a) The covalent bonds in organic molecules are higher energy bonds than those in water and carbon dioxide.
b) Elections are being moved from atoms that have a lower affinity for electrons (such as C) to atoms with a higher affinity for electrons (such as O).
c) THe oxidation of organic compounds can be used to make ATP.
d) The electrons have a higher potential energy when associated with water and CO2 than they do in organic compounds.
e) THe covalent bond in O2 is unstable and easily broken by electrons from the organic molecules.
a) substrate-level phosphorylation
b) electron transport
e) oxidation of NADH to NAD+
b) accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain.
c) the citric acid cycle
d) the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
e) the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP.
a) Most of the free energy available from the oxydation of glucose is used in the production of ATP in glycolysis.
b) Glycolysis is a very inefficient reaction, with much of the energy of glucose released as heat.
c) Most of the free energy available from the oxidation of glucose remains in the pyruvate, one of the products of glycolysis.
d) There is no CO2 or water produced as products of glycolysis.
e) Glycolysis consists of many enzymatic reaction, each of which extracts some energy from the glucose molecule.
a) 2 NAD+, 2H+, 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and 2 H2O.
b)2 NADH, 2H+, 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and 2 H2O
c) 2 FADH2, 2 pyruvate, 4 ATP, and 2H2O
d) 6 CO2, 6 H2O, 2 ATP, and 2 pyruvate.
e) 6 CO2, 6 H2O, 36 ATP, and 2 citrate
a) an agent that reacts with oxygen and depletes its concentration in the cell
b) an agent that binds to pyruvate and inactivates it
c) an agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose but is not metabolized
d) an agent that reacts with NADH and oxidizes it to NAD+
e) an agent that blocks the passage of electrons along the electron transportation chain.
7. Starting with citrate, which of the following combinations of products would result from three turns of the citric acid cycle?
a) 1 ATP, 2 CO2, 3NADH, and 1 FADH2
b) 2 ATP, 2 CO2, 1 NADH, and, 3 FADH2
c) 3 ATP, 3 CO2, 3 NADH, and, 3 FADH2
d) 3 ATP, 6 CO2, 9 NADH, and, 3 FADH2
3) 38 ATP, 6 CO2, 3 NADH, and 12 FADH2
a) glycolysis and the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
b) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle.
c) the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
d) oxidative phosphorylation and fermentation.
e) fermentation and glycolysis.
a) food > citric acid cycle > ATP > NAD+
b) food > NADH > electron transport chain > oxygen
c) glucose > pyruvate > ATP oxygen
d) glucose > ATP > electron transport chain > NADH
e) food > glycolysis > citric acid cycle > NADH > ATP
a) yield energy in the form of ATP as it is passed down the respiratory chain
b) act as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen, forming water.
c) combine with carbon, forming CO2
d) combine with lactate, forming pyruvate
e) catalyze the reactions of glycolysis.
a) oxidation of glucose to CO2 and water
b) the thermodynamically favorable flow of electrons from NADH to the mitochondrial electron transport carriers
c) the final transfer of electrons to oxygen
d) the difference in H+ concentrations on opposite sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
e) the thermodynamically favorable transfer of phosphate from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle intermediate molecules of ADP.
a) the citric acid cycle
b) oxidative phosphorylation
c) glycolysis and fermentation
d) reduction of NAD+
e) Both the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
a) It allows for increased rate of glycolysis
b) It allows for increased rate of the citric acid cycle
c) It increases the surface for oxidative phosphorylation.
d) It increases the surface for substrate – level phosphorylation
e) It allows the liver cells to have fewer mitochondria.
15. After the first disruption, when electron transfer and ATP synthesize still occur, what must be present?
a) all of the electron transport proteins as well as ATP synthase
b) all of the electron transport system and the ability to add CoA to acetyl groups.
c) the ATP synthase system is sufficient
d) the electron transport system is sufficient
e) plasma membranes like those bacteria use for respiration.
a) reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol
b) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
c) reduction of pyruvate to form lactate
d) oxidation of NAD+ in the citric acid cycle
e) phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP.
a) It must use a molecule other than oxygen to accept electrons from the electron transport chain
b) It is a normal eukaryotic organism
c) The organism obviously lacks the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain
d) It is an anaerobic organism
e) it is a facultative organism.
