Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1. Background to the survey

Youth travel represents a important market within touristry ( Horak and Weber, 2000 ) in footings of size and growing rates ( Matzler and Siller, 2003 ) . Youth travel has besides been identified as one of the largest sections of planetary touristry and besides seen as holding considerable possible for future growing as young person richness additions ( Richard and Wilson, 2004 ) . Furthermore immature tourers are frequently trendsetters who set up and construct the attraction of tourer finishs ( Horak and Weber, 2000 ) .

Economic importance and societal value of young person travel has been recognized ( UNWTO, 2008 ) . Locally owned concerns and communities peculiarly benefit from adventuresome immature travellers ( d’Anjou, 2004 ) therefore cut downing escapes and excite investing ( UNWTO, 2008 ) . Youth travel is acknowledged to be multibillion dollar concern and one that provides an index of future travel tendencies ( Hall, 2005 ) .

However few states are presently engaged in activities to advance young person travel ( UNWTO, 2008 ) . Besides, youth travel is a small researched sector of touristry market ( Cooper et al. , 2008 ) . Harmonizing to UNWTO ( 2008 ) merely a 3rd of states have youth travel policy, less than a 3rd cod statistics on the market, merely a one-fourth have policies for merchandise development and less than third hold a selling policy.

In developing states and more so in Kenya youth travel is seen as an extension of the instruction procedure, familiarising immature people with their ain state and has non been classified as a separate class ( UNWTO, 2005 ) . In Kenya domestic young person travel has been spearheaded by the wildlife nines of Kenya ( WCK ) , a non-governmental organisation whose purpose is to advance wildlife and Environmental Education ( EE ) ( Sindiga, 1999 ) . Travel by immature people locally, motivated by leisure, escapade and athletics activities, is a important sector that has continued to increase in frequence, and expand widely in the state ( MOT, 2010 ) . There are attempts to make out to turning market to pull larger Numberss of immature travellers to Kenya.

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1.2. Problem Statement

Youth travel is a turning market which is going progressively of import for many states. The young person travel has besides been acknowledged to be multibillion dollar concern but the inquiry arises whether this multibillion dollar industry is to the full tapped in touristry in Kenya. In malice of the size of the market and growing in young person travel, the concluding bill of exchange of touristry policy has no specific policy for this market. There appears to be a policy spread between the turning potency of young person travel and the deficiency of action on portion of the authorities.

Youth travel has non been given its due consideration nor has it been studied in great item. Previous surveies carried out on Kenya ‘s touristry industry by Dieke ( 1994 ) , Sindiga ( 1996 ) , Ndivo ( 2009 ) among others have made few efforts to concentrate on turn toing specific touristry market sections. This has led to holding comparatively small information available on the size, range and position of the young person travel market in footings of the profile, preferable merchandises, every bit good as back uping substructure. As consequence Kenya is losing out on the longer term potency of a quickly turning market.

1.3. Purpose of the survey

The survey seeks to place and analyse the young person travel behavior in Kenya in order to set up the potency of young person travel as a market section for the touristry industry in Kenya.

1.4. Aims of the Study

1.4.1. General Objective

This survey seeks to set up the potency of young person travel as a feasible market for touristry in Kenya. The survey aims at supplying baseline information to back up market-driven development enterprise such as planning and selling for the young person travel niche market.

1.4.2. Specific Aims

To look into factors that influence the travel determination devising among the young person.

To research the tourer merchandises preferred by the young person.

To find the travel restricting factors for the young person travel market in Kenya.

To profile the young person travel market in Kenya.

1.5. Hypothesiss

1. H01: Youth travel determination devising is non significantly influenced by social-economic and behavioral factors

2. H02: Choice of tourer merchandises is non significantly different among young person of different social-economic and demographic position.

1.6. Significance and Anticipated Output

The survey seeks to set up the young person travel as possible market for touristry in Kenya. The survey will seek to place the young person travel niche market, merchandise and substructure. It is considered that the findings of the survey will lend significantly to ministry of touristry as a guideline for explicating policies to heighten and advance youth travel.

The findings will besides lend towards placing properties which satisfy immature travellers in Kenya. This will be utile to local touristry investors and will besides assist in opening up the lupus erythematosus visited finishs. Groking what immature travellers seek in Kenya may assist tourist sellers and boosters in increasing the growing of touristry by heightening their schemes for marketing young person travel.

Finally, the survey will lend to the organic structure of cognition in young person travel research which has been inadequately undertaken in Kenya while beef uping the bing organic structure of cognition in touristry in Kenya.

1.7. Restrictions to the Study

The survey will utilize purposive sampling and the sample is selected from one peculiar tourer finish in Nairobi which is an urban scene. This may non stand for the whole young person market in Kenya. The consequence should be generalized with cautiousness to other parts. This is due to difference in civilization, environment and social-economic conditions which may impact the young person travel determination devising.

