> 1862- King William I (Prussian king) appoints Otto van Bismarck as Prime Minister

> Otto van Bismarck dominated German and European politics

> Conservative junker- (eunker) land owning aristocracy

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> Practitioners of Realpolitik

> “Blood and Iron”

> Sees advantages of war do not justify the risks involved

> 1862-1866- ruled by ignoring Prussian legislature who does nothing for fear of political and social unrest that would occur as a result

> Ultimate Goal: Unify Germany (does so by starting 3 wars)

> Danish War of 1864

> Fought with Denmark over 2 duchies: Holstein and Schleswig

> Bismarck wanted the 2 duchies to be a part of Prussia

> Prussia is aided by Austria

> The fight was unfair and the Danish quickly lose

> The 2 duckies are now ruled by Prussia and Austria-Hungary

> Austria-Hungary controls Holstein (southern duchy)

> Prussia controls Schleswig (northern duchy)

> Problem: Bismarck wanted both duchies to be unified under Prussia, so Bismarck starts a fight with Austria

> 1866 Prussia versus Austria-Hungary

> Prussia had advantages of an existing railroad in place and breach loading guns (fired faster)

> Prussia wins and Bismarck does not make Austria-Hungary pay for war damages. Treats them nicely in comparison to normalcy.

> Northern German states are ruled by Prussia, but Southern German states remain free and swear to help Prussia militarily in time of need

> Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871

> 1870- The Spanish offer the throne to a distant relative of Kind William’s

; King William knows that France will be unhappy with this (Consider geography– France is next to Spain and Prussia (Germany) and with a relative of the Prussian king on throne in Spain, France would feel threatened)

; William made his relative not accept the Spanish crown

; William forced to apologize France to keep relationship intact

; Bismark gets word of this apology and somehow makes French think that William mistreated French ambassador

; France declares war because they felt threatened

; South German states join war to aid Prussia

; Prussia advances to France and lay siege on Paris

; France is defeated and official peace treaty signed in may 1871

; France forced to pay 5 billion francs to the Prussian government and give up Alsace and Lorraine (France now wants revenge)

; King William I is declared kaiser in Versailles, France of all Germany. (Holy Roman and Catholic Southern Germany)

; Germany merges into Prussia and Germany is now the strongest power

; Race for Colonies

; Heightened competition for Europeans to gain colonies– created tension

; Each country wanted to gain prestige over the other countries by gaining colonies

; Imperialism and expansion– tied to social Darwinism and racism (people felt the need to civilize indigenous peoples

; Scramble for Africa (after 1869)

; Suez Canal made transportation from Europe to Asia easier

; British and French jointly controlled the canal

; This gave Britain a base

; Ethiopia defeated Italy in 1896 to stay independent

; By 1914 only Liberia and Ethiopia remained independent (Liberia was created by US in the send slaves back to Africa movement)

; First Moroccan Crisis

; France wants to make Morocco a French colony, but Germany objects

; Britain agrees with France that Morocco was in French sphere of control

; German kaiser makes a speech advocating Moroccan freedom, so that Morocco would be open to trade

; Tension is created between France and Germany

; France has 2 allies: Russia and Britain, but Russia was busy with the Ruso-Japanese war

; Britain agrees to aid France militarily if fighting should occur

; Ends with France having legitimate rights over Morocco

; Second Moroccan Crisis (April 1911)

; Domestic unrest in Morocco, so France sends in troops to reestablish order

; Germans claim that the agreement between France and Germany was broken, so they send a gun boat to Morocco, trying to persuade France to cooperate

; David Lloyd George (British Finance minister) makes it clear that France will not allow Germany to bully France, even if the result is war

; An agreement is reached between Germany and France. France sees Morocco as French territory and France gives some of the French Congo to Germany.

; Second Moroccan Crisis causes the bond between France and Britain to get stronger and they sign a naval agreement to protect each other

; Conflict Between Russia and Austria-Hungary in Balkans

; Russia is interested in Balkan Peninsula, especially the warm water port (Dardenel Straight) because they do not have one in the Mediterranean

; Russia feels close kinship to the Balkan Christians and envisions the entire Balkan and Slovak region being controlled by one Russian Tsar, but is controlled now by the Ottoman Turks

; 1875 Balkans revolt against Turkish rule

; Turks respond to this by massacring Balkan Christians

; Gave Russia the opportunity to step in and protect them and go to war with Turkey

