The intent of this assignment is to discourse how working in a group can be psychologically honoring every bit good as separately tasking for members in a group and this will be done by reflecting on my past experience working in a group and besides some theories that supports group work.
Main organic structure
First, it is best we define the cardinal term in the inquiry and for this assignment the cardinal term is group work. There are so many definitions that can be given for group work and for the intent of this assignment ; we shall look at a few of them as defined by different writers. Konopka ( 1963 ) as cited by Sean Harte ( 2001: N/A ) defined group work “ as a method of societal plants that is utilized in order to assist persons to heighten their societal operation through purposeful group experience, and to get by more expeditiously with their personal, group or community jobs ” . Mullins ( 2007:229 ) defines a group “ as any figure of people who 1 ) interact with one another 2 ) are psychologically cognizant of one another 3 ) perceive themselves to be a group ” . From my ain point of position, I will specify a group as the coming together of a set of people with the corporate purpose of acquiring a peculiar or set of work done together with every person in the group conveying up thoughts and suggestions in order to acquire the work done successfully.
Harmonizing to Greenberg and Baron ( 2008 ) , there are five phases of group formation and the phases are as followed:
- Forming: Greenberg and Baron ( 2008 ) believe that it is at this phase that members get acquainted with themselves and besides at this phase, people are non certain how being a member of the group will profit them.
- Ramping: harmonizing to Greenberg and Baron ( 2008 ) , it is at this phase that struggle occurs and members tend to defy control by the group leader. Greenberg and Baron ( 2008 ) believe that one time group leading is being accepted and welcomed by the group members, this phase is over.
- Norming: Tuckman as cited by Smith ( 2005 ) sees Norming as a cohesive phase where people are acquiring along good with one another and personal sentiments are expressed. Greenberg and Baron ( 2008:295 ) besides have a similar thing to state and their position is that “ close relationship develop, shared feelings become common, and a acute involvement in happening reciprocally agreeable solution develops ” .
- Performing: harmonizing to Greenberg and Baron ( 2008:295 ) it is at this phase that group members are ready to work together as one and acquire their undertaking done. “ The group is now able to cover with complex and handle internal dissensions in originative ways. the construction is stable and members are motivated and are by and large satisfied ” ( Schermerhorn et al, 2008:269 )
- Adjourning: it is at this phase that the group may discontinue to be merely because ends have been met and the group might non be needed any longer ( Greenberg and Baron, 2008 ) . Schermerhorn ( 2008:269 ) discussed that “ their willingness to disband when the occupation is done and to work good together in future duties groups or otherwise, is an of import long-term trial of group success ” .
Types of group
Formal groups: a formal group is the type of group that is formed in an administration by the direction of that administration for a certain intent which could be the completion of a certain undertaking or undertaking ( Schermerhorn, 2008 ) .
Informal groups: this is the type of group that springs up in administrations without the consent or engagement of the administration ‘s direction merely because of the relationship between group members or similarity of involvement of a set of people ( Schermerhorn, 2008 ) .
My experience of group work
Working in a group can be honoring psychologically every bit good as demanding potentially and i would love to reflect on this with my ain personal experience. Throughout my B.SC programme which in completed in 2008, I had to work in groups which were either created by the lector or formed by ourselves for the intent of assignments or some kind of group treatment. Most times, the group does n’t last for long and it would be dissolve after about a hebdomad when the undertaking assigned must hold been completed. I worked in a group of five for my concluding undertaking in which five pupils in my category including me, were assigned to a group to collective take a undertaking subject and finish the undertaking as a group. This was a formal group because the group was formed by the school direction and the intent of the group was to finish a concluding undertaking. The five group members were to be accessed from this remarkable undertaking. If the undertaking was bad, we all fail as a group and if good, we all base on balls besides as a group. I was concerned over this because I decidedly did non desire to neglect the undertaking, and those that were put in the same group with me were non my friends although we were category couples.
This posed a great challenge for me because I know that Is have to work together efficaciously with the other group members if I wanted to win. As we went on to present ourselves in order to organize some sort of acquaintance, we started to acquire along spot by spot. There were some two group members who were non willing to hold any part to the success of the concluding undertaking. When this was noticed by other members, we decided to put some regulations and ordinance to which all group members most abide by and any impetus from these regulations would be punishable either by the payment of some punishment or ejection depending on the weight and frequence of the regulations interrupting by that member. Working in this group posed some negative consequence on me at the beginning phase because I was inquiring how I could acquire along with my group members in order to go through the undertaking. I would hold merely preferred to make the undertaking on my ain and be scored based on my single attempt but that was n’t the world. As clip base on balls by, the group started to incorporate an every group member started to act consequently and ready to acquire the undertaking done and done really good.
