The world-wide crop of aquatic merchandises is presently close to the maximal sustainable degree of the productiveness. Therefore, the aquaculture is the chief advancing the production of aquatic merchandise demands. Besides, the aquaculture is a manner of the economical growing in developing state and rural countries by creates occupations, income and concern ( Pulatsu et al. , 2004 ) . However, the rapid production of the aquaculture merchandise increases the environmental impact particularly the struggle of demands, change of hydrologic government, and debut of the alien species to the wild and pollution of the H2O resources ( Pulatsu et al. , 2004 ; Miller & A ; Semmen, 2002 ) .

The untreated aquaculture wastewater discharges by pool, armored combat vehicle, or raceway, releases the high concentration of alimentary and solid may hold earnestly negative impact on the quality of H2O receiving system ( Pulatsu et al. , 2004, Miller & A ; Semmen, 2002 ) . By the manner, the additions of consciousness to recognizing the environmentally friendly and sustainable agriculture patterns, the aquaculture industry are define the new ways to cut down the waste production and minimise the possible inauspicious impact of aquaculture. There are such as better the raceway and armored combat vehicle design, intervention engineerings and recycle the effluent such as filtration and radiation method ( Miller & A ; Semmen, 2002 ) . However, those of these methods has extremely cost whereas largely of industrial purposes the low cost intervention and practically engineering. Hence, the slow sand filtration is a potentially intervention with the freshly media filtration usage, burned coconut shell.

The slow sand filtration is one of the earliest engineerings in H2O intervention whereas in novice to forestall the spread of GI disease. The efficaciousness of this intervention procedure demonstrated in 1892 while the cholera epidemic happens in Hamburg, Germany. However, the debut of the rapid sand filtration in H2O intervention, the research workers applied this method in effluent intervention while in late gained popularity, particularly in context of effluent intervention for reuse ( Sadiq et al. , 2002 ) . They are simple procedures with percolates untreated H2O easy through the porous media and so drained from the underside. During filtration, the H2O passes downward through the filter bed by the combination of H2O force per unit area from above and suction from the underside. This intervention is limited to low turbidness without any extra of chemical.

The effluent wastewater from the fish farm has a good quality of the biomass that should be apply good in assorted sectors. The direct use of effluent wastewater in agribusiness particularly in irrigation applies without any intervention may potentially convey the wellness hazards to the husbandman and the consumers of the harvests grown, impacted the assorted quality impairments over the clip to irrigated dirt, surface H2O and groundwater resources. In add-on, the effluent may incorporate undistinguished sum of microbiological contamination, heavy metal and organic affair ( Kretschmer et al. , 2003 ) that potentially affected the groundwater H2O quality in long term.

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One of the most common ways used in agriculture field as irrigation, nevertheless, in recent old ages, the aquicultural harvest go popular. Turning workss by utilizing aquicultures system is effectual manner to salvage cost, country, and environmental merchandises. Hence, this survey will conducted of geographic expedition the aquaculture wastewater intervention by utilizing slow sand filtration with coconut shell chars filter media effectual on the application in aquicultures farming.

Problem statement

The aquaculture industry is one of the common activities in developing states of promote the economical growing and income particularly in rural country. However, the uncontrolled growing of aquaculture industries are compensate to the negative environmental impact due to the methods of production and environmental effects of the production deduction. The aquaculture impact varies of the struggle between demands of different users of production and H2O pollution job. The H2O pollution job comes from the discharges of wastewater by pool, armored combat vehicle, or raceways to the natural.

The effluent wastewater are causes many environmental jobs to the H2O resources particularly from the fish farm. The fish farm wastewater may incorporate many chemical compounds and pathogenic from uneaten fish nutrient, fish fecal, intervention from unwellness or parasitical infection particularly in armored combat vehicle piscaries that can be concern the natural ecosystem such as high concentration in certain chemicals content and H2O turbidness through the direct discharges ( Tett, 2008 ) . In old survey that has done in Turkey was shown higher concentration of entire suspended solid, biological chemical demand ( BOD ) , dissolved O, NO2-N, NO3-N and entire P in the stream country of fish farm ( Pulatsu et al.,2004 ) .