; Austria-Hungary does not oppose Russia in fighting the Turks because Austria wants Bosnia and Herzegovina if Russia wins (Austria feels pinched by neighbors, so look for influence in Balkans)

; Russia defeats the Turks in a year

; The Treaty of San Stefano is signed in 1878 as official end to the war

; Russia now feels it has gained influence over Balkans because they helped

; Austria-Hungary gets Bosnia and Herzegovina

; First Balkan War 1912

; Serbia wants access to Adriatic Sea, which is under control of the Turks

; Bulgaria and Serbia are encouraged by Russia to fight Turkey

; As a result, Albania is created to act as a buffer between Serbia and Austria-Hungary because of the tension

; Second Balkan War 1913

; Bulgaria and Albania fight against Serbia at will of Austria-Hungary (so they can expand)

; Effects of Crises and Wars

; Convinces big countries to expand their own forces and Russia learns if they don’t support Serbia, then Russia will have no influence in the Balkans

> German French War

> France was most populated superpower with best army until Germany superposed it in 1870

> 1911 population of Germany: 64 million

> 1911 population on France: 39 million

> France wanted revenge from the Franco-Prussian war

> France wanted Alsace and Lorraine back from Germany

> Germany wants to protect itself and to expand its territory

> Only war would solve this!

> Allies of Germany: Austria-Hungary

> Allies of France: Britain, Tsarist Russia

> Naval Race Between Germany and Great Britain

> Britain has the most powerful navy because it is paranoid that if another country cuts off trade, the people would starve to death

> Established the 2 power standard: a formula that the government adopts in 1889 that says Britain must have a navy superior to the two next most powerful navies combined

> In 1900, Germany starts increasing spending to develop better naval force to threaten Britain in order to force them to make a decision to either protect their allies or to protect their own home and leave their allies and colonies exposed

> Britain responds to German threat by reaching out to the Allies (France, Russia, Japan) and sign alliances with them

> Actual Spark Of The War

> The spark occurs between Serbia and Austria-Hungary who both want power (Austria wants extend influence in Balkans)

> June 1914: an Austrian working for a Serbian terrorist group (The Black Hand) assassinated the Austrian Crown Prince and Austria blames Serbia

> Austria reaches out to Germany to protect them in case Russia gets involved

> July 1914: Germany gives Austria unconditional support in order to intimidate Russia

> Russia cannot let Serbia be destroyed (because they’d lose influence in Balkans) but want to make sure France supports them

; France is now forced to honor the alliance with Russia so they didn’t look bad to the rest of Europe

> July 28th 1914, Austria declares war on Serbia

> July 29th 1914, Austria shells Serbian capital

> Russia orders immediate mobilization of troops

> August 1st, Germany declares war on Russia and immediately sends troops to France because Germany feels that Russia and Austria-Hungary will stay busy

10.2 The War 1914-1917

> Schlieffen Plan

> made in 1905 (10 years before the war)

> extremely elaborate plans (precise to the hour) for a German attack on France (included a march through Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg) created by Alfred von Schlieffen in the case of a war occurring

> Felt that it was vital the France was quickly defeated (within 6 weeks)

> Brings Britain into the war because they are sworn to protect Belgium August 4th

> Men in armies:

> British Army: 160,000

> German army: 5 million

> French army: 4 million

> within 6 weeks, 6 million men were prepared to fight and millions more waitted

> WW1 was the first industrial war in Europe

> Produced the rifled shotgun

> required nations industrial might to back up the army

> Germany, Britain and France had a lot of industry

> Russia, Austria, and Italy were weak

> The War

> First Battle at the Marne stopped the Germans, but the Allies could not pursue them

> In the east, Russia marched on east Germany but were defeated and by September, Russia no longer a threat to German lands

> In 1914, Russia defeated Austria and threw them out of Serbia

> Early 1915, Italy terminated alliance with Germany and Austria and sided with the Allies then attacked Austria because they were promised Austrian lands

> Germans came to the aid of Austria when Russians attacked and pushed the Russians back 300 miles into Russian territory and killed 2.5 million Russians

> Germans and Austrians attack Serbia and knock them out of the war in the late summer of 1915

> Trench warfare was introduced and military leaders did not know how to counter it. Threw men at each other and created millions of deaths (Example: At Verdun in 10 months, 700,000 lost lives over 2 to 3 miles of territory.)