For the intent of this assignment, I will desire to discus my point from the following countries:
- Social support: Harmonizing to Cobb ( 1976 ) as cited by EUPHIX ( 2009: N/A ) societal support can be defined as the believe of an person that he/she is loved and valued by other fellow group members. Social support is one factor that can psychologically actuate people to work good in a group. In my group which I worked, we saw ourselves non merely as a group seeking to complete their concluding undertaking but besides as friends who at that place for one another. This gave me a encouragement and I ever felt welcome when in the group or had parts to do. Harmonizing to House ( 1982 ) as cited by EUPHIX ( 2009: N/A ) , there are four major type of societal support and they include “ emotional support, informational support, appraisal support and instrumental support ” .
- Social facilitation: “ Social facilitation is the increased likeliness that person will execute better at a undertaking because of the mere presence of others ” ( Science assistance, 2008 ) . Social facilitation is the manner people behave when they are being watched by other people ( Greenberg and Baron, 2008 ) .
Drive theory of societal facilitation:
A theory that supports societal facilitation is the thrust theory of societal facilitation Greenberg and Baron ( 2008 ) . “ Harmonizing to the thrust theory of societal facilitation, the presence of others is eliciting. This in bend enhances the inclination to execute the most dominant ( i.e. strongest ) response. If these are right ( such as if the undertaking is good learned ) , the public presentation will be improved. However, if these are wrong ( such as if the undertaking is fresh ) , so public presentation will endure ” ( Greenberg and Baron, 2008:303 ) .from my experience working in a group, I happened to be a topic to societal facilitation. I was doing tonss of researches and making tonss of reading before every meeting simply to affect my fellow group members. Bing in a group was psychologically honoring for me because it made me develop the thrust to read widely in order to hold something new to state to my group members so they could praise me and recognize me as holding a major impact on the advancement of the undertaking. It was besides physically demanding for me because I had to work excess difficult and pass some money in the cyber-cafe to acquire some information from the cyberspace and sometime read at midnights giving my slumber so as to be prepared for the following group meeting.
The Hawthorn experiment can besides be used to back up societal facilitation. Harmonizing to Health service research ( 2002 ) , “ the Hawthorn consequence refers to a phenomenon where a survey topic ‘s behavior and/or survey result are altered as a consequence of the topic ‘s consciousness of being under observation ” . Studies were conducted at the Hawthorn ‘s works between 1924 and 1932 so as to place how to increase productiveness of the employees in the works. Health service research ( 2002 ) . In the relay assembly trial room experiment, it showed that the production degree of the six adult females that were maintain in the observatory room increased merely because they were been watched by the research workers and this made them experience of import to their administration ( Mullins, 2008 ) .
Conflict:struggle can merely be defined as a clang of involvement or understanding between two or more people. A more refined and standard definition is given by Wilmot and Hocker as cited by Mitchell ( 2008 ) that “ struggle is an uttered battle between at least two inter dependent parties who perceive incompatible ends, scarce resources, an intervention from others in accomplishing their ends ” . Harmonizing to Schermerhorn et Al ( 2008:284 ) , function struggle is a type of struggle that occurs in a group “ when a individual is unable to run into the outlook of others. The single understands what necessitate to be done but for some ground can non follow. ”
There are several ways a group struggle can be resolved/managed. Lesmeister ( 1992 ) identified ways of covering with struggle as turning away, adjustment, via media, competition, coaction. From my experience, struggle occurred in my group when two members of the group were non take parting in concluding undertaking and they come to meetings without any information that could assist travel the undertaking frontward. The other group members including me felt cheated as we were the 1s making the whole work while they merely sit around anticipating to acquire the same Markss as us. the struggle was resolved us describing the state of affairs to the lector who threatened to replace them if they did n’t alteration and start to lend to the group work. The two group member changed their attitude after this warning and started to do some parts to the concluding undertaking.