The untreated effluent besides potentially poses to the high hazard of wellness job to human. The intervention carry out to cut down the chemical contain in fish farm effluent and can recycle in agribusiness application. Even though, the intervention applied, there are still have adequate alimentary content that utile for works harvest turning, as illustration in Kuwait, the Tilapia civilization H2O was utilized to turn the lucerne harvest. The wastewater of the fish armored combat vehicles transporting a batch food that necessary utilizations for harvest growing as the Ridha ( 2006 ) said.

In old, the most wastewater intervention normally used slow sand filtration by utilizing the sand and anthracite as filter media. However, the hard coal was really expensive. Therefore, the local surveies choose the coconut shell char as new filter media. The use of burned coconut shell and sand in slow sand filtration is a new challenge in effluent intervention particularly wastewater wastewater from fish farm industry.

Coconut shell is waste from coconut milk industries. The coconut milk is an of import ingredient in nutrient particularly in western state such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, India, and Sri Lanka. Therefore, this stuff is produce day-to-day in immense sum without any option to cut down it. Even though, coconut shell has variety application such as vicinity handmade trade and others application, nevertheless that still non plenty alternate to cut down the sum of production. In add-on, the fresh coconut shell like a mountain can convey the nuisance of oculus, wellness hazard, and environment particularly the spread of unsafe disease such as Malaria and Dengue to the nearest country by the genteelness of mosquitoes. Therefore, the used the coconut shell as the filter media for effluent intervention may can be cut down the sum and hereafter increases the ‘waste to wealth ‘ application.

Therefore, this survey will concentrate the intervention of fish farm wastewater efficiency by utilizing the slow sand filtration on difference flow rates and effectivity reuse the filtrate wastewater on aquicultural method. It is anticipating that the extremely efficiency intervention for the sum suspended solid and pathogen remotion. Besides, minimise the wastewater discharge to the environment by reused the effluent.

1.3 Aim and Aims

The purpose of this survey is to accomplish the fish farm wastewater treated H2O can be used as the hydroponic works fertiliser. To accomplish this purpose will follow the aims below:

To find the effectivity of the slow sand filtration in fish farm effluent intervention by utilizing coconut shell chars at different flow rates.

To analyze the suitableness of filtrate wastewater is possible as natural fertiliser on green foliage boodle ( Lactuca sativa ) .

To analyze the nowadayss of the pathogen and fecal coliform in harvests and hazard to husbandmans and consumers.

Scope of Study

The survey follows the two chief stairss ; decelerate sand filtration procedure and aquicultural plantation. In slow sand filtration, the filtration unit should be design and built up in a workshop. The filtration unit includes the heading armored combat vehicle, filter column, manometer at different tallness, pump, valve and others apparatus. Besides, the media readying for double media filters sand/coconut shell in effectual size and ES of 0.5mm.

The H2O sample will take from the armored combat vehicle fish farm industry ( river mudcat ) in Selangor country. During the sampling, all the physical and chemical parametric quantity will be see such as pH, turbidness, and chemical content. The filtration will be runing in four different flow rates ( 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 m3/m2/hour ) for 60 yearss to find the optimal public presentation of filtration unit by their physical, chemical composing that have adequate food in the filtration procedure will be go oning to the hydroponic technique.

Then, the filtrate effluent will used in aquicultural technique as natural fertiliser. This technique will be compare the filtrate H2O, natural effluent without intervention, organic and inorganic fertiliser for the growth of Lactuca sativa or known as green foliage boodle. This harvest will be monitoring by its physical visual aspect and chemical composing from the seeding to reap besides the visual aspect of pathogen in harvest harvest.

The information will be analysing to find the chances and human hazard of reused untreated and treated wastewater in agribusiness irrigation and compared from World Health Organization ( WHO ) criterion and old literature reappraisal.