> 1915 introduction of poison gas resulted in more deaths

> British Empire tried to knock the Ottoman Empire out of the war so they opened a front Gallipoli (Mainly Australians and New Zelanders fighting for British)

> A strong resistance was led by the Turks, but was countered by the Arabs who were persuaded to revolt by the British

> 1918, British destroyed the Ottoman Empire

> Civilian Unrest and Revolts within the Armies

> By 1916, civilian morale began to crack because it was clear that the war would not end soon as predicted

> Bloody Sunday- 1916 Easter Sunday in Ireland, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) tried to gain independence from Britain but the British put down revolt and execute all IRA leaders

> 1917 mutinies in Italian and French armies had to be put down

> Leaders in Czechoslovakia did not want to be a part of the Russian army

> Berlin April 1917 – 20,000 workers went on strike to protest the reduction in bread rations and the military was brought in to break it up

> Espionage Act – made political dissent illegal

> Editor of French anti-war magazine killed

> French president put authors of anti-war papers in the army

> Increased propaganda to try to arouse people to support the war. Made the other sides seem less human and evil to get the people to support the Allies

> WW1 diminished British social class

> Aristocracy hit hard (as officers who led battles) and suffered incredible casualties

> Lower classes (infantry) suffered heavy losses

> Skilled workers and farmers not hit as hard

> Inflation and shortage of goods hurt the people

> Higher level skilled workers keep up with inflation

> Middle level skilled workers can’t really keep up

; Lower level unskilled workers can’t keep up at all and get into debt

The Entry of Canada into the War

> History of Canada

> Most French left after the French-Indian war

> Some stayed behind (in Quebec) and were abandoned by their mother country

> Remain angry at the French for abandoning them

> Election of 1911

> Conservatives under Robert Borden gained control over the government

> Canada was automatically in the war when it broke out but was left to decide how much of a role they would assume

> Britain began to put pressure on its people to take a bigger role in the war but the French Canadians do not want to because their contribution is to protect Canada, but the British Canadians wanted to help

> The Parliament passed War Measures Act – gave federal government ability to restrict civil liberties and control economy during war

> Canadian army before war was 3,000 but increased to 30,000 in the first 2 months and were quickly sent to Europe

> Canadian navy escorted American ships to Britain

> French Canadian and British Canadian Tension

> Language in schools

> Fight in Ontario over use of French being used in schools

> Opposition of French schools from conservative protestants and Irish Catholics who all wanted schools taught in English

> That fight resolved by using English in teaching and French is only taught in the first 2 years of primary school

> Manitoba- Eliminated French instruction all together

> Battle over Conscription

> Prime Minister Borden promised Britain 500,000 Canadian soldiers but less people wanted to join now

> Borden did not want to revise the number because he wanted Canada to be a full member in the British Empire

> French Canadians did not want to join, but British Canadians did

> French Canadians angry because they did not get promoted in the army to officers and only one French speaking unit was made

> The draft did not exempt farmers sons and made more tensions

> about 100,000 Canadians were drafted into the military and only 25,000 went through training to go to Europe

> Political consequences are huge

> Canada endures first Income taxes and taxes on business profits and the railroads are taken over by government

> Government represses political dissent

> Impact of the war on agriculture was bad and the farmers were forced to borrow money to buy machines to do work and their debt increased

> Women entered work place and got 1/2 as much as men’s salary

; 60,000 Canadians died in WW1, 200,000 wounded

10.3 The U.S. Entry into WW1

; U.S. Goals

; Allow no country to gain hegemony over Europe (so as not to restrict trade)

; Keep Open Door for the U.S. commerce in Europe

; Concerned with balance of power (colonies) and protect democracy and contain German militarism because the Germans could take over and control most of Europe

; Maintain “freedom of the seas”

; President Wilson believed he could achieve these goals through a policy of non-belligerency that favored the Allies because without US loans and material the Allies would lose and Germany would dominate Europe

; US and German trade drops drastically (was $170 mill., dropped to $1.2 mill.)

; British naval blockade of Germany caused there to be no neutrality

; Trade between US and Allies grew from $825 million to $3.2 billion (US has $2.3 billion in loans to Allies)

; Americans public readily supports the Allies because Germany is the aggressor and is controlled by a militaristic government

; February 1915, British mined North Sea and Germany blockaded Britain

; The blockade was claimed to be a war zone by Germany and they said that any belligerent war shipping would be sunk with no pardon for the lives of the crew

; Changes sea warfare

; British tried to get by by flying American flags

; Germans told US that they shouldn’t go into the war zone

> Wilson does not accept this because he knows it is American supplies keeping France and Britain in the war. Told Germans US had every right to trade openly

