldom occurs in the pre-Confucian literature. it is used in plants such as the Songs and the ( Book of ) History. basically as a equivalent word of ren. ” To show that Confucius’s learning ren for the first clip as the supreme rule of human being and that Confucius is the inventor of the human spirit in Chinese civilisation. Kim introduces and explains other significances and definitions of ren used in other Confucius or Mencius stuffs.
Besides. Ha Poong Kim offers the background information of “one-dimensional image of the Confucian junzi as a stiff moralist. a adult male whose separating grade is merely a fastidious observation of Li ( rites. ? ) ” ( Kim. 2006 ) . With all the background information and account provided by Kim. he expresses the fact that some of Confucius’s expressions in the Analectss are strictly aesthetic and any effort to moralistically construe them falsify their significances. B. Kim’s Thesis Kim ( 2006 ) agrees with the normativity of Confucius’s construct of ren. yet he argues that the land of its normativity is basically aesthetic.
In back uping his claim. Kim applies Confucius’s instruction: “Recognize beauty in staying in ren. If one chooses non to remain in ren. how can one be considered to hold attained wisdom? ” ( Analects. 4:1 ) Kim interprets this stating as Confucius emphasizing the acknowledgment of the beauty of ren as a necessary status of human wisdom. which is tantamount to the consciousness of the human spirit. Kim defines this acknowledgment as an aesthetic consciousness. Then. through using Confucius’s stating: “To go a junzi Ru ( baronial bookman. ? ? ? ) . non a xiaoren Ru ( common bookman. ? ? ?
) ” ( Analects. 6:11 ) ; Kim points out the difference between a junzi and a xiaoren finally comes from the baronial man’s consciousness of the beauty of ren. which the little adult male ( xiaoren ) lacks. Kim explains that since a junzi has this aesthetic esthesia of humanity. he of course desires. loves. and delectations in ren and every manifestation of it. For the intent of endorsing up Kim’s claim. he states Confucius believes that by analyzing the Songs. one would be best awakened. which so explains why Confucius repeatedly urges his students to analyze the Songs.
Kim argues that Confucius’s instruction is to assist the pupils become a junzi. who is a lover of ren. through eliciting humanity that is obtained through the survey of music. In this peculiar chief statement. Kim ( 2006 ) summarizes that “for Confucius’s religious waking up. specifically the aesthetic waking up to ren. is the presupposition of the instruction of junzi. Without this waking up. the scholar or bookman will stay a xiaoren Ru. no affair how good versed he may be in ritual topics. and irrespective of how blameless he may be in his ethical behavior.
” Next. Kim offers another of import statement that during Confucius’s old ages of rolling from province to province in hunt of a good swayer. he seldom parted with his luting. Sima Qian. an Ancient Chinese historiographer. revealed that one time. surrounded by two hostile ground forcess. Confucius and his adherents ran out of commissariats in the wilderness between the provinces of Chen and Cai. With some of his adherents falling ailment and being unable to acquire up. Confucius calmly continued cantabile vocals and tweaking his luting.
Kim respects Confucius’s act as a adult male capable of burying everything else while basking music. Therefore. in Kim’s point of position. what basically separates Confucius’s junzi from the remainder of humanity is the junzi’s aesthetic esthesia to ren. In other words. Kim believes that harmonizing to Confucius. the quality a junzi should cultivate. possess. and pattern is the aesthetic consciousness. Nevertheless. Kim references that through emphasizing the junzi as an aesthetic adult male. he is non denying a junzi’s many-sidedness. 5. Review
I agree with Hosung Ahn’s claim sing junzi as a baronial individual who attempts to realize Confucian central virtuousnesss. and that courtesy. rites. humanity. and bravery are of import standards of going a junzi. Furthermore. I agree with Ahn’s claim that a junzi would follow his or her ideals and values profoundly anchored in oneself even at the expensed of decease. However. I strongly disagree with Ahn’s sentiment of Confucius’s learning or his categorization of a junzi as a tragic individual. In my point of position. Ahn has made an inaccurate reading of one Confucius’s stating from the Analects.