1.5 Limitation of Study

The restrictions of this survey are:

The survey will be carry oning from the outflowing fish farm industry by utilizing armored combat vehicle or canvas technique to minimisation of factor the H2O civilization operation.

The flow rates that will be use in slow sand filtration are in scope of 0.1 to 1.0 m3/m2/hour merely.

The hydroponic works will analyzed from the seeding to reap by sing the physical visual aspect, chemical composing, and nowadays of pathogen.

Significant of survey

This survey has the strongly significantly for the new challenges of the slow sand filtration by utilizing the new modified media of coconut shell char without activated procedures. The simple procedures that can be utilizations in little graduated table and has assortment choose of the others types of char ‘s stuff compared the activated C processes. The coconut shell is a familiar stuff that can be defined anyplace in moderate clime such as Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, India and others.

The choosing of the filtration procedure for fish farm wastewater is sensible for the development of the aquaculture industries. The wastewater normally straight discharges or recirculation back to the system. The direct discharges of the wastewater may potentially disturbance to the ecosystem by nowadays of foreign micro-organism and high concentration of food that exceed use. In add-on, possible affect the quality of the groundwater by the infiltration procedure. Therefore, the treated wastewater may cut down the sum of biomass releases and decrease the possible consequence on environment.

The aquaculture wastewater has potential as natural fertiliser by the high concentration of the of import food for the works turning. The direct use of the wastewater as irrigation has a hazard to human. The untreated wastewater contain high concentration of the chemical contain that harmful to the long-run exposure and pathogen. This is because ; the untreated may incorporate the pathogen, fecal coliform and worm egg that can be engendering on the vegetable leave, root and root by the irrigation and do the food-borne disease such as nutrient toxic condition. Therefore, the treated wastewater before utilizations may cut down the potency of hazard.

Chapter 2


2.1 Introduction

The aquaculture growing in economical beginnings give the beneficial to the developing state and the in aquaculture has led to an addition in usage of provenders applied to H2O for improved production. The increased involvement in environmental friendly agriculture patterns, the agribusiness industry focused the decrease of wastes from the aquaculture installations ( Miller & A ; Semmens, 2002 ) .

In old survey, the effluent wastewater straight discharges to the environment without any intervention for agribusiness irrigation. The fish farm effluent wastewaters particularly contain the high concentration of heavy metal and infective being that may be has potentially cause wellness jeopardy ( Bomo et al. , 2004 ) . Therefore, the effectual manner solution is utilizing the slow sand filtration.

2.2 Aquaculture waste direction

Harmonizing to the Miller & A ; Semmens ( 2002 ) , the waste from the fish farm is come in three general signifiers ; metabolic, chemical and pathogenic. The metabolic waste comes in two signifiers from dissolved and suspended. In proper direction farm, about 30 % provender will go solid waste. The removed the solid waste decrease the downstream pollution where as cut down the dissolve organic affair. In others, the dissolve H2O which is appear in signifier of biological O demand ( BOD ) , chemical O demand ( COD ) , nitrate, ammonium hydroxide, nitrite, P and organic affair ( Miller & A ; Semmens, 2002 ; Pulatsu et al. , 2004 ) .

In others, the reused of the fish farm effluent potentially reduces the demanded of the H2O supply particularly to irrigation. The untreated effluent has a possible impact on public wellness and environment, which is incorporating high concentration of heavy metal and infective component ( Sadiq et al. , 2002 ) . In Table 1 below, show the exposure hazard of the used untreated effluent usage in agribusiness. Therefore, the intervention by slow sand filtration to wastewater will increase the environment saving.