> May 1915, Germans sink British passenger ship the Lusitania and killed 1200 passengers

> Called unrestricted submarine warfare

> US says the unrestricted submarine warfare will bring US into war on Allies side

> September 1915, Germans sign the Lusitania Pledge promising not to sink any passenger boats without warning or helping those on board

> March 24th 1916, Germans sink a French passenger ship, the Sussex, violating the Lusitania Pledge

> US threatens again to join the war if unrestricted submarine warfare (U-boat warfare) continues

> Germans sign the Sussex Pledge, apologizing and saying they won’t do it anymore, but only if the US ensures that the Allies will respect German rights to sea

; Wilson is reelected in 1916 and tries to mediate the conflict, but both sides refuse

; February 1917, Germany announced they would resume U-boat warfare in an attempt to win the war

; US breaks diplomatic relations with Germany

; Allies blockade on Germany creates food shortages and Germany need to knock British out of war

; Zimmerman Telegram sent to Mexico from Germany requesting for an alliance, angered US

; Germans told the Mexicans that they would give them back the land the US had taken from them

; Mexican American relations are terrible (Villa went to try to get New Mexico back and Gen. Pershing went into Mexico and killed Villa) but Carranza knows the US won’t give them any land back so he tries to fix the relations between Mexico and US

> the United States declares war on Germany on April 6, 1917

10.4 Russian Revolution and Civil War

> At first, Russia is excited to go to war, but that is cut off soon after

> Most trade was cut off because of the surrounding countries and only 2 ports were open in wartime

> Food shortages (only 1 railroad but was not used to transport food)

> Tsar Nicholas II dominated by his wife Alexandria

> Alexandria:

> Born in Germany but raised in Russia

> hates democracy

> wants power

> Tsar and wife were politically isolated and the heir to the throne was a hemophiliac

> only one doctor could help– Grigorry (Rasputin)

> Alexandria sees him as sent from God to save the dynasty

> Rasputin becomes a fixture in court and can get away with anything

> September 1915:

> Nicholas II takes personal command of Russian Army

> Dissolved DUMA (Russian parliament)

> These decisions make him personally responsible for war

> When the army is pushed back 300 miles, Nicholas II goes to the front lines to boost morale

> This leaves Rasputin and Alexandria with the capital

> They reform, disorganize, and reappoint Russian government

> Russia is unprepared for war militarily and technologically

> By 1916, Russia is deep in crisis, heavy casualties

> Rumors that Alexandria is giving information to Germany and that Rasputin is her lover

> December 1916, Rasputin is killed

> By 1917, Russian will to fight is gone

> March 1917 fighting in Petrograd (St. Peter) shuts down factories. Nicholas II orders soldiers to disperse the fighting, but they join in instead

> DUMA meets in secret – March 12, form a provisional government and ask Nicholas II to step down (he does March 15)

> Provisional government controlled by Constitutional Democrats (free speech, religion, assembly)

> Want to carry on with the war because of pressure from Allies plus they had to deal with the Soviets (Middle class radicals and lower class)

> 2 sections of socialists:

> Bolsheviks: Dedicated to violent revolution: under the rule of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanoy (Lenin)

> Mensheviks: (western views) will work with Constitution as long as socialism is main form of government- led by Julius Martov

> 1887- Lenin’s older brother attempts to assassinate the Tsar and is killed and now Lenin hates Tsars

; Lenin is arrested trying to build a socialist union

; Sent to Siberia, after that, he goes to Switzerland

; plans to someday return to Russia and end Tsarish rule

; Bolsheviks (communists) under Lenin all about violent revolution

; April 1917- with help from Germany, Lenin went to Russia (Germany sees it as an opportunity to hurt Russia)

; Lenin takes control of the Soviets

; Fall 1917, Provisional Government promises land redistribution, but the peasants are already revolting and seizing land on their own

; Soviets in Russian army mutiny

; November 6th and 7th, 1917 Bolsheviks seize the Winter Palace (where the gov’t is seated)

> Bolsheviks gain control of the capital and Lenin tries to win over the people by calling for an end to war, more land distribution, transfer of factories the capitalists to the workers

> Slogan: “Peace, land, and bread.”