In 4:8. Confucius teaches that “If a adult male in the forenoon hear ( s ) the right manner. he may decease in the eventide without sorrow. ” Ahn interprets this stating as Confucius’s advocating of a junzi who must seek for “achievements of a psychological synthesis at all costs” ( Ahn. 2008 ) . and this remarkably resembles a tragic individual. As the exercising we conducted in our doctrine category on textual hermeneutics of the Confucian Dao in the Analects. this Confucius’s stating represents the importance of the Dao ( manner. ?
) ; which harmonizing to Confucius. with the experience of hearing the Dao. one could decease without declinations afterwards. Therefore. this individual or this junzi would be a happy individual since he contains the really of import factor “Dao” . and that he is perfectly non a tragic individual as Hosung Ahn considers as. In footings of Ha Poong Kim’s reading of a junzi. I agree with Kim sing the fact that Confucius repeatedly urges his adherents to analyze the Songs and Music because it would so assist his students awaken and broaden their heads. bask the six humanistic disciplines. and commit to the Dao.
I besides agree with Kim that a junzi is many-sidedness. What I do non hold with Kim is his distinction of a junzi and a xiaoren through aesthetic consciousness. As I mentioned supra. Kim ( 2006 ) summarizes in this peculiar chief statement that “…without this waking up. the acquisition or bookman will stay a xiaoren Ru. no affair how good versed he may be in ritual topics. and no affair how blameless he may be in his ethical behavior. ” In my sentiment. apart from indicating out Confucius advocates his students to analyze the Songs and Music. Kim has non given sufficient grounds to back up this claim.
He has non shown any Confucius’s instruction that could show the cardinal difference between a xiaoren’s and a junzi’s aesthetic consciousness. but instead Kim provides claims merely from his ain geographic expedition of Confucius’s ideas. To farther turn out that Kim’s reading is inaccurate. there are legion illustrations of junzi lacking of musical endowments and xiaoren being highly talented in aesthetic. In my sentiment. Confucius does believe that music could alter one’s head. adjust one’s temper. smooth one’s chi ( energy ) and etc. . but Confucius surely does non place a junzi from a xiaoren based on aesthetics.
6. Resolution: Interdependent and Dependent Virtues of Junzi Harmonizing to Antonio S. Cua. junzi is a paradigmatic person who sets the tone and quality of the life of ordinary moral agents. and a junzi is a individual who embodies ren ( humanity. ? ) . Lolo ( righteousness. ? ) . Li ( rites. ? ) . In add-on. unlike Ahn or Kim. Cua recognizes that except the basic. interdependent. and central virtuousnesss of ren. Lolo. and Li. a junzi besides involves peculiar dependant virtuousnesss such as filiality ( xiao. ? ) . munificence ( kuan. ? ) . trustiness ( xin. ? ) . and bravery ( yong. ? ) .
Cua regards these as dependant virtuousnesss in the sense that their ethical significance depends on connexion with the basic. interdependent. and central virtuousnesss ; and Antonio S. Cua farther emphasiss that dependent virtuousnesss are non low-level or logical derived functions of the basic virtuousnesss. In 14:30. the Master said. “The manner of the superior adult male is treble. but I am non equal to it. Virtuous. he is free from anxiousnesss ; wise. he is free from perplexities ; bold. he is free from fright. ” As we interpreted in category that harmonizing to Confucius. to go a junzi. one must be morally good. intellectually wise. and psychologically weather.
In my point of position. I extremely agree with Cua’s claim and I think although Confucius identifies humanity. wisdom. and bravery as the superior man’s three nucleus virtuousnesss. interdependent virtuousnesss and dependent virtuousnesss work together to organize the junzi. To clear up. Antonio S. Cua borrows Xunzi’s differentiation. a Chinese Confucian philosopher who lived during the Warring States Period and contributed to one of the Hundred Schools of Thought. the central virtuousnesss ren. Lolo. and Li are generic footings. and dependent virtuousnesss such as xiao. kuan. xin. yong are specified footings.