( Beginnings: Health Risks of Irrigation with Untreated Urban Wastewater in the

Sourthern Punjab, Pakistan, October 2000 )

2.3 Slow Sand Filtration.

The slow sand filtration as a effluent intervention was begin since more than 150 old ages ago as forestalling the spread of GI disease. Harmonizing to Logson et Al. ( 2002 ) , the efficaciousness of slow sand filtration demonstrated in Germany, 1892 where as two metropoliss involved of eruption the cholera epidemic. The metropoliss are Hamburg and Altona. The Altona is a metropolis used the slow sand filtration to purity their H2O received nevertheless, Hamburg missing the slow sand filtration causes 8,605 of individual decease in Hamburg and merely 32 of people ‘s decease in Altona. The decease in Altona attributed as infections from Hamburg. This event shows that the slow sand filtration is efficient in commanding the microbiological contamination and turning away of spread of disease. As a consequence from the Hijnen et Al. ( 2004 ) survey can be strong turn outing that the slow sand filtration have high efficaciousness to extinguish peak concentration of continuity micro-organisms such as ( oo ) cysts of Cryptoporidium and Giardia with more than ( & gt ; 5 log10 ) . The slow sand filtration is besides has ain good such as effectual to take Giardia cyst, virus and coliform bacteriums ( Logsdon et al. , 2002 ; Hijnen et al. , 2004 ) from the natural H2O and effluent, advanced system and low care intervention procedure ( Mah, 2007 ; Logsdon et al. , 2002 ; Heller et al. , 2007 ) .

The sand filtration has beneficial in remotion suspended organic and inorganic affair besides infective being such as bacteriums and parasites ( Clark & A ; Clark, 1995 ) every bit little as 60 micrometers from the H2O ( Miller & A ; Semmens, 2002 ) . In traditional design, the slow sand filtration designed with a bed in approximately 1 m in deepness and 1 m of supernatant H2O. The effectual size of filter sand ranges from 0.15 to 0.35 millimeters and the unvarying coefficient should non less than five ( 5 ) and preferred less than three ( 3 ) . Slow sand filtration requires a really low application or filtration rate where as depending on step of the filter medium and the quality of natural H2O. The filtration rates are typically in scope 1 to 2 per centum of the rates used in rapid curdling or filtration is controlled by the size and scope size of atoms used ( Logsdon et al. , 2002 ; David, 2004 ) . The major advantage of this filtration is non necessitating systematic backwashing, no chemical add-on, cost effectual and dependable ( Mah, 2007 ) .

For the farinaceous media filtration processes, slow sand filtration can be best performs at the filtration rate changeless nevertheless, the gap and shuting the wastewater valves should be carefully managing because it ‘s may impact earnestly impair of the quality of filtrate ( David, 2004 ; Logsdon et al. , 2002 ) . As the survey that done by Adin ( 2003 ) is shown that the farinaceous media filtration will be longer the operation of the filtration design compared by utilizing the sand merely ; 81 yearss operation by utilizing tufa and sand and merely 51 yearss by utilizing sand.

However, the slow sand filtration has own restriction such as needed slow flow rate, uninterrupted flow rate to preserved bacteriums removal features, and important attempt required to clean the filter and the cleansing impact the public presentation of filter, besides a big land country, big measures of filter media and manual labor cleansing ( Collins, 1998 ; David, 2004 ) . The intervention becomes difficult in higher turbidness degree of H2O where as rapidly geta. In others, the slow sand filters do non wholly to take all organic chemicals and dissolved inorganic substances.

Coconut shell

Coconut shell wood coal is the farinaceous types of filtration where largely present as farinaceous activated C ( GAC ) or pulverize activated C ( PAC ) . The GAC is normally utilize for the remotion of suspended and/or colloidal affair in effluent and removal the gustatory sensation and smells in H2O supplies. The activated C is functional in double application as filtration and surface assimilation.

Harmonizing to Pollard et Al. ( 1992 ) for his reappraisal, the coconut shell known as a precursor for high quality, farinaceous C with extended micro pore volumes. The coconut shell used the soaking up technique to take the inorganic and organic micro pollutant in aqueous stages. Since it first debut, the activated C becomes the H2O industry absorbent for renewal of municipal and industrial effluent to portable H2O quality ( Pollard et al. , 1992 ; Amuda et al. , 2007 ) .

