1. Why does the oxidation of organic compounds by molecular oxygen to produce CO2 and water release free energy?

a) The covalent bonds in organic molecules are higher energy bonds than those in water and carbon dioxide.

b) Elections are being moved from atoms that have a lower affinity for electrons (such as C) to atoms with a higher affinity for electrons (such as O).

c) THe oxidation of organic compounds can be used to make ATP.

d) The electrons have a higher potential energy when associated with water and CO2 than they do in organic compounds.

e) THe covalent bond in O2 is unstable and easily broken by electrons from the organic molecules.

2. The ATP made during glycolysis is generated by

a) substrate-level phosphorylation
b) electron transport
c) photophosphorylation
d) chemiosmosis
e) oxidation of NADH to NAD+

3. The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?

a) glycolysis
b) accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain.
c) the citric acid cycle
d) the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
e) the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP.

4. The free energy for the oxidation of glucose to CO2 and water is -686 kcal/mole and the free energy for the reduction of NAD+ to NADH is +53 kcal/mole. Why are only two molecules of NADH formed during glycolysis when it appears that as many as a dozen could be formed?

a) Most of the free energy available from the oxydation of glucose is used in the production of ATP in glycolysis.
b) Glycolysis is a very inefficient reaction, with much of the energy of glucose released as heat.
c) Most of the free energy available from the oxidation of glucose remains in the pyruvate, one of the products of glycolysis.
d) There is no CO2 or water produced as products of glycolysis.
e) Glycolysis consists of many enzymatic reaction, each of which extracts some energy from the glucose molecule.

5. Starting with one molecule of glucose, the “net” products of glycolysis are

a) 2 NAD+, 2H+, 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and 2 H2O.
b)2 NADH, 2H+, 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and 2 H2O
c) 2 FADH2, 2 pyruvate, 4 ATP, and 2H2O
d) 6 CO2, 6 H2O, 2 ATP, and 2 pyruvate.
e) 6 CO2, 6 H2O, 36 ATP, and 2 citrate

6. Which kind of metabolic poison would most directly interfere with glycolysis?

a) an agent that reacts with oxygen and depletes its concentration in the cell
b) an agent that binds to pyruvate and inactivates it
c) an agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose but is not metabolized
d) an agent that reacts with NADH and oxidizes it to NAD+
e) an agent that blocks the passage of electrons along the electron transportation chain.

Fig. 9.2

7. Starting with citrate, which of the following combinations of products would result from three turns of the citric acid cycle?

a) 1 ATP, 2 CO2, 3NADH, and 1 FADH2
b) 2 ATP, 2 CO2, 1 NADH, and, 3 FADH2
c) 3 ATP, 3 CO2, 3 NADH, and, 3 FADH2
d) 3 ATP, 6 CO2, 9 NADH, and, 3 FADH2
3) 38 ATP, 6 CO2, 3 NADH, and 12 FADH2

8. Carbon dioxide is released during which of the following states of cellular respiration?

a) glycolysis and the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
b) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle.
c) the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
d) oxidative phosphorylation and fermentation.
e) fermentation and glycolysis.

10. During aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill in which sequence:

a) food > citric acid cycle > ATP > NAD+
b) food > NADH > electron transport chain > oxygen
c) glucose > pyruvate > ATP oxygen
d) glucose > ATP > electron transport chain > NADH
e) food > glycolysis > citric acid cycle > NADH > ATP

11. The primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to

a) yield energy in the form of ATP as it is passed down the respiratory chain
b) act as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen, forming water.
c) combine with carbon, forming CO2
d) combine with lactate, forming pyruvate
e) catalyze the reactions of glycolysis.

12. The direct energy source that drives ATP synthesis during respiratory oxidative phosphorylation is

a) oxidation of glucose to CO2 and water
b) the thermodynamically favorable flow of electrons from NADH to the mitochondrial electron transport carriers
c) the final transfer of electrons to oxygen
d) the difference in H+ concentrations on opposite sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
e) the thermodynamically favorable transfer of phosphate from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle intermediate molecules of ADP.

