Pulling on histories by Lyn and Harry in Learning usher 5. 4 ( Task A ) . What can be learned from their experiences to assist wellness and societal attention respect service users individuality?

This essay will set up what individuality is and what can be learned from the experiences from Lyn an vitamin D Harry’s histories in Learning guide 5’s Audio activity. It will besides look at the work of Berger and Luckman. and Goffman’s work on constructs of ‘stigma’ and ‘ spoiled identities’ which explores pigeonholing. What is meant by the term ‘ identity’ ? This could be answered from many positions. Philosophers might be interested in the person and shared qualities that define person as a human being with a sense of ego. Psycologists have similar intrests in analyzing individuality as a procedure by which people distinguish themselves from others and present themselves to the universe. They are besides concerned with explicating how people aquire and maintain their individualities. Biologists could indicate to the alone DNA forms in familial make up that are expressed in physical visual aspect. which can tag people out as different and. for illustration. enable the designation of felons through analysis of forensic grounds or used to settle paternity differences. Sociologists. by contrast. are more interested in the relationship between individuality and society. and analyzing he corporate individualities of. for illustration street gang members. different types of employees. local community occupants. and members of minority and opressed groups. ( Open university K127 Block 2 P 5 ) .

It could be argued that a individuals sense of individuality depends on how they see themselves and how other people view them. Identity can besides be aquired as a consequence of household influences and can besides be upon come ining big life. There can be assorted ways in which people have alone individuality because it would be hard for us to state one individual from another. Some individualities have been singled out as ‘different’ for illustration homophiles. people with a disablement. and people with a different cultural origan. but these persons have fought for their rights. and are now known as common individualities. as they were being discriminated against. The sociologists Peter Berger and Thomas Luckman ( 1967 ) suggested that individuality is ever socially constructed. For illustration through interactions with their parents or ‘significant’ others kids foremost learn who they are. what the universe is like. and how they should act within that universe. This sense of personal individuality and the external word is so reinforsed by interactions with a wider set of others. and internalised as the persons ain sense of significance.

This procedure of detecting ones’s individuality in relation to the societal universe is termed ‘primary socialisation’ and consequences in the single holding a consicousness of themselves and cognizing that universe exsists as an external world instead than fantasyland conjured up in the head ( as happens when woolgathering ) . Berger an Luckman pointed out that the developing kid has no pick about the nature of the universe that shapes their initial individuality. as this is wholly dependent on the fortunes of their early upbringing. However. as the kid grows up. they encounter what Berger and Luckman called institutional subworlds such as schools. universities and different types of work environment. each with its ain specializer linguistic communication. function outlooks and civilization. If the person is traveling to take portion successfully in these new spheres they have to undergo a procedure of secondary socialization. larning their topographic point within these subworlds and following their individuality consequently. ( Open university. K127. block 2. P 7-8 ) .

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In add-on to alone personal individualities. some persons might hold shared individualities. and some are singled out as ‘different’ for illustration the mentally ill. ethnicity or different sexual orientation. Examples of such can play a portion in how people are viewed. Although individuality would be seen as a personal issue. societal factors can hold a large influence in the exceptence or rejection of different individualities. For illustration a individual with a disablement may see themselves as disabled. and allow carers make everything for them. because people call them handicapped but can make most things for themselves… Others may hold a delibarate individuality in order to claim certain benefits. Stereotyped positions like these confirm Berger and Luckmans quote that individuality is socially constructed. and those who fail to populate up to societys outlooks can take to disapproval and possible intercession by the legal system. Erving Goffman states that the societal building of individualities is indispensable for successful interactions and claimed upon run intoing person for the first clip. without really cognizing anyhing about them you can normally work out how to associate to them. for illustration civillians. physicians or nurses. but for people who struggle with interactions and forms such as people with Autisum face disadvantages which can take to pigeonholing. and being given a more nagative label.

. Goffmans work on stigma ( spoilt individuality ) in which he explored stereotypes of certain identites he said can take persons into holding a more negative label. He identified three different types of stigma.

