As long as man must form a social relationship to survive, he will eventually have to construct government to control social relations. Aristotle famous saying “Man is a political animal” says a lot about his views of human nature. Like Plato, Aristotle believes the construction of government is inevitable. In human nature males are superior to females. Slavery is a natural part Of life and slavery is helpful to society. A slave master must always be good to his slaves. Aristotle believes that family is a component of human nature. In human nature man needs he family to survive. Man is a political animal” pants the color of how Aristotle views the tauter of government. He believes that man will always form some type of government in the end. SST. Augustine was a Christian philosopher and he had a Dualistic Constructive Version on Human Life. Just like the book he wrote there was the City of God and the City of Man. SST. Augustine was not worried about the City of man but the City of God. According to SST. Augustine there was divine nature which was God the creator, Corporal Nature which was the body, and Spiritual Nature which is the soul. SST.
Augustine believed the soul is naturally peaceful and man has free will. SST. Augustine also believed that unman nature was believers vs.. Non- believers. I do not feel that SST. Augustine paints a clear picture of how he views government but do know that he believes that God is above all things even Government. The City of God is for Christians and the City of Man is for man. SST. Thomas Aquinas is also a Christian philosopher. In the state of nature SST. Thomas believes that man was created to be a social being and man was not meant to be governed. SST. Thomas denies Aristotle beliefs of the state of nature. According to SST.
Thomas faith is above reason and religion is authority over all thinking. SST. Thomas Aquinas colors his Views on government as God is above all and man was not meant to be governed. Niccole Machiavelli does not have a lot to say about human nature. What he does have to say is that morality is not necessary in life. In human nature man is incomplete without government. I feel that Machiavelli spends very little time focusing on human nature because he feels it is of so little importance because man cannot sunrise without government. That is why Machiavelli writes a book on how to govern the best way, called the Prince.
Thomas Hobbes considers human nature to e equality. All men are equal in human nature. Men are more equal then unequal. Hobbes believes that language is an important part of human nature and a necessity. Reason and logical thinking are human and a necessity. In human nature there is no right or wrong and there is no justice in human nature. Man should try and get as much as he can and keep it for as long as he can. Thomas Hobbes view of the nature of government is that you can not trust authority. According to John Locke in the state of nature man has perfect freedom and all men are equal.
In human nature there are trial laws in which Locke believes that man has no right to harm him or others, unless man is in danger. War exists in the state of nature when murder is involved. Locke believes that in the state of nature a man’s processions can be taken away. In the state of nature all things on earth man is entitled to. War can exist in the state of nature and the state government. Lockers views on the state of nature lead way to his views on the state of government. In the State Of government society gives up their natural rights. The writer that comes closet to the truth about human nature is Plato.
Plato states that man is subject to imperfections, which throughout history and in the study of evolution we can find that it is true that man is not perfect. Also Plato states that due to our natural weakness, man is naturally inclined to form social relations that enhance our chances of survival. Throughout history we can also prove this to be true. According to Plato in the nature of government people are irrational and are driven by self interest because they are guided by greed and ignorance. Since people are like this in the state of government they can not be trusted to act n a politically responsible way.
The only people that should rule are the people who are trained to rule and want what is good for the whole community. The ruler or rulers is responsible for directing the affairs of the state. Aristotle said that ‘The state is the highest of all natural communities”. The natural communities are family, village, and state. Each exists for a good life. Aristotle said there are three types of government, Kingship, Aristocracy, and Constitutional. Aristotle believed that Kingship was the best type of government. Political society exists for good actions and recognized alternative motivations in politics.
Aristotle said there is no difference between moral and legal sovereignty. SST. Augustine believed that the state of government was for the better good of man. That man should help everyone whenever possible and do no harm. SST. Augustine was influenced by Plato. He believed that government should in deliberate actions to achieve peace. SST. Augustine believed that justice on earth would equal righteousness with God. SST. Thomas Aquinas in the nature of government believed in class structure. The first class was servants, then merchants and craftsman, nobility, and inns. SST.
Thomas believed that human government is unable to guide man in spiritual salvation. The government is responsible for carrying out everything that the church is not able to carry out according to the laws of the scripture. Government is responsible for supporting order. According to SST. Thomas there are four laws, 1 . External law that governors’ the universe, 2. Natural law which represent the needs of man, 3. Divine law which is revealed by God, and 4. Human law which is made by man to construct order. According to Niccole Machiavelli government takes importance over everything else.
He said a ruler should only be worried about power. Machiavelli said that it is better for a ruler to be loved then to be feared, but it is harder to be loved so be feared. He also said a ruler should not be hated because if he is hated he will be overthrown. Machiavelli wrote a book called the Prince, which was manual on how to be the best ruler. Thomas Hobbes said the nature of government comes from competition among members of society. He said that justice was the ability to receive the fruits of your labor. With the creation of government comes commerce. Thomas Hobbes is a social contract theorist.
He said “Shut up and fall in line or go some where else. John Locke believed in civil society in the state of government. He also was a Social Contract Theorist. Society gives up natural rights in order to establish government. All actions of government are to protect people and property. All decisions apply to future generations when man decided to leave the state of nature. Once you leave the State of nature you cannot go back. He said governments can end when conquered, dissolved from within, dissolving of legislature, executive branch no longer enforces laws, or a nation is delivered o a foreign power.
Locke believes in Executive Prerogative which is when the executive does something for the public good without authorization. The theorist that I most strongly disagree with is SST. Thomas Aquinas. I do not agree with his views on religion and government. Do not think it is morally correct for the government to carry out the duties of the church. The church orders the execution but does not carry out the duty because it morally incorrect to kill someone. Feel the church is still morally responsible for the death because the church ordered it.