13. It is possible to prepare vesicles from portions of the inner membrane of the mitochondrial components. Which one of the following processes could still be carried on by this isolated inner membrane.

a) the citric acid cycle
b) oxidative phosphorylation
c) glycolysis and fermentation
d) reduction of NAD+
e) Both the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation

14. In liver cells, the inner mitochondrial members are about 5 X the area of the outer mitochondrial membranes and about 17 X that of the cell’s plasma membrane. What purpose must this serve?

a) It allows for increased rate of glycolysis
b) It allows for increased rate of the citric acid cycle
c) It increases the surface for oxidative phosphorylation.
d) It increases the surface for substrate – level phosphorylation
e) It allows the liver cells to have fewer mitochondria.

Exposing inner mitochondrial membranes to ultrasonic vibrations will disrupt the membranes. However the fragments will reseal “inside out”. These little vesicles that result can still transfer electrons from NADH to oxygen and synthesize ATP. If the membranes are agitated still further, however, the ability to synthesize ATP is lost.

15. After the first disruption, when electron transfer and ATP synthesize still occur, what must be present?

a) all of the electron transport proteins as well as ATP synthase
b) all of the electron transport system and the ability to add CoA to acetyl groups.
c) the ATP synthase system is sufficient
d) the electron transport system is sufficient
e) plasma membranes like those bacteria use for respiration.

16. In alcohol fermentation, NAD+ is regenerated from NADH during which of the following?

a) reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol
b) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
c) reduction of pyruvate to form lactate
d) oxidation of NAD+ in the citric acid cycle
e) phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP.

17. An organism is discovered that consumes a considerable amount of sugar, yet does not gain much weight when denied air. Curiously, the consumption of sugar increases as air is removed from the organism’s environment, but the organism seems to thrive even in the absence of air. When returned to normal air, the organism does fine. Which of the following best describes the organism?

a) It must use a molecule other than oxygen to accept electrons from the electron transport chain
b) It is a normal eukaryotic organism
c) The organism obviously lacks the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain
d) It is an anaerobic organism
e) it is a facultative organism.

18. Muscle cells, when an individual is exercising heavily and when the muscle becomes oxygen deprives, convert pyruvate to lactate. What happens to the lactate in skeletal muscle cells?

a) It is converted to NAD+
b) It produces CO2 and water
c) It is taken to the liver and converted back to pyruvate
d) It reduces FADH2 to FAD+
e) It is converted to alcohol.

19. When muscle cells are oxygen deprived, the heart still pumps. What must the heart cells be able to do?

a) derive sufficient energy from fermentation
b) continue aerobic metabolism when skeletal muscle cannot
c) transform lactate to pyruvate again
d) remove lactate from the blood
e) remove oxygen from lactate

Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light.

21. What did Engelmann conclude about the congregation of bacteria in the red and blue areas?

a) Bacteria released excess carbon dioxide in these areas.
b) Bacteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature of the red and blue light.
c) Bacteria congregated in these areas because these areas had the most oxygen being released.
d) Bacteria are attracted to red and blue light, and thus these wavelengths are more reactive than other wavelengths.
e) Bacteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature caused by an increase in photosynthesis.

22. If you ran the same experiment (as the one in 21 – Engelmann) without passing light through a prism, what would you predict?

a) There would be no difference in results
b) The bacteria would be relatively evenly distributed along the algal filaments.
c) The number of bacteria present would decrease due to an increase in the carbon dioxide conc.
d) The number of bacteria present would increase due to an increase int he carbon dioxide conc.
e) The number of bacteria would decrease due to a decrease in the temperature of the water.

24. In the thylakoid membranes, what is the main role of the antenna pigment molecules?

a) split water and release oxygen to the reaction-center chlorophyll
b) harvest photons and transfer light energy to the reaction center chlorophyll
c) synthesize ATP from ADP and Pi
d) Transfer electrons to ferredoxin and the NADPH
e) concentrate photons within stroma

25. Which statement describes the functioning of photosystem II?

a) Light energy excites electrons int he electron transport chain in a photosynthetic unit.
b) The excitation is passed along to a molecule of P700 chlorophyll in the photosynthetic unit
c) The P680 chlorophyll donates a pair of protons to NADPH, which is thus converted to NADP+
d) The electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water
e) The splitting of water yields molecular carbon dioxide as a by product.