The C production considered the pore construction, surface country, and chemical science of C. This is of import parametric quantity to better the sorption public presentation and increased the pollutant remotion from the effluent ( Amuda et al. , 2007 ) . The maximal public presentation of the C surface assimilation in has greater possible surface country in little practical volume. This is because the rate of soaking up is relative to the sum of surface country of the adsorbing media. In others, the coconut shell has potentially reduces the gustatory sensation, smell, and dissolved organic chemicals in the H2O and air ( Pollard et al. , 1992 ; Amuda et al. , 2002 ) .

2.5 Hydroponic system

Hydroponic is one of the alternate ways by decrease use of big country and land. It is a pattern of turning workss in a medium other than dirt, utilizing mixtures of indispensable elements dissolved in H2O. The word of aquicultural derived from the Greek word, “ hydro ” average H2O and “ ponos ” mean working, therefore combination word is form water-working ( Marbaha, 1998 ) . The aquicultural plantation is get downing since 1937 by debut of Professor William Frederick Gericke ( called as male parent of hydroponic ) , civilization of works in H2O. In the beginning, Gericke merely works tomato and others workss to extraordinary his backyard in mineral alimentary solution instead than dirt. The consequence shows the tomato works was up to 7.5 m in length. Hence, by the rapid development of green house engineering in western states spread outing the aquicultures methods in the universe. The aquicultural agriculture is the production of harvests can be obtains fast without perturbation from the conditions. Furthermore, this technique is more environmental friendly by decrease use of pesticides ; more plague resistant and little sum of alimentary use ( Resh, 1991 ; Digital Universe, 2005 ) .

The aquicultural systems have two types: passive and active hydroponic system ( Resh, 1991 ) . In inactive system, the H2O use stays for good in the reservoir. This is suited for the short-run plantation such as boodle, mustard, and Spinacia oleracea. In active hydroponic system, the fertiliser was supply through the reservoir and required the pump to force the fertiliser and food to the root of workss and recirculation to the reservoir ( Resh, 1991 ) . Furthermore, the aquicultural techniques can be divided by seven techniques ; Ebb and Flow Technique ( EFT ) , Deep Flow Technique ( DFT ) , Aerated Flow Technique ( AFT ) , Nutrient Film Technique ( NFT ) , Drip Irrigation Technique ( DIT ) , Root Mist Technique ( RMT ) or Aeroponics and Fog Feed Technique ( FFT ) ( Marbaha, 1998 ) where as different techniques for each others. However, among of these techniques, NFT is largely utilizing in aquicultural agriculture for the research and industries.

Hazard of aquicultural harvest

The aquicultural production is an options of the organically nutrient production. As illustration in Norway reported by Loncarevic et Al. ( 2005 ) , the purpose of the Norway authorities is at 2010, 10 % of the agribusiness land should be organically. Thus, 30 % of the farming area converted to organic country. The chief fertiliser for the organically agriculture application is manure. The manure from the assortment of the beginnings particularly carnal manure potentially pollute to the veggies with pathogen such as Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella species, and Listeria monocytogens where as Escherichia coli and Salmonella species present in the enteric piece of land of animate being, therefore Listeria monocytogens present from disintegrating workss, dirt and carnal manure. However, from their survey in Norway stated that the organically merchandise is good, but the contamination of fecal index and infective bacteriums still present.

In add-on, the others instances in western Montana by the Ackers et Al. ( 1998 ) , proven that the eruption of pathogen in foliage of boodle causes the bloody diarrhoea and abdominal spasms in 1995. Most of the patients were eat the altogether of foliage boodle from the nearest food markets in approximately 70 % from the entire instances. The premise of the research worker done is the outbreak E coli in boodle semen from the turning, managing, and readying of the green goods. The hazard of the eruption of the infective bacteriums and fecal pathogen can be cut downing by the utilizing of the uncontaminated irrigation H2O.

Chapter 3


3.1 Introduction

This survey will affect two parts of procedures. There are experimental design and building of slow sand filtration through their procedures running and filtration analysis and recycle the filtrate H2O onto aquicultural system. There is a good paradigm to recycle the intervention effluent to others application particularly in agriculture application such as aquicultural plantation, that can be cut down the use of natural H2O supply. Therefore, the methodological analysis used in this survey is sum uping in Figure 3.1 below.