> Lenin’s first law: to declare all land nationalized and turns it over to the local soviets

; Bolsheviks renamed : Communists

; Lenin turns factory control to committees of workers

; Communists signed Treaty of Brest-Litovskin March 1918 giving Germany eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and Baltic Republics (Had to sign in cause Russia had no more army)

; A lot of resistance to communists, some still loyal to Tsar (Anti-Lenin Socialists, Aristocratic Liberals)

; A lot of Allied troops land in Russia to “safeguard” all supplies they put there, but in reality they are there hoping for overthrow of Communists so they can bring Russia back to war

; Civil war broke out between Red and White

; Red: communists- single minded, steadfast, unified and strong

; White: others, weak not unified because of diverse opinions (some want Tsars back, some want liberal democracy)

; Cheka- Red secret police (terrorize opponents to communist party)

; Reds win by 1920 under leadership of Leon Trotsky

; Reinstated the draft

; Forced ex Tzarish officials to lead army, threatening the lives of their families

; Foreign armies intervene and communists got public support because of nationalism

; Ukraine is retaken and Communists control Georgia, Armenia, Balkan Republic etc.

; When WW1 is over, Allies are still in Russia and a lot of revolts and mutinies happen

; Allies eventually withdraw troops

; At Versailles Peace Conference, a boundary between Russia and Poland is suggested (Curzon Line) but Polish gov’t refuses and wanted the border that existed in 1772, giving them more land, but Russia refuses so Poles attack in 1920

> fight for 6 months and they agree on new border- East of Curzon Line but not at the 1772 line

> Leaves 4.2 million non-Poles in Poland (revenge in 1939)

10.5 World War I-1917-1918

> Germans sank 850,000 tons of Allied shipping in first month that US joined the war

> Germans are countered by Allies with the Convoy System- sent more ships to guard other ships carrying cargo

> Extremely effective and amount of ships sunk by Germans U-boat warfare drastically decreases

> 2 million troops are sent by Allies without losing one ship

> United States

> US drafted and put 5 million men in uniform

> American Expeditionary Force led by General Pershing sent to France

> American forces hold 1/4 of western front

> War Industries Board mobilized American economy for war effort

> Railroads put under federal government control because the people can’t keep up with war demands

; WW1 good for American economy

; Wages and income increase by 20%

; farmers increased size of farms and produced more

; Movement of southern blacks North for jobs

; Increased racial tension

; Race riots break out in St. Louis in July 1917

; Huge riot in Chicago in 1917 killed 100 people

; Women start working in place of men

; American propaganda tries to rally public opinion of war

; 200,000 men fled to Mexico to escape draft

; Teaching of German in school stopped and German words and things gotten rid of (Sower Kraut called Liberty Cabbage and stoned Doxins to death)

; Espionage Act- Can’t bad talk ANYTHING about or supporting the war

> Destroyed IWW- tried 101 leaders and all guilty were sent to prison. Union was fined 2.5 million dollars

> March 1918- Germany makes final attempt to knock France out of war

> Germans move within 35 miles of Paris

> Stopped by counterattack of 145,000 US troops

> US pushes Germany back

> Fall 1918, countries want out

> Turks withdraw

> Austrians withdraw on November 3, 1918

> German soldiers mutiny and dessert

> German peasants form communist councils (Soviets)

> November 9th Keizer abdicated and fled to Netherlands

> War ends November 11 at 11:00 a.m. When the armistice is signed

> German Communists try to take control of government and fail, creating a deep fear of communists in German middle class

10.6 the Versailles Peace Treaty

> Negotiations begin in January 1918 and end in June

> Treaty sets conditions for Germany’s surrender but neither Germany nor Soviets allowed to participate

; 32 countries participate

; the “Big Four”– Wilson (U.S.), Lloyd George (Great Britain), Clemenceau (France), and Orlando (Italy) – set terms of the treaty

; Japan makes up a 5th power but is only consulted when Asia is involved

; Wanted to lay ground work for peace

; Hard line (France and Italy) and Soft line (US) Great Britain flip flops

; Hard line -Advocated to weaken Germany to the point where it couldn’t threaten France anymore

> Demilitarize and keep British Blockade in place to starve them into weakness

> Soft Line- Didn’t see Germany as the sole source of the problem, saw problems elsewhere too (flaws in regulating nations- Secret Diplomacy) Sees no institution that exists where any country can go to safely fix problems

; Wilson sees himself as a reformer in middle of conservatism of Clemenceau and the radicalism of Lenin

; Wilson’s 14 points

> No more secret agreements (secret diplomacy)