However, attention has been taken to guarantee that the selected group represents the going young person section observing that the metropolis of Nairobi is the prime beginning of domestic touristry market in Kenya ( Ndivo, 2009 )

1.8. Conceptual Model

This survey on young person travel as possible market for touristry in Kenya will be based on activities based theoretical account of finish pick by Moscardo et al. , ( 1996 ) figure 1 in effort to set up factors that influence young person travel in Kenya.

Internal inputs

Social psychological set factors:

Personal features, motivations

External end product

Finish features derived from

Information from experience, promotional information, Information from other beginnings

Travel restraint

Individual restraints: Money, clip, societal factors

External restraints: seasonality, handiness, etc

Finish images and

Awareness set

Finish pick

Actual travel

Figure 1: A theoretical model of travel determination devising ( Adapted from Moscardo et al. , 1996 )

Harmonizing to Moscardo et al. , ( 1996 ) finish activities are seen as a critical nexus between travel and finish pick. They argue that motivations provide travellers with outlooks for activities and finishs are seen offering these activities

The figure suggests that internal inputs and external end product factors contribute to destination image and consciousness set. Internal input refers to societal psychological set of factors such as personal features for illustration age, income, experience, lifecycle and personal motive. The internal input factors are seen as supplying the coveted activities by an person at a finish. External end product refers to destination features derived from information gained. These include past experience, promotional information and information from other beginnings. The external end product factors are seen as supplying information about activities available at a finish.

Finish images are seen as the consequence of the finish feature, how they are presented and how they are integrated with societal psychological factors such as motivations and involvements. Destination image is seen to supply the initial motive to see the topographic point. Awareness set includes all the travel locations which people might see as possible finish before any determination procedure about their trip has been initiated.

Image of finish affects the pick of a finish. Destination pick is based on lucifer between sensed activities offered and preferable activities. Travel restraints includes single restraints ( such as money, clip and societal factors such as fright and safety ) and external restraints ( such as seasonality handiness and influence by important others ) are besides seen to act upon the existent travel to a finish.

This survey will therefore effort to happen out the influence of both social-psychological set factors and finish features in making finish image and consciousness among the young person in Kenya. Finally the survey will research the possible socio-economic restraints that influence existent travel.

1.9. Operational Definition of Footings

Youth-In this survey young person will mention to Kenyan citizens and foreign subjects who are aged between 15-30 old ages.

Youth travel-refers to immature Kenyan and foreign subjects aged 15-30 old ages who travel within Kenya for leisure, concern and other intent non related to the exercising of an activity remunerated from within the topographic point visited.

Niche market-defines the specific merchandise characteristics aimed at fulfilling Kenyan young person travel markets needs every bit good as monetary value scope, production and quality.

Destination-is any topographic point in Kenya which attracts visitants, either as tourers who stay overnight or as same-day visitants.

Domestic tourism-tourism affecting Kenyan occupants going within Kenya for the intent of passing their leisure clip.

Backpackers-a signifier of touristry which appears to appeal chiefly to a younger market, where tourer uses a backpack, or a back pack instead than a bag to transport all they need.

Tourism-refers to all activities of Kenyan visitants, ( either as tourers ( nightlong visitants ) and same twenty-four hours visitants ) going to and remaining in topographic points outside their usual environment for leisure concern and other intents non related to the exercising of an activity remunerated from within the topographic point visited.

I think you have covered your aims good

Think about adding more infinite for qualitative responses

You can rearrange your inquiries harmonizing your specific aims

The questionnaire is all right but non neatly formatted. Use tabular arraies for spruceness and arrange your inquiry Numberss to give it a professional expression which will do it easier for your respondents to reply

I would strongly propose that you look at other questionnaires even from the cyberspace to assist you with point 4 above


Date of issue:

Dear Respondent,

I am carry oning a research on young person travel as possible market for touristry in Kenya. I will greatly appreciate your response to the inquiries listed below.

Please bespeak your response by clicking ( ) where appropriate.

Personal Information

Caroline, Kindly consider holding this subdivision in a table-like format for roll uping personal information and take the inquiry Numberss 1 through 6. The ground being its criterion information and it gives the respondent a feeling that they are replying excessively many inquiries yet its non like so

Qn1. Your gender

Male [ ] Female [ ]

Qn2. Age

15-19 [ ] 20-24 [ ] 25-30 [ ]

( If your age is below 15 or above 30 kindly discontinue )

Qn3. What is your business? — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — –

Qn4. Marital position

Single [ ] married [ ] other [ ]

Qn5. What is your degree of instruction?