3.2 Wastewater trying

The effluent wastewater from the cat fish armored combat vehicle will be taking from Selangor country nearest Shah Alam. The H2O quality for each sampling will be finding unmoved such as smell, pH and coloring material and turbidness. The sum suspended solid, chemical content, organic affair and entire coliform will be measuring in the research lab.

Filter readying


Filtration set built-up

Measuring the filter public presentation and operation on different flow rate

Filtrate H2O analysis and Schumutzdecke analysis



Chemical Oxygen Demand

Entire suspended solid

Alimentary concentration

Entire coliform and E. coli

Hydroponic seting readying ( Lactuca sativa )

Filtration unit set up

Runing the filtration procedure

Plant analysis

Physical visual aspect

Chemical concentration


Filtrate effluent


Effluent effluent

Organic fertiliser

Inorganic fertiliser

Column 1 ( 0.1m3/m2/h )


Column 2

( 0.3 m3/m2/h )


Column 3

( 0.5 m3/m2/h )


Column 4

( 1.0 m3/m2/h )


Figure 3.1 The flow of the survey processes

3.3 Experimental design and building

3.3.1 Filtration procedure

The slow sand filter is one of the economical media and simple processing. The survey will be concepts in 10 centimeter breadth and 100 centimeter tallness of filtration unit. The effluent from the catfish farm will be topographic point in a storage armored combat vehicle. By utilizing a pump, the H2O will raise to the changeless caput armored combat vehicle and so flux to the filter by gravitation. The design of the slow sand filter is shows in Figure 3.2. The filter will be control by the manometer tubing, which is 10 mm perpendicular interval for the 100 millimeter column and 3 millimeter diameter. The points of manometer agreement from the recess are 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 millimeter to mensurate the caput loss value. When the terminal caput loss occurs, the system should be cleaning.The upper bed of the filter bed would be trashing out. Then, after completing, the H2O will replenish through the underdrains.

In this survey, the direct filtration is uses to handle wastewater. Before the operation running, the contrary flow of the media is allow to makes certain the granules will set up harmonizing to the size and specific gravitation. Then, the media will be washes to find the filter ‘s capacities in term of operation. The control valves unfastened at the wastewaters pipe continuously to acquire the changeless flow needed and to keep the flow rate when the media becomes choke offing.

The H2O filters will be analysed in four flow rates ; there are 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 m3/m2/hour. The operation will be runing for 60 yearss for the acting of filtration. The filtrate effluent so will analyse their quality by utilizing UV spectrophotometer. The comparing of wastewater and inflowing sum of chemical concentration, turbidness, and caput loss will be comparisons. The turbidness and caput loss will be mensurating at the different clip interval.

Figure 3.2 The design of the filtration concepts and procedures.

3.3.2 Filtration media readying

The procedures will get down with the filter media readying. In this phase, sand collected from the river will be washes to take the finest grains and others impurity stuff to do certain the lower coefficient of uniformity and high norm of atom diameter. In others, the sand used should non more than 20 % of Ca and Mg that considered as carbonate. The screening procedure is to find the atom size distribution curve for sand and media. Before the sieving processes, the stuff will be fixing into two subdivisions. One of the subdivisions will be consider as overall stock media and others will used in screening. In the old survey from A. Jusoh et Al. ( 2006 ) , the effectivity survey of the media ( coconut shell chars and sand ) in scope of 0.5 to 2.5 millimeter with the uniformity coefficient of 1.5.

The coconut shell will take from the nearest industry countries of coconut shell production in Bagan Datoh, Perak. Before combustion, the coconut shell will be soaking with hot H2O and Na hydroxide 5 % for 24 hours to take the oil. Then, it is will be dried in the air for 48hours. After dried, the coconut shell will be burn in the furnace at 600oC for one hr without O ; the furnace should be pre-heat until 400oC before feeding the natural shell. Then the coconut shell will be ground into farinaceous and wash before screening to find the curve of atom size distribution. The raffle box is used to find the size distribution same as sand finding process. The coconut shell will be grade into specific uniformity coefficient and effectual sizes. The specific sizes and unvarying coefficient of sand will be grade as shows in equation 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3.

Percentage of useable natural media: Pusable = 2 ( P60-P10 ) ( 3.1 )

Percentage smaller media: Psmall = P10-0.2 ( P60-P10 ) ( 3.2 )

Percentage larger media: Plarger = P10 +1.8 ( P60-P10 ) ( 3.3 )

Where P60 = particles size base on ballss in 60 %

P10 = atom size base on ballss in 10 %

The media porousness is of import in the filtration procedure. The filter bed porousness has strong influences on caput loss and effectivity of filtration in filter bed. The fill up the H2O in Jackson tubing can find the porousness until half of its volume. The 100 gm of the samples will be seting into the tubing and agitate to take air trap. Then, the tubing is make fulling up with the H2O and shingles. After the one minute, the upper degree will be comment. The sample will take and replaced by the H2O until the singular degree and mensurate the volume of H2O by utilizing mensurating cylinder. Porosity media can be ciphering by utilizing the equation 3.4.

Iµ = Vv = VT-VM ( 3.4 )


Where Iµ = porousness, dimensionless

Vv = nothingness volume in media bed, M3

VT = entire volume of media bed, M3

VM = entire volume of media, M3

The specific gravitation in slow sand filter is of import to find denseness of filter media. It used to set up the place of media filter in double media filter operate. To find the specific gravitation will follows by the equation 3.5.

Specific gravitation = Ws ( 3.5 )

Vs x I?w

Where Ws = weight of granules

Vs = volume of granules

I?w = Unit weight of H2O

3.3.3 Collection and analysis of samples

The H2O analysis considers the H2O quality parametric quantities selected. In this undertaking, the entire coliform and E. coli will be analysis because there are index of the fecal being in the taint H2O and habitue in EPA. The sample will be analyzing for every 6 hr along the operation running. The others parametric quantities like H2O temperature, alkalinity, chemical O demand ( COD ) , pH, turbidness, electric conduction, suspended solid and heavy metal concentration will be analyzed for every one hr by utilizing the specific equipment such as turbidness metre and UV spectrophotometer.

The sum suspended solid will prepared in research lab for finding of organic and inorganic affair in effluent before and after intervention. The effluent will be filtrate through a leaden membrane filter ( O = 47 millimeter ) . Then, the residue will dry to a changeless weight at 103 to 105EsC temperature. This method will execute in conformity of standard methods for the Examination of H2O and Wastewater ( APHA, 1995 ) .

The filtration setup is set with insert the filter disc onto the base and clamp the funnel. The filter paper is wet with a little volume of H2O to seal the filter. By utilizing the sample volume in approximately 200 milliliters, the sample is shakes smartly earlier transportation to the filtration setup. After the filtration is finish, the filter paper is removes carefully and prohibitionists at least one hr at 103 to 105 EsC in oven. Cool in a dessicator and weight the sample.

Table 3.1 Chemical parametric quantities with trial method

The chemical analysis of the H2O samples will be analyzing by utilizing HACH DR 5000 instrument kits. Table below shows the chemical parametric quantity will be trials in from the H2O samples n difference flow rates.



Test Method

Standard Code of HACH ( 2005 )








HACH DR 5000

Diazotization Method

UV Screening Method

Nessler Method

Acid Persulfate Digestion Methods

Tetraphenylborate Method

Reaction Digestion Method







From the filtration of different flow rates, the composing of the food particularly nitrate ( N ) , phosphate ( P ) , and K ( K ) , will be considers to find the suited flow rate that have adequate food that can be utilizations in the aquicultural application.

The fecal coliform and E. coli will be sensing by utilizing Idexx Colilert. The Idexx Colilert is uses to acquire the measure of bacteriums that count from 100 milliliters sample with add-on reagent. Then the measure tray is seal earlier incubate for 24 hours. Then, the consequence will be determines from the most portable figure ( MPN ) agenda. As safeguard, the sample will hive away at temperature 2-25 oC off from visible radiation.