Type of stigma Examples
Adominations of the organic structure Physical malformations
Blindness Deafness Blemishes Mental upset Imprisonment Addiction Alcholism Homosexuality Unemployment Suicide atempts Extremist political behavior Tribal Race

Nation Religion Social category beginning based on Goffman. p. 14

Goffman said this linguistic communication used to descibe different types of stigma is non said to be used now the first two types of negative individuality that relate to organic structure and appearence are straight relevent to the experience of a wellness attention users. The deductions of holding a stigmatised individuality is that they get labled out as ‘different’ and persons with a ‘normal’ label creates a sense of the ‘different’ persons being a load to others. and besides said the uncomfortableness between holding the label ‘different’ and ‘normal can take to societal segregation between people with the labels ‘normal. ’ and ‘different’ persons looking to other ‘different inividuals for common support. Pulling on Lyn’s histories back in Learning ushers Audio 5. 4 Undertaking Angstrom. She said the bulk of people are all right with about her disablement. and handle her as an person. and non like she has a disibility. However she said that the territory nurses patronise her because she is disabled. They are ill-mannered. chesty and look like they do non desire to be at that place. Bing treated in this manner has made Lyn experience undervalued as an person. because the territory nurses are looking at Lyn’s disablement and are non handling her as an person with independency. wants and demands of her ain. They have non treated her with the regard she deserves. The territory nurses need to listen to Lyn’s penchants.

Lyn has her ain head and knows what she want’s and demands. Some practicians may believe because Lyn is disabled and they are the 1s whom are giving the support that they should make things how they would wish to make them. It is of import for a practician to handle each person as an equal. and to allow them hold every bit much independency and state as possible. Good relationships can be built with service users if they are being treated as an equal. and non being looked down upon for holding an unwellness or disablement. However Lyn said her carers are great. espesially her personal carer Maria. They make her feel valued because they do non handle her like she has a disablement. They help her to be every bit independent as she can be. and accepts she knows what she wants and demands. They besides are really happy and gabby and look like they want to look after her which makes her experience valued. Pulling on Harry’s histories from Learning guide 5’s Audio activity. Harry is HIV positive. He said people make assumtions. particularly in sexual wellness attention.

They assume things like how he contracted the disease. and assume things like behaviors and life style. He said it possibly paranoia because he expects people to do premises. but likely do non. He said the Nhs is like a faceless administration. because you are seen as a figure. and it is like a revolving door. One patient in and one patient out. He said the figure means more than idenity. because people are treated precisely the same. but each person has a different individuality. sentiments. life styles. wants and needs. Bing treated in this manner has left Harry experiencing undervalued as an person because he has been treated for his unwellness. and non as an person and feels that people make premises about him. He said in administrations they make you experience welcome and state you to sit down and hold a cup of java and confabs to him. which has made him experience valued. because he knows that he is welcome and people want to happen out about him. non being merely another figure. Both histories by Lyn and Harry reveals that some practicians can do service users feel valued and some can do them experience unappreciated. Identities in a profesional universe can sometimes depend on the point of position in relation to opposing individualities.

For illustration Healthcare practitioners sentiment of a service user may be influenced by the service user necessitating their aid. or even distinguish themseves from other professionals if they are higher qualified. Using a individual centred attention attack needs to be used by all practioners. which focuses on the individual at the Centre. Treating persons as peers is really inportant in wellness and societal attention. Practitioners should allow service users have their say and listen to them. Besides treat them with regard and concentrate on what they can make instead than what they can non make. Besides relate to each individual as an person. admiting that they have different parts to their individuality. and to pass on with them candidly.

Practitioners should be careful non to do service users feel undervalued because it makes them experience worthless and like they do non count. Each individual is an equal in their ain right. respects of their disablements. ability’s. work position. or background. and should non be discriminated against. In decision both experiences of Lyn and Harry have had both good and bad experiences. Their good experiences both came from being made to experience like they are an single. and they are valued for being them and non seeing them as merely holding a disease or disablement and positive relationships were made. However their bad experiences made them experience unappreciated as persons. and had a less positive result.

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