a) It is converted to NAD+
b) It produces CO2 and water
c) It is taken to the liver and converted back to pyruvate
d) It reduces FADH2 to FAD+
e) It is converted to alcohol.
a) derive sufficient energy from fermentation
b) continue aerobic metabolism when skeletal muscle cannot
c) transform lactate to pyruvate again
d) remove lactate from the blood
e) remove oxygen from lactate
21. What did Engelmann conclude about the congregation of bacteria in the red and blue areas?
a) Bacteria released excess carbon dioxide in these areas.
b) Bacteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature of the red and blue light.
c) Bacteria congregated in these areas because these areas had the most oxygen being released.
d) Bacteria are attracted to red and blue light, and thus these wavelengths are more reactive than other wavelengths.
e) Bacteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature caused by an increase in photosynthesis.
a) There would be no difference in results
b) The bacteria would be relatively evenly distributed along the algal filaments.
c) The number of bacteria present would decrease due to an increase in the carbon dioxide conc.
d) The number of bacteria present would increase due to an increase int he carbon dioxide conc.
e) The number of bacteria would decrease due to a decrease in the temperature of the water.
a) split water and release oxygen to the reaction-center chlorophyll
b) harvest photons and transfer light energy to the reaction center chlorophyll
c) synthesize ATP from ADP and Pi
d) Transfer electrons to ferredoxin and the NADPH
e) concentrate photons within stroma
a) Light energy excites electrons int he electron transport chain in a photosynthetic unit.
b) The excitation is passed along to a molecule of P700 chlorophyll in the photosynthetic unit
c) The P680 chlorophyll donates a pair of protons to NADPH, which is thus converted to NADP+
d) The electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water
e) The splitting of water yields molecular carbon dioxide as a by product.
a) to determine if they have thylakoids int he chloroplasts
b) to test for liberation of O2 in the dark
c) to test for CO2 fixation in the dark
d) to do experiments to generate an action spectrum.
e) to test for the production of either sucrose or starch
a) the splitting of water
b) the absorption of light energy by chlorophyll
c) the flow of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I
d) The synthesis of ATP
e) the reduction of NADP+
a) the isolated chloroplasts will make ATP
b) The calvin cycle will be activated
c) Cyclic photophosphorylation will occur
d) Only A and B will occur
e) A, B, and C will occur
a) Respiration is the reversal of the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis.
b) Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, while respiration releases it.
c) Photosynthesis occurs only in plants and respiration occurs only in animals
d) ATP molecules are produced in photosynthesis and used up in respiration
e) Respiration is anabolic and photosynthesis is catabolic
a) The action spectrum of that molecule is such that it is different from other molecule of chlorophyll.
b) The potential energy of the electron has to go back to the ground state
c) The molecular environment lets it boost an electron to a higher energy level.
d) Each pigment molecule has to be able to act independently to excite electrons
e) These chlorophyll a molecules are associated with higher concentrations of ATP
a) It is the receptor for the most excited electron in either photosystem
b) It is the molecule that transfers electrons to plastoquinone (Pq) of the electron transfer system
c) NADP reductase will then catalyze the shift of the electron from Fd to NADP+ to reduce it to NADPHY
d) This molecule results from the transfer of an electron to the primary electron acceptor of photosystem II and strongly attracts another electron.
e) This molecule is found far more frequently among bacteria as well as in plants and plantlike protists.
a) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the cycle returns ADP, Pi, and NADP+ to the light reactions
b) The light reactions provide ATP NADPH to the carbon fixation step of the Calvin cycle, and the cycle provides water and electrons to the light reactions.
c) The light reactions supply the Calvin cycle with sugars to produce ATP
d) The light reactions provide the CAlvin cycle with oxygen for electron flow, and the Calvin cycle provides the light reactions with water to split.
e) There is no relationship between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle.
a) light reactions alone
b) the Calvin Cycle alone
c) both the light reactions and the Calvin Cycle
d) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin Cycle
e) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis
35. Which molecule(s) of the calvin cycle is/are most like molecules found in glycolysis?
just remember the answer is d) C and D
a) the pH within the thylakoid is less than that of the stroma
b) the pH of the stroma is higher than that of the other two measurements
c) the pH of the stroma is higher than that of the thylakoid space but lower than that of the cytosol
d) the pH of the thylakoid space is higher than that anywhere else in the cell
e) There is no consistent relationship