- Group norms: Group norm can be defined as the beliefs of how members of a group are to act ( Schermerhorn et al, 2008 ) . From my experience, I was challenged by my group norm because one of the norms involved holding meetings every working twenty-four hours of the hebdomad at 8pm and I did n’t like being outside my room by 8pm but every other member of the group were all right by this dark agreement so one had to stay by the timing every bit good although one dint like it but there was nil I could make about it because bulk did. When a group member violates a group norm, other respond by implementing the norm by knocking the members behaviour, call on the carpeting the individual, excepting the member from the group or entire ejection of the member ( Schermerhorn et al, 2008 ) .
The hawthorn experiment of bank wiring could demo the consequence that group norm can hold on the public presentation of a group. The bank wiring experiments that was carried out by Elton mayo and his squad showed that despite the inducements that was attached to the productiveness of the workers, the workers were bring forthing at a degree that was set by the group of workers and this degree was low compared to their capableness ( Mullins, 2008 ) . The workers formed an informal group among themselves and they had their ain group norms which stated the behavior of the workers and the degree of production was set low as portion of the norm in order to protect the workers from direction increasing the criterion of work ( Mullins, 2008 ) . The group norms of workers in the experiment were stronger than the public presentation inducements set by the administration.
- Peer-pressure: equal force per unit area can be defined as “ the strong influence of a group, particularly of kids, on members of that group as everyone else does ” ( Cambridge dictionary online, 2010 ) . Peer force per unit area does non merely occur among kids, it besides applies to grownups as good. Peer force per unit area can hold both negative and positive impact on persons working in a group for illustration if you have a member of a group ever coming early for group meetings and he ever has to wait for some hours before other start to get, this could deter he/she from coming early to meeting and so follow the late approaching attitude of other members. Peer force per unit area could besides hold positive impact on persons in a group if the state of affairs was turned about and you have a group member coming tardily and every other individual are ever early, he/she might alter the lateness attitude and get down to come early to meetings.
- Role ambiguity:this is merely when people in a group are non certain what their functions are because it has non been set out consecutive for them. ( Schermerhorn et Al, 2008 ) . If functions are non decently set for group members it may do confusion among persons in the group because each individual may non cognize what precisely what his/her function in the group is and hence fail to make them. when there is ambiguity in functions, incriminations can easy be pushed around therefore cipher will take duty when things go incorrect or when a certain thing is done severely and besides everyone will desire to take the recognition for thing/jobs that are done good. Role ambiguity can besides do misconstruing between group members ( Schermerhorn et al, 2008 ) . From my experience, function ambiguity caused a major job in the group. Some members of the group were passing their money and clip to acquire information from books and from the cyberspace while others were merely coming into group meeting with clean caputs and without any utile information written down in signifier of gathered information. When this became frequent, the work load of the undertaking was shared among group members with every member assigned their ain portion of the work. This yielded a positive alteration as everyone knew that no 1 would transport their ain weight of the work for them, so everyone worked towards the completion of the undertaking assigned to them. Role ambiguity is common groups and it can be resolved one time leaders identify this and set the function outlook from group members ( Schermerhorn et al, 2008 ) . Besides when function outlooks are being set for group members, group leaders have to be careful of function overload and function under burden ( Schermerhorn et al, 2008 ) . Role overload is when excessively much work is given to an person, and function under burden is when excessively small occupation is given to an person in a group work. ( Schermerhorn et Al, 2008 ) .
Working in a group can be both psychologically rewarding and physically disputing as it has been discussed in this assignment. There are some factors that tend to impede the smooth operation of a group e.g. struggles, ill-defined single functions, etc. Besides there are there are some benefits and advantages that individual working in a group can deduce. Some advantages and disadvantages of working in a group are outlined below.
Advantages of group work includes “ greater end product, cross birthrate, reduced prejudice, increased hazard pickings, higher committedness, improved communicating, and better solution ” ( Hadler, 2005 ) .
Disadvantages of working in a group include “ competition, conformance, deficiency of nonsubjective way, clip restraint ” ( Hadler, 2005 ) .
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- Lesmeister, M. ( 1992 ) “ leading development within groups- pull offing struggle ” , NDSU web site, www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/yf/leaddev/he500w.htm [ accessed 24/02/2010 ] .
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- Science assistance ( 2008 ) “ societal facilitation ” Science assistance web site scienceaid.co.uk/psychology/social/facilitaion.html [ accessed 23/02/2010 ] .
- Smith, M.K. ( 2005 ) “ Bruce W. Tuckman- forming, ramping, Norming and executing in groups ” , the encyclopedia of information www.infed.org/thinkers/tuckman.htm [ accessed 19/02/2010 ] .