In other words. “specified footings are footings that specify the concrete significance of the central virtuousnesss in peculiar contexts of discourse” ( Cua. 2007 ) . To show farther. in the Analects. we could happen fragments of Confucius’s comments that reference both central virtuousnesss and dependent virtuousnesss in the same contexts. For illustration. “There were four things which the Maestro taught: letters ( sebaceous cyst. ? ) . moralss ( xing. ? ) . devotedness of psyche ( zhong. ? ) . and truthfulness ( xin. ? ) . ” —Confucius. The Analects. 7. 25
And in 14:28 we could happen Confucius’s instruction of ren. zhi ( wisdom. ? ) . and yong ( bravery. ? ) ; in 3:19 Li and zhong ; in 13:4 Li. Lolo. and xin and so on. For heuristic intents. Cua respects dependent virtuousnesss as two different groups: supportive and constituent virtuousnesss. Cua explains that the differentiation between are that the former are “genial or helpful. though non necessary. to the development of the central virtuousnesss such as ren. Lolo. and Li ; ” whereas the latter. are those that are “both supportive and constitutive of the quality of the central virtuousnesss actualized” ( Cua. 2007 ) .
Besides. depending on the character and disposition. a constituent and supportive virtuousness varies. that is. what is simply a constituent property in one individual may be a supportive virtue for another. Therefore. Cua believes that Confucius’s thought of the junzi is flexible or adaptable. and I extremely agree with him. To sum up. in my point of position. harmonizing to Confucius. what qualities a junzi should cultivate. possess. and pattern is the integrity of virtuousnesss that consists of ren. Lolo. and fifty-one as the basic central virtuousnesss. and uniting with other qualities such as xiao. yong. zhong. xin. kuan. etc.
Depending on each different individual and state of affairs. the function of the virtuousnesss of junzi is in the differentiation between basic. central. interdependent and dependant. supportive and constituent virtuousnesss. which may be referred to “the manner of the superior adult male is unityfold. ” 7. Decision On this paper. I provided background information of the subject ; I discussed and dissected two readings made by Hosung Ahn and Ha Poong Kim. In response to Ahn’s and Kim’s statement. I have made a personal review that a junzi is non a tragic individual and that a junzi is non required to possess aesthetic consciousness.
I so offered my declaration along with using Antonio S. Cua’s reading of this subject. In short. by showing a map of junzi’s virtuousnesss that consists of both interdependent and dependent virtuousnesss ; it reveals that the Confucius’s construct of junzi is a integrity of virtuousnesss with flexibleness. Works Cited Ahn. Hosung. “Junzi as a Tragic Person: A Self Psychological Interpretation of the Analects. “Pastoral Psychology. 57. 1/2 ( 2008 ) : 101. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 1 Apr. 2012.
“Confucius ( Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy ) . ” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab. CSLI. Stanford University. 3 July 2002. Web. 1 May 2012. Cua. Antonio. “Virtues of Junzi. “Journal of Chinese Philosophy. 34 ( 2007 ) : 125. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 28 Mar. 2012 Kim. Ha Poong. “Confucius’s Aesthetic Concept of Baronial Man: Beyond Moralism. ” Asiatic Philosophy. 16. 2 ( 2006 ) : 111. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 28 Mar. 2012 Kohut. H ( 1985 ) . Self psychological science and the scientific discipline of adult male.
In Humanities and self psychological science: Contemplations on a new psychoanalytic attack ( pp. 73-94 ) . New York: Norton. Legge. James. Confucian Analects. In Vol. I of Chinese Classics. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1895. Print. Phan. Cha? nh Co? nanogram. The Eastern waies to philosophic self-enlightenment: an debut to Eastern doctrines. Dubuque. Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co. . 2002. Print. Shun. K. -L. ( 2002 ) . Ren? and li? in the Analects. In B. W. Van Norden ( Ed. ) . Confucius and the Analectss: New essays ( pp. 53-72 ) . New York: Oxford University Press. Weber. M. ( 1968 ) .
The faith of China ( H. Gerth. Trans. ) . New York: Free Press. ——————————————– [ 2 ] . The enumeration of the book/chapter of a transition from the Analects follows James Legge’s in his interlingual rendition of the text ( 1895 ) . [ 3 ] . The cited phrase comes from The faith of China by Weber. M. [ 4 ] . Ren? and li? in the Analect. Confucius and the Analects written by K. Shun. as cited in Hosung Ahn’s article.