A pupil portfolio is a systematic aggregation of pupil work and related stuff that depicts a student’s activities. achievements. and accomplishments in one or more school topics. The aggregation should include grounds of pupil contemplation and self-evaluation. guidelines for choosing the portfolio contents. and standards for judging the quality of the work. The end is to assist pupils assemble portfolios that illustrate their endowments. stand for their authorship capablenesss. and state their narratives of school achievement…
Two Types of Portfolios:
Procedure and merchandise portfolios represent the two major types of portfolios. A procedure portfolio paperss the phases of acquisition and provides a progressive record of pupil growing. A merchandise portfolio demonstrates command of a learning undertaking or a set of larning aims and contains merely the best work… Teachers usage procedure portfolios to assist pupils place larning ends. papers advancement over clip. and show larning mastery… In general. instructors prefer to utilize procedure portfolios because they are ideal for documenting the phases that pupils go through as they learn and advancement
Stairss in the Portfolio Assessment Process
First. the instructor and the pupil demand to clearly place the portfolio contents. which are samples of pupil work. contemplations. instructor observations. and conference records. Second. the instructor should develop rating processs for maintaining path of the portfolio contents and for rating the portfolio… Third. the instructor needs a program for keeping portfolio conferences. which are formal and informal meetings in which pupils review their work and discourse their advancement. Because they encourage brooding instruction and acquisition. these conference are an indispensable portion of the portfolio appraisal procedure
Advantages of Portfolio Assessment
* Promoting pupil self-evaluation. contemplation. and critical thought. * Measuring public presentation based on echt samples of pupil work. * Supplying flexibleness in mensurating how pupils accomplish their learning ends. * Enabling instructors and pupils to portion the duty for puting learning ends and for measuring advancement toward run intoing those ends. * Giving pupils the chance to hold extended input into the learning procedure. * Facilitating concerted acquisition activities. including peer rating and tutoring. concerted larning groups. and peer conferencing. * Supplying a procedure for structuring acquisition in phases. * Supplying chances for pupils and instructors to discourse learning ends and the advancement toward those ends in structured and unstructured conferences.
* Enabling measuring of multiple dimensions of pupil advancement by including different types of informations and stuffs. Disadvantages of Portfolio Assessment * Requiring excess clip to be after an appraisal system and carry on the appraisal. * Gathering all of the necessary informations and work samples can do portfolios bulky and hard to pull off. * Developing a systematic and calculated direction system is hard. but this measure is necessary in order to do portfolios more than a random aggregation of pupil work. * Scoring portfolios involves the extended usage of subjective rating processs such as evaluation graduated tables and professional judgement. and this limits dependability. * Scheduling single portfolio conferences is trouble and the length of each conference may interfere with other instructional activities. ( Venn. 2000. p. 538 )
Portfolio Assessment Guide
One signifier of reliable appraisal being widely adapted in schools today is portfolio appraisal. Diane Hart defines a portfolio as “a container that holds grounds of an individual’s accomplishments. thoughts. involvements. and achievements. ” The ultimate purpose in the usage of portfolios is to develop independent. autonomous scholars. Long-run portfolios provide a more accurate image of students’ specific accomplishments and advancement and the countries of needful attending. Portfolios make it easier to develop rating strategies that emphasize measuring single pupil growing instead than competition with other pupils. As self-evaluation is an built-in portion of portfolio appraisal. a extremely competitory clime will turn out counterproductive.
Students will be loath to concentrate upon their lacks if they believe it will set them at a disadvantage in the competition for the top classs. Often portfolios are used to supplement. non replace. traditional appraisal processs. 1. Remember. portfolios should be developed by the pupils. non the instructor. Students should hold freedom in choosing points to include in their portfolios. It is advantageous to do the whole portfolio procedure a collaborative teacher-student attempt. with the instructor going more of a adviser to the pupil. The instructor maps more as a manager than a manager. 2. Any point that provides grounds of a student’s accomplishment and growing can be included in a portfolio. Normally used points include:
a. Examples of written work
B. Diaries and logs
c. Standardized stock lists
d. Videotapes of pupil public presentations
e. Audiotapes of presentations
f. Mind maps and notes
g. Group studies
h. Trials and quizzes
I. Charts. graphs
J. Lists of books read
k. Questionnaire consequences
l. Peer reappraisals
3. Each point in the portfolio should be dated to ease the rating of advancement through the twelvemonth. 4. Typically. instructors hold periodic single conferences with their pupils to reexamine their portfolios. During this interview it is of import to listen to the students’ appraisals of the points in their portfolio. The focal point of the treatment should be upon the merchandises included in the portfolio. The instructor and pupil work together to put a limited figure of aims for future work. Strive to accomplish a duologue. non a talk. 5. Much of the value of portfolios derives from the students’ contemplation on which points are deserving including in their portfolios. 6. The portfolios may be kept in booklets. file boxes. assigned shortss. or other appropriate containers. Whatever the storage container. it must be readily accessible to the pupils.
