White Australia Policy Essay, Research Paper
Abolition of The in-migration Act or white Australia policy
The beginnings of the & # 8216 ; White Australia & # 8217 ; policy can be traced back to the 1850s, when white mineworkers & # 8217 ; bitterness towards the Chinese diggers turning into force on the Buckland River in Victoria, and at Lambing Flat in New South Wales. The Governments of these two settlements introduced limitations on Chinese in-migration.
Subsequently, it was the bend of hard-working Kanakas in Northern Queensland. Factory workers in the south became opposed to all signifiers of in-migration, which might endanger their occupations & # 8211 ; peculiarly colored people who they thought would accept a lower criterion of life and work for lower rewards.
Some influential Queenslanders felt that the settlement would be excluded from the extroverted Federation if the Kanaka trade did non discontinue. Leading NSW and Victorian politicians warned there would be no topographic point for & # 8220 ; asians & # 8221 ; or & # 8220 ; coloureds & # 8221 ; in the Australia of the hereafter.
In 1901 the new Federal Government passed an Act stoping the employment of Pacific Islanders. The new Immigration Restriction Act 1901 received Royal Assent on 23 December 1901. It was described as an Act & # 8220 ; to put certain limitations on in-migration and to supply for the remotion from the Commonwealth of prohibited immigrants & # 8221 ; .
Among those it prohibited from in-migration were the insane, anyone likely to go a charge upon the populace or upon any public or charitable establishment, any individual enduring from an infective or contagious disease & # 8220 ; of a loathsome or unsafe character & # 8221 ; . It besides prohibited cocottes, felons, and anyone under a contract or understanding to execute manual labor within the Commonwealth ( with some limited exclusions ) .
One of the ways limitations were imposed was by presenting a command trial, used to except certain appliers by necessitating them to go through a written trial in a specific linguistic communication with which they were non needfully familiar. The Act stated the migrator had to & # 8220 ; compose out command and mark in the presence of an officer, a transition of 50 words in a European linguistic communication directed by the officer & # 8221 ; .
Regardless of these terrible steps, the execution of the White Australia policy was heartily applauded in most subdivisions of the community. In 1919 the Prime Minister, William Morris Hughes, hailed it as & # 8220 ; the greatest thing we have achieved & # 8221 ; .
After the eruption of belligerencies with Japan, Prime Minister John Curtin reinforced the doctrine of the & # 8216 ; White Australia & # 8217 ; policy, stating & # 8220 ; this state shall stay for of all time the place of the posterities of those people who came here in peace in order to set up in the South Seas an outstation of the British race & # 8221 ; .
During the Second World War, many colored refugees entered Australia. Most of these left voluntarily at the terminal of the war, but many had married Australians and wanted to remain. Arthur Calwell, the first Immigration Minister, sought to behave them, eliciting much protest.
Minister Holt & # 8217 ; s determination in 1949 to let 800 non-European refugees to remain, and Nipponese war brides to be admitted, was the first measure towards a non-discriminatory in-migration policy.
The following major measure was in 1957 when non-Europeans with 15 old ages abode in Australia were allowed to go Australian citizens. The revised Migration Act of 1958 introduced a simpler system of entry licenses and abolished the controversial command trial. The revised Act avoided mentions to inquiries of race. Indeed, it was in this context that the Immigration Minister, Sir Alexander Downer, stated that & # 8220 ; distinguished and extremely qualified Asians & # 8221 ; might immigrate.
After a reappraisal of the non-European policy in March 1966, Immigration Minister Hubert Opperm
an proclaimed applications for migration would be accepted from well-qualified people on the footing of their suitableness as colonists, their ability to incorporate readily and their ownership of makings positively utile to Australia.
At the same clip, the Government decided a figure of non-Europeans, who had been ab initio admitted as & # 8216 ; impermanent occupants & # 8217 ; , but who were non to be required to go forth Australia, could go occupants and citizens after five old ages ( ie the same as for Europeans ) , alternatively of 15 old ages as had earlier been required.
There was besides an moderation of limitations on non-European migrators. The standard of & # 8216 ; distinguished and extremely qualified & # 8217 ; was replaced by the standards of & # 8216 ; good qualified & # 8217 ; non-Europeans and the figure of non-Europeans allowed to immigrate would be & # 8217 ; slightly greater than antecedently & # 8217 ; .
The March 1966 proclamation began a period of steady enlargement of non-European migration and was the important minute in get rid ofing the & # 8216 ; White Australia & # 8217 ; policy. Annual non-European colonist reachings rose from 746 in 1966, to 2 696 in 1971, while annually part-European colonist reachings rose from 1 498 to 6 054.
In 1973 the Whitlam ( Labor ) Government took three farther stairss in the gradual procedure to take race as a factor in Australia & # 8217 ; s in-migration policies. These were to:
H legislate to do all migrators, of whatever beginning, eligible to obtain citizenship after three old ages of lasting abode ;
h issue policy instructions to abroad stations to wholly ignore race as a factor in the choice of migrators ; and
H sign all international understandings associating to in-migration and race.
Because the Whitlam Government reduced the overall in-migration consumption, the reform steps that it took had really small impact on the figure of migrators from non-European states. An addition in the figure and per centum of migrators from non-European states did non take topographic point until after the Fraser Government came into office in 1975.
In 1978 there was a comprehensive reappraisal of in-migration in Australia. Far-reaching new policies and plans were adopted as a model for Australia & # 8217 ; s population development. The chief points adopted were three-year turn overing plans to replace the one-year in-migration marks of the yesteryear, a renewed committedness to use in-migration policy without favoritism, a more consistent and structured attack to migrant choice and an accent on pulling people who would stand for a positive addition to Australia.
An mean net population addition of 70 000 was forecast for the first triennium 1978-81 and this was estimated to help in raising Australia & # 8217 ; s population to about 19.1 million in 2001.
Today, about one in four of Australia & # 8217 ; s 18.3 million people was born overseas. In 1998-99, the figure of colonists by state of birth totalled 84 143, and they came from more than 150 states. Most came from New Zealand ( 22 per cent ) , the United Kingdom ( 10 per cent ) , China ( 7 per cent ) , South Africa ( 6 per cent ) , Philippines ( 4 per cent ) , and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( 3 per cent ) .
The abolishment of the & # 8216 ; White Australia & # 8217 ; policy was a gradual procedure that took topographic point over a period of 25 old ages. The first measure towards a less prejudiced migration policy was taken by Immigration Minister Harold Holt, with bipartizan support from the Australian Labor Party.
Following the election of Liberal Country Party ( LCP ) in 1949, Mr Holt allowed 800 non-European refugees to stay in Australia and allowed Nipponese war brides to come in Australia. Over the following 24 old ages, the LCP Government bit by bit removed most of the staying favoritism, with the concluding traces being removed in 1973 by the new Labor Government.