Than Men Do Essay, Research Paper

Research workers have known for old ages that adult females see depression more frequently than work forces do, but the ground for this gender difference has non been clear. A new survey, published in the November 1999 issue of the American Psychological Association & # 8217 ; s ( APA ) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, provides some replies by demoing how societal conditions and personality features affect each other and contribute to the gender differences in depressive symptoms. In the survey, psychologists Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, Ph.D. , and Carla Grayson, Ph.D. , of the University of Michigan and Judith Larson, Ph.D. , of Atherton, CA, interviewed 1,100 grownups between the ages of 25 and 75 old ages old from three ethnically diverse California metropoliss. Result suggest that adult females may more frequently than work forces get caught in a rhythm of desperation and passiveness because of the interaction of lower command ( lower sense of control ) over of import countries of life and more chronic strain and contemplation ( inveterate and passively believing about feelings ) . For these adult females, more chronic strain led to more contemplation over clip, and more contemplation led to more chronic strain over clip. The survey & # 8217 ; s writers say the chronic strain the adult females

in the study reported were “the grinding annoyances and burdens that come with women’s lower social power. Women carried a greater load of the housework and child care and more of the strain of parenting than did men.” The authors also found women felt less appreciated by their partners than men did. “Rumination may maintain chronic strain because it drains people of the motivation, persistence, and problem-solving skills to change their situations,” said the authors. “Failing to do what one can to overcome stressful situations such as an unfulfilling marriage or an inequitable distribution of labor at home perpetuates these situations.” While this study cannot answer the question of which comes first, rumination or chronic strain, the researchers say the interaction of the two makes it more difficult to overcome either one. So what is a depressed woman, under chronic strain and ruminating or lacking a belief that she can control her life, to do? The authors conclude “helping women achieve a greater sense of control over their circumstances and engage in problem solving rather than ruminating should be useful. Changing the social circumstances that many women face so that they do not have so much to ruminate about is equally important.”



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