In this assignment I will be looking at two languages and providing a detailed aspect of nominal and verbal inflections, word order variations and the correlations between word order patterns at the level of clause and the level of phrase.
The first language I will be looking at is Urdu
Hamarah ustaad ka beta appkeh khoobsurat baag mein
Our teachers son his beautiful garden
dho chooti bilyo keh peecheh baagra ha hai
2 small cats behind chasing
From this sentence you can see that the Word structure order for the language Urdu is also Subject, object and verb, as you can see from the sentence above, the verb chase has come at the end of the sentence and the subject teacher is at the beginning of the sentence. Within this sentence there are two classifiers used one of them is ka this has to be used in order to makes sense of the sentence as you would not be able to pronounce the sentence is ka was not used the sentence would not make sense.
As Urdu is a SOV language, the adjective is following the noun, e.g. khoobsurat baag. Meaning beautiful garden.
In Urdu there is no particular number countable, as the words do not change if there are more numbers. The number is added before the word. E.g. dho bilyo, which means two cats.
However when talking about more than one noun the word would change and also the classifier would change. E.g. ustaad ka beta, meaning one son, if we were to say the teacher’s sons. The sentence would be changed to ustaad ke beteh.
The A on the end of the word beta indicates that it is a son and not daughter. In Urdu the endings of words change to an I if it is a female or an A if it is a male.
E.g. Voh kitab maze keh upar thi
That book table on was
As you can see from this example that in the language Urdu the noun comes before the preposition. In this sentence maze that is table has come first which is then followed by the preposition upar.
When comparing between things. STD would always come first and the comparative A would follow. An example of this is John se lamba – which translates to john taller. You can see from this sentence that the STD comes first which is then followed by the comparative A.
Urdu uses the Bipartite system is past and non-past, e.g. tomorrow is said, as Kal but you would also say yesterday as Kal.
In Urdu the head of a sentence comes first which is then followed by the relative clause.
For example Jho Kitab (John neh app ke Shagird ko diyi thi) woh
ghoom geh yi
Looking at the example above you can see that the Head comes before the relative clause. The form of relative pronoun used is invariant.
The second language I will be looking at is Bengali.
Amader shik kok er chele oi dhuti chuto biralke tahar
Our teachers son those 2 small Cats her
shundor Bagane Dhoraithe Chilo.
beautiful Garden Chasing was
In Bengali the word order pattern is Subject object and verb. For example as you can see from the sentence above the subject occurs first which is then followed by the object and the verb chasing is at the end of the sentence.
There is one classifier in this sentence at the end of the word teachers this is to show that it is the teachers son.
Bengali is an OV language as the object comes before the verb. The noun comes before the preposition e.g. chele oi, meaning son those. The noun has come before the preposition.
The object follows the verb. E.g. Bagane Dhoraithe. Meaning garden chasing the verb and also noun has come before the verb.
Adjective also comes before a noun like they do in the English language. E.g. shundor bagane, meaning beautiful garden.
Bengali also like Urdu uses the bipartite system. Khalku is the word given to both the future and the past.
Gender also changes the way a sentence would be pronounced. If the sentence were to do with a female it would be pronounced different to if it were to do with a male. For example the sentence above contains the teachers son if it was the teachers daughter the word chele would be changed to cheli. Which would totally change the pronunciation of the sentence.
Bengali does not consist of any agreement properties. It also does not have any singular plural distinctions.
In Bengali the head comes first which is then followed by the Relative clause.
E.g. Amader shik kok er chele oi dhuti chuto biralke (Tahar shundor
As you can see from the example above the head of the sentence occurs before the relative clause.
Adverbs always come before the verb in Bengali. Adjectives also come before the nouns in Bengali just like they do in English.
E.g. Shundor Bagange, which means beautiful garden. As you can see from this example that the adjective has come before the noun.
Looking at both Bengali and Urdu we can see that both languages are very similar in the sense that they are both sov languages, the words in the two languages also sound very similar.
Bengali and Urdu also have the same word order pattern. Their phrases also occur in the same order. For example in Bengali the noun comes before the preposition, this is also the same for Urdu.