> Free navigation of all seas

> End all economic barriers between countries

> Countries reduce weapon numbers

> All decisions regarding colonies should be impartial

> German Army removed from Russia, leaving Russia to develop its own politics

> Belgium should be independent

> France should be fully liberated and given back Alsace-Lorraine

> All Italians should be allowed to live in Italy

> Self-determination for those in Austria-Hungary

> Self-determination and guarantees of independence in Balkan states

> Turks should be governed by Turkish government and non Turks in Turkish Empire should govern themselves

> Poland should be independent with access to the sea

> League of Nations should be set up

> Public had a lot of effect on the conference but had barely any knowledge ad were persuaded easily

> Germans agreed to peace plan based on Wilson’s 14 points, although other countries disagree, they go along with it because they fear an alliance between the US and Germany

; 14 points lost in the discussions and Germany is tricked into signing the treaty that they did not agree upon

; Provisions of Versailles Treaty:

; Germany surrenders Alsace-Lorraine to France

; The Rhineland demilitarized

; Saar Basin put under French control for 15 years

; Land given to Poland and Germany loses its colonies

; (Germany loses 1/7 of all territory, which included 3/4 of its iron resources and 1/4 of its coal resources, and 1/10 of it population)

; German armed forces restricted to 100,000 with a small navy, no tanks, aviation, or heavy artillery. Had to put an end to military conscription

; Had to pay $33 billion to Allies

; Germans forced to sign the treaty even though they did not agree on it

; Austrians and Ottoman empire are broken up

; Austria used to be the 2nd largest empire in continent, now it is tiny

; Peace made it so Austria cannot join with Germany

; Ottoman Empire broken up and put under different control

; League of Nations had 2 councils

; Council made up of Big 4 and Japan in Geneva

; General Assembly

10.7 The Rejection of The Versailles Peace Treaty

; French only agree with the treaty because Britain and US agree to help France in case of any future struggles with Germany and is afraid of US splitting and signing another treaty with Germany

; Wilson Mistake: excludes senators and republicans from Paris negotiations

; Claimed if people voted republican, “it would be interpreted on the other side of the water as a repudiation of my leadership.”

; Made republicans angry and damaged position at conference

; Did not consult or appoint republicans for Paris

; Problem: he needs 2/3 congress approval of treaty

; Republicans opposed it

; Opponents of League led by Henry Cabot Lodge– opposed Wilson for political and philosophical reasons. They believed the US should not commit itself through Article X of the League charter to help other countries in time of need

; Uses this opposition to humiliate Wilson and the democrats

; Wilson comes back to try to appease the unrest

; Agreed to change the treaty as much as he could in order to make the republicans happy, but had to go back to Paris for negotiations

; July 10, 1919 Wilson submits treaty to senate for approval (for ratification)

; Senate is in 4 groups:

; Irreconcilables- oppose any US involvement in any international organizations (small group)

; Mild reservationists – in favor of accepting the treaty if a few changes are made

; Strong reservationists- led by Lodge, proposes large (at least large to them) changes be made before they accept it

; Supporters- most democrats

; Wilson put in a tough spot by mild and strong reservationists

; Most changes are minor except 1: US has no obligation to protect other nations or use military at the request of the League of Nations unless specific approval of congress (this is how it is anyway)

; Wilson refuses Lodge and goes on a tour to try to gain support of the US public in September 1919, but gets as far as Pueblo, Colorado, where he has a stroke, making him become uncompromising

; Final vote is 7 votes short of the 2/3 rule

; League of Nations loses main supporter and France loses US protection

; 1920- Wilson runs for re-election but loses to Harding by over 7 million votes

; Harding terminates defensive treaty with France and the US signs its own peace treaty with Germany which gives the US the benefits of a treaty without the obligations

10.8 the Consequences of World War 1

; 10 million Military dead

; Germany: 1.8 million (800,000 civilian death due to British blockade)

; Russia: 1.7 million

; Austria-Hungary: 1.4 million

; British Empire: 908,000

; Italy: 650,000

; Romania: 336,000

; Ottoman Empire: 325,000

; US: 126,000

; In 1915, Turks massacred 1 million Armenians

; Economy of Europe devastated

; Productions fell drastically behind due to shortage of workers 9France put 20% of men in uniform

; In 1914, Europe was the world’s leading banker, but came out of the war in severe debt with US at banking lead

> Concept of “total war” accepted

> Civilian work is toward the war effort, so they become a legitimate target in war

> Communists take over Russia in 1917 (uprisings in Germany and Austria)

> Europe deprived of world hegemony

> Western civilization is demoralized (so much sacrifice for so little gain)

> Set up gateway to Great Depression 11 years later


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