What do we know about clinical trials? Few non-specialists
will dare to at least outline in general terms what it is. And meanwhile, we
all use their results, buying and using medicines, food supplements and
cosmetics. None of this would ever appear on the shelves and enter into
interaction with our body without preliminary tests – trials on humans.


It is clear that such field of activity is very sensitive,
including in addition to technical and scientific issues a lot of ethical
related questions about integrity and confidentiality of these participants,
their signing of a qualified informed agreement for participation, access of
third parties to research results, protection from errors and unfair actions.


In this regard, the research community is increasingly
interested in implementing the blockchain technology. It seems attractive as it
is a database where records are kept in chronological order and can not be
changed later – all “modifications” are made in the form of new
records. In addition, such a database has an important feature: its full copies
exist on the computers of each of its users. At certain time intervals, all
copies are automatically compared to each other for identity. That’s why any
attempts to manipulate information on a separate computer lose any sense – this
will be immediately revealed by the system.

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Three pharmaceutical brands—Pfizer, Amgen, and Sanofi—are
already working together to integrate blockchains to speed up their clinical
trials of new medicaments, according to CoinDesk1.

1.1.1      Blockchain
& Big Data


Big Data refers to the management of large
volumes of data, as well as their analysis. Generally, it is information that
cannot be processed by classical methods because of its huge volumes


However, it is impossible to say with
certainty that Big Data is some fundamentally new phenomenon – on the contrary,
large data sources have existed for many years. In marketing, they can be
called databases for customer purchases, credit histories, lifestyles, etc. For
many years, analysts have used this data to help companies anticipate future
customer needs, assess risks, form consumer preferences, and so on.


In the field of information security, Big
Data faces the following challenges:

§  problems of data protection and ensuring their integrity;

§  risk of extraneous interference and leakage of confidential

§  improper storage of confidential information;

§  the risk of information loss, for example, due to someone
else’s malicious actions;

§  the risk of misuse of personal data by third parties, etc.


Information is a valuable asset, which
means that in the foreground should be the issue of ensuring the basic aspects
of information security. In order to survive in a competitive struggle,
companies must keep pace with the times, they should not ignore the
potentialities and advantages that the Big Data technology and the Big Data
tools entail.


Tandem of blockchain and Big Data can be
successfully used in healthcare. It is well known that imperfect and incomplete
data on the patient’s health at times increase the risk of misdiagnosis and
incorrectly prescribed treatment. Critical data about the health of clients of
medical institutions should be as secure as possible, possess the properties of
immutability, be verifiable and should not be subject to any manipulation.


Information in the blockchain protocol
meets all of the requirements above and can serve as a quality and reliable
data source for in-depth analysis with the help of new Big Data technologies.
In addition, with the help of the blockchain, medical institutions could
exchange reliable data with insurance companies, justice authorities,
employers, scientific institutions and other organizations that need medical
information on a big scale.


Blockchain and
Connected Objects (IoT)


Eugene Nayshtetik (President at Planexta Inc)
and his team are currently developing a new platform for remote diagnostic and
real-time health monitoring. A Portable medical device will be worn by a
patient and will record different health parameter (depending on initial health
condition). All this data will be processed in two steps:

Primary algorithm

Artificial Intelligence

objective is to identify any deviation from a norm and systematize a report for
a doctor, starting from the most urgent cases that need an immediate intrusion.
The fact that report has been sent will be automatically recorded in the
blockchain, as well as doctor’s actions: opening report, making or not some
corrections, contacting patience/insurance, etc. Ideally 1 doctor could be
monitoring from 300 to 500 patients. For this particular case the role of
blockchain is to build trustful and transparent relationship between a patient,
a doctor and insurance. Besides, the company will provide tokens among the
doctors, as a reward for some additional tasks they might do – control and
correct prescriptions of their colleagues, leave additional recommendations,
participate in medical conciliums,


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