7. Portfolios are particularly helpful at parent conferences. Help the parent examine the portfolio. indicating out grounds of advancement and countries of needful betterment. 8. Be patient. Portfolios are a new construct to most pupils and parents. There is a learning curve involved in accommodating to the procedure. Experiment to find what works and experience free to modify as needed. Portfolio appraisal is a term with many significances. and it is a procedure that can function a assortment of intents. A portfolio is a aggregation of pupil work that can exhibit a student’s attempts. advancement. and accomplishments in assorted countries of the course of study.
A portfolio appraisal can be an scrutiny of student-selected samples of work experiences and paperss related to results being assessed. and it can turn to and back up advancement toward accomplishing academic ends. including pupil efficaciousness. Portfolio appraisals have been used for large-scale appraisal and answerability intents ( e. g. . the Vermont and Kentucky statewide assessment systems ) . for intents of school-to-work passages. and for intents of enfranchisement. For illustration. portfolio appraisals are used as portion of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards appraisal of adept instructors.
Types of Portfolios
While portfolios have wide potency and can be utile for the appraisals of students’ public presentation for a assortment of intents in nucleus course of study countries. the contents and standards used to measure portfolios must be designed to function those intents. For illustration. showcase portfolios exhibit the best of pupil public presentation. while working portfolios may incorporate bill of exchanges that pupils and instructors use to reflect on procedure. Progress portfolios contain multiple illustrations of the same type of work done over clip and are used to measure advancement. If cognitive procedures are intended for appraisal. content and rubrics must be designed to capture those procedures.
Portfolio appraisals can supply both formative and summational chances for supervising advancement toward making identified results. By puting standards for content and results. portfolios can pass on concrete information about what is expected of pupils in footings of the content and quality of public presentation in specific course of study countries. while besides supplying a manner of measuring their advancement along the manner. Depending on content and standards. portfolios can supply instructors and research workers with information relevant to the cognitive procedures that pupils use to accomplish academic results.
Much of the literature on portfolio appraisal has focused on portfolios as a manner to incorporate appraisal and direction and to advance meaningful schoolroom larning. Many advocators of this map believe that a successful portfolio appraisal plan requires the on-going engagement of pupils in the creative activity and assessment procedure. Portfolio design should supply pupils with the chances to go more brooding about their ain work. while showing their abilities to larn and accomplish in faculty members. For illustration. some feel it is of import for instructors and pupils to work together to prioritise the standards that will be used as a footing for measuring and measuring pupil advancement. During the instructional procedure. pupils and instructors work together to place important pieces of work and the procedures required for the portfolio. As pupils develop their portfolio. they are able to have feedback from equals and instructors about their work.
Because of the greater sum of clip required for portfolio undertakings. there is a greater chance for self-contemplation and collaborative contemplation. This allows pupils to reflect and describe about their ain thought procedures as they monitor their ain comprehension and detect their emerging apprehension of topics and accomplishments. The portfolio procedure is dynamic and is affected by the interaction between pupils and instructors. Portfolio appraisals can besides function summational appraisal intents in the schoolroom. functioning as the footing for missive classs. Student conferences at cardinal points during the twelvemonth can besides be portion of the summational procedure. Such conferences involve the pupil and instructor ( and possibly the parent ) in joint reappraisal of the completion of the portfolio constituents. in questioning the cognitive procedures related to artifact choice. and in covering with other relevant issues. such as students’ perceptual experiences of single advancement in making academic results.
The usage of portfolios for large-scale appraisal and answerability intents pose annoying measuring challenges. Portfolios typically require complex production and composing. undertakings that can be dearly-won to hit and for which dependability jobs have occurred. Generalizability and comparison can besides be an issue in portfolio appraisal. as portfolio undertakings are alone and can change in subject and trouble from one schoolroom to the following. For illustration. Maryl Gearhart and Joan Herman have raised the inquiry of comparison of tonss because of differences in the aid pupils may have from their instructors. parents. and equals within and across schoolrooms.
To the extent pupil pick is involved. contents may even be different from one pupil to the following. Conditionss of. and chances for. public presentation therefore vary from one pupil to another. These measurement issues take portfolio appraisal outside of the sphere of conventional psychometries. The qualities of the most utile portfolios for instructional intents – profoundly embedded in direction. affecting pupil pick. and alone to each schoolroom and pupil – seem to belie the demands of sound psychometries. However. this does non intend that psychometric methodological analysis should be ignored. but instead that new ways should be created to further develop measurement theory to turn to dependability. cogency. and generalizability.