26. Some photosynthetic organisms contain chloroplasts that lack photosystem II yet are able to survive. The best way to detect the lack of photosystem II in these organisms would be

a) to determine if they have thylakoids int he chloroplasts
b) to test for liberation of O2 in the dark
c) to test for CO2 fixation in the dark
d) to do experiments to generate an action spectrum.
e) to test for the production of either sucrose or starch

27. Assume a thylakoid is somehow punctured so that the interior of the thylakoid is no longer separated from the stroma. This damage will have the most direct effect on which of the following processes?

a) the splitting of water
b) the absorption of light energy by chlorophyll
c) the flow of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I
d) The synthesis of ATP
e) the reduction of NADP+

28. Suppose the interior of the thylakoids of isolated chloroplasts were made acidic and then transferred in the dark to a pH-8 solution. What would be likely to happen.

a) the isolated chloroplasts will make ATP
b) The calvin cycle will be activated
c) Cyclic photophosphorylation will occur
d) Only A and B will occur
e) A, B, and C will occur

29. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration?

a) Respiration is the reversal of the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis.
b) Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, while respiration releases it.
c) Photosynthesis occurs only in plants and respiration occurs only in animals
d) ATP molecules are produced in photosynthesis and used up in respiration
e) Respiration is anabolic and photosynthesis is catabolic

30. In a protein complex for the light reaction ( a reaction center), energy is transferred from pigment molecule to pigment molecule to pigment molecule, to a special chlorophyll a molecule, and eventually to the primary electron acceptor. Why does this occur?

a) The action spectrum of that molecule is such that it is different from other molecule of chlorophyll.
b) The potential energy of the electron has to go back to the ground state
c) The molecular environment lets it boost an electron to a higher energy level.
d) Each pigment molecule has to be able to act independently to excite electrons
e) These chlorophyll a molecules are associated with higher concentrations of ATP

31. P680+ is said to be the strongest biological oxidizing agent. Why?

a) It is the receptor for the most excited electron in either photosystem
b) It is the molecule that transfers electrons to plastoquinone (Pq) of the electron transfer system
c) NADP reductase will then catalyze the shift of the electron from Fd to NADP+ to reduce it to NADPHY
d) This molecule results from the transfer of an electron to the primary electron acceptor of photosystem II and strongly attracts another electron.
e) This molecule is found far more frequently among bacteria as well as in plants and plantlike protists.

33. Which of the following statements best represents the relationships between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle?

a) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the cycle returns ADP, Pi, and NADP+ to the light reactions
b) The light reactions provide ATP NADPH to the carbon fixation step of the Calvin cycle, and the cycle provides water and electrons to the light reactions.
c) The light reactions supply the Calvin cycle with sugars to produce ATP
d) The light reactions provide the CAlvin cycle with oxygen for electron flow, and the Calvin cycle provides the light reactions with water to split.
e) There is no relationship between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle.

34. Produces molecular oxygen (O2)

a) light reactions alone
b) the Calvin Cycle alone
c) both the light reactions and the Calvin Cycle
d) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin Cycle
e) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis

Fig. 10.2

35. Which molecule(s) of the calvin cycle is/are most like molecules found in glycolysis?

just remember the answer is d) C and D

36. The pH of the inner thylakoid space has been measured, as have the pH of the stroma and of the cytosol of a particular plant cell. Which if any relationship would you expect to find?

a) the pH within the thylakoid is less than that of the stroma
b) the pH of the stroma is higher than that of the other two measurements
c) the pH of the stroma is higher than that of the thylakoid space but lower than that of the cytosol
d) the pH of the thylakoid space is higher than that anywhere else in the cell
e) There is no consistent relationship

37*. How many carbon atoms are fed into the citric acid cycle as a result of the oxidation of one molecule of pyruvate?


38*. For each molecule of glucose that is metabolized by glycolysis and the citric acid cucle, what is the total number of NADH+FADH2 molecules produced?


39*. Recall that the complete oxidation of a mole of glucose releases 686 kcal of energy (deltaG = -686 kcal/mol). The phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP stores approximately 7.3 kcal per mole of ATP. What is the approximate efficiency of cellular respiration for a “mutant” organism that produces only 29 moles of ATP for every mole of glucose oxidized, rather than the usual 36-38 moles of ATP?


30 ish. Answers may vary

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