Primary [ ] High school [ ] TertiaryCollege [ ] University [ ] have option for other and account

Qn6.What is your nationality

Kenyan citizen [ ] Non Kenyan citizen [ ]

Qn7. If engaged in any income generating business, what is your degree of income per month ( KSh ) ? This could come after the personal information subdivision. It ‘s a spot sensitive, and im non precisely certain how this information is traveling to help you

Below 20,000 [ ]

21,000-30,000 [ ]

31,000-40,000 [ ]

41,000-50,000 [ ]

51,000-above [ ]

Qn8. What is the beginning of money you use for going to assorted tourer finishs in Kenya?

Personal economy [ ] travel inducements [ ] parents/family aid [ ] others [ ]

This makes more sense to me merely that you might hold to explicate in brackets what travel incentive agencies

Qn9. How would you measure your degree of consciousness, approximately touristic installations and attractive force in Kenya on a graduated table of 1-5? Where:

1- Not cognizant 2-aware but need more information 3-no sentiment 4-aware but would non prefer sing 5= cognizant but would really much wish to see name them one by one

Tourist attractive force


Regions visited ype
umber of visits


National Parkss and militias

National museums


Historical sites




Sport activities

Recreational activities

Coastal beaches

Qn10. In doing your determination to go to your preferable tourer finish, how important would the following beginning of information be to you? Where ( 1 ) : wholly

Insignificant ; and ( 5 ) : really important.

Beginning of information






Friends/colleagues/family members


Travel agents/ sellers



Personal old experience

Number of old visits

Any other ( delight specify )

Qn11. In taking tourer finishs in Kenya, how would you rate the importance of the following travel motives on a graduated table of 1-5 where ( 1 ) : non of import and ( 5 ) : really of import.

Motivation factor






To see friends or comparative

Relaxing atmosphere

Outstanding scenery

Oceans and beaches

Sport installations


To happen bangs and exhilaration

Low cost of vacations

Warm friendly people

Good roads and conveyance

Outstanding nutrient

Attractive imposts, life


Easier to hold merriment at that place

Cultural activities

Religious activities/ aid people in demand

Class study/education with some merriment activities

Travel agreement ( packaged/non-packaged )

Qn12.Below is a list of types of adjustment. On graduated table of 1-5 what type of adjustment would you probably prefer when on vacation holiday? Where 1-not preferable 2-least preferable ( 3-fairly preferred ( 4 ) preferred ( 5 ) most preferable.

Type of adjustment






Budget hotels

Young person inns

Sir oliver lodges

Home corsets

Adjustment offered by friends and relations



Guest houses

Any other specify

Qn.12. which one of the undermentioned statements is True refering your travel agreement?

I prefer to go independently [ ]

I prefer going in a group [ ]

Both of the above applies to me [ ] have this in table signifier for spruceness

Qn13.If you travel in groups indicate the type of travel group.

School group [ ] have this in table signifier for spruceness

College group [ ]

Research workers [ ]

Volunteers [ ]

Non-school young person groups [ ]

Family groups [ ]

Corporate groups [ ]

Religious groups [ ]

Cultural exchange groups [ ]

Event driven [ ]

Other and stipulate. Please hold this in table signifier for spruceness

Qn14.How do you do your travel agreement?

Independently [ ] Travel agents/tour houses [ ] Online [ ] Others specify [ ]

Qn15.Below is a list of tourer merchandises. How would you measure your degree of penchant about the touristic merchandises available in Kenya on a graduated table of 1-5? Where ( 1 ) : least preferable and ( 5 ) : -most preferred.

Tourist merchandise


1 2 3 4 5

Wildlife parksReserves

Bird site sanctuaries

Museumshistorical sites




Picnic sites

Cultural events







Sport activities

Horsecamel siting

Walking and trekking

Qn16.Please indicate on a graduated table of 1-5 the type of conveyance you prefer while going to a tourer finish where 1-least preferable and 5-most preferable

1-not preferable 2-less preferable 3 reasonably preferable 4- preferred 5 most preferable

Type of conveyance


1 2 3 4 5

Air conveyance

Tour coachs

Public coachs

Personal autos

Rental taxis


Others ( delight specify )

Qn17.On a graduated table of 1-5 how would the undermentioned factors likely limit your travel to a tourer finish. Where 1-most improbable and 5- most likely



1 2 3 4 5

Work agendas

Income available

Surveies schedule

Family duties

Friends/relatives choice/preferences


Lack of involvement

Lack of consciousness

Fear and safety concerns

Climatic conditions


Language barrier

Accommodation handiness


Others specify

Qn18.On mean how many darks would you pass in sing any domestic tourer finish?

Less than 1 dark [ ] 1 dark [ ] 2 darks [ ] 3 darks [ ] 4 darks [ ] 5 darks [ ] . Above five [ ] .

Qn19. If less than 1 dark stipulate the grounds — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — –

Thank you for your co-operation in finishing this questionnaire.


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