3.3.4 Schumutzdecke analysis

The schumutzdecke will be analysis at the terminal of the filtration running, the filter will be drain, and the schemutzdecke will be removes by utilizing grating the top in approximately A? in bed from the sand bed. The schumutzdecke will be suspended in the distilled H2O with the volume is known and exhaustively assorted. The distilled H2O will be adding in different volumes depend on the thicker of the schumutzdecke which is the different flow rate produce different thickness of schumutzdecke. The sample will be analysing to find:




Suspended solid

ChemicalOxygen Demand ( COD )

Entire coliform and E. coli

3.4 Hydroponic Technique

The aquicultural system will take the suited country, which has a good status such as temperature and visible radiation. The chosen of civilization H2O system is a true hydroponic system and simplest design. Alimentary H2O from the armored combat vehicle will be flow to the root of works by utilizing a pump and returning back armored combat vehicle. In this system, the works roots wholly immerse in the alimentary solution that flow by pumping the food from the armored combat vehicle, and so straight turn into reservoir. The aerator will be installs to the solution to avoid alimentary settling down. The conventional diagram of alimentary flow technique ( NFT ) is shows in Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.3 The Conventional diagram of H2O civilization system ( Dave Hydroponics Experiment accessed on hypertext transfer protocol: //, 2009 ) .

The hydroponic will be puting up with four containers, which is contain organic fertiliser, inorganic fertiliser, natural wastewater without intervention, and filter outflowing H2O. The organic and inorganic fertiliser will be prepared followed the fertiliser concentration in about 560-840 portion per million ( ppm ) with the specific ratio of food for the boodle grown.

The seed of green foliage boodle ( Lectuca sativa ) will put into the aquicultural basin with the wet wool for the two or three yearss with tap H2O at the first. After seven to ten ( 7-10 ) yearss, the fertiliser will be adding into the H2O for the inorganic and organic fertiliser. For the H2O of filtrate and wastewater, the seed is straight topographic point to the cup to turn. The pH H2O solution in the full containers will be control in about 6.0 to 7.0 to understate exceeds of food and turning perturbation

The grow period of green foliage boodle will be analyses for every three yearss by their growing and tallness of works. The tallness of harvest will be analyzing by utilizing a swayer. The leave breadth is analyzing by utilizing the measuring tape and the alterations of foliages colour. This is of import to bespeak the unsuitable status due to miss of foods in H2O solution.

The aquicultural H2O will be alter twice a hebdomad to keep the measure of food in the reservoir. After the crop operation, the foliages, stems, and roots of green foliage boodle ( Lectuca sativa ) will be analyses for the chemical content by utilizing the HACH DR 5000 instrument. The types of the chemical analysis from the boodle samples is analyze same as H2O sample which is shows in Table 3.1.

Chapter 4


From this survey, the high outlook that the slow sand filtration by utilizing coconut shell chars has high efficaciously to cut down the sum suspended solid, fecal pathogen and chemical content from the catfish farm wastewater from the different flow rate. In add-on, it can be minimising the wellness hazard of the husbandman by the infection and spread of the H2O bone disease from the aquaculture wastewater by remotion the infective micro-organism. Therefore, the slow sand filtration by utilizing coconut shell chars without activated procedure is an option of the fish farm wastewater intervention in aquaculture industry. In others, the high outlook that the filtrate wastewater H2O has still adequate foods for the harvest growth and the growth of the green foliage boodle ( Lactuca sativa ) in the filtrate effluent will be better turning comparison to the others chemical alimentary fertiliser than untreated effluent wastewater. Even though, the untreated is better turning but the treated H2O will be to minimise the hazard of the wellness exposure of the disease by the eaten uncooked vegetable. Therefore, the treated fish farm effluent has high potency as a fertiliser even throughout the filtration procedure and the of import things, this method can cut down the hazard of the spread of diseases by the consuming of contaminated H2O as irrigation for husbandman and